319 relations: Acid, Actinolite, Aggregate (geology), Albite, Alkali feldspar, Almandine, Aluminium, Amateur geology, American Mineralogist, Amethyst, Amorphous solid, Amphibole, Andalusite, Andesine, Andradite, Anglesite, Anhydrite, Annite, Anorthite, Anthophyllite, Antimony, Apatite, Apophyllite, Aragonite, Aragonite sea, Arsenic, Asbestiform, Asbestosis, Asterism (gemology), Atmosphere, Atomic orbital, Autotroph, Autunite, Azurite, Banalsite, Baryte, Bauxite, Beryl, Biogenic substance, Biogeochemical cycle, Biogeochemistry, Biomineralization, Biosignature, Biosphere, Biotic material, Biotite, Bismuth, Blueschist, Boehmite, Bornite, ..., Brucite, Bytownite, Calcite, Calcite sea, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate minerals, Carl Linnaeus, Carnotite, Cassiterite, Catalysis, Celestine (mineral), Celsian, Chatoyancy, Chemical composition, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chemical property, Chemical stability, Chemotroph, Chlorite group, Chromite, Chrysotile, Cinnabar, Cleavage (crystal), Close-packing of equal spheres, Coal, Coesite, Cordierite, Corundum, Cristobalite, Crust (geology), Cryolite, Crystal, Crystal habit, Crystal structure, Crystal twinning, Crystallinity, Crystallographic point group, Crystallographic restriction theorem, Cubic crystal system, Cuprite, Curiosity (rover), Density, Desert rose (crystal), Diamond, Diaspore, Dolomite, Effervescence, Electromagnetic radiation, Endmember, Epidote, Evaporite, Extraterrestrial life, Fayalite, Feldspar, Feldspathoid, Ferberite, Fluorescence, Fluorite, Forsterite, Fossil, Fracture (mineralogy), Fugacity, Galena, Garnet, Gemstone, Genetics, Gibbsite, Granite, Graphite, Greenland, Grossular, Grunerite, Gypsum, Halide minerals, Halite, Halogen, Hübnerite, Hematite, Hexagonal crystal family, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen bond, Hydrosphere, Icosahedral symmetry, Icosahedrite, Igneous rock, Ilmenite, Incandescence, Industrial mineral, International Mineralogical Association, Ion, Ionic radius, Iridescence, Iron, Iron meteorite, Isomorphism (crystallography), Ivittuut, Jade, Jadeite, James Dwight Dana, Kamacite, Kaolinite, Karl Hugo Strunz, Karst, Kyanite, Labradorite, Lacustrine plain, Lake, Lawsonite, Limestone, Liquid crystal, List of minerals, List of minerals (complete), Lustre (mineralogy), Mackinawite, Macroscopic scale, Mafic, Magma, Magnesium, Magnetism, Magnetite, Malachite, Manganese, Mantle (geology), Marcasite, Mars, Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group, Mars rover, Mercury (element), Mesosphere, Metamorphism, Metasomatism, Mica, Microorganism, Mindat.org, Mineral (nutrient), Mineral collecting, Mineralogical Society of America, Mineralogy, Mineraloid, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Molybdenite, Monazite, Monazite geochronology, Monoclinic crystal system, Muscovite, NASA, Native copper, Native element minerals, Native metal, Natrolite, Nepheline, Nephrite, Nickel–Strunz classification, Oligoclase, Olivine, Opal, Opportunity (rover), Optical mineralogy, Ore, Organic compound, Organic mineral, Orthoclase, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxalate, Oxidation state, Oxide minerals, Oxygen, Pelite, Periclase, Perovskite (structure), Petrography, Phlogopite, Phosphate minerals, Phosphorescence, Physical property, Piezoelectricity, Plagioclase, Plain, Planetary habitability, Pleochroism, Pluton, Polymorphism (materials science), Potassium, Precipitation (chemistry), Pyrite, Pyrolusite, Pyrope, Pyrophyllite, Pyroxene, Pyrrhotite, Quartz, Quartzite, Quasicrystal, Radioactive decay, Radiohalo, Rare-earth element, Rhodochrosite, Riebeckite, River, Robert Hazen, Rock (geology), Rock cycle, Ruby, Rutile, Sapphire, Science (journal), Seabed, Serpentine subgroup, Shale, Siderophyllite, Silicate minerals, Silicic acid, Silicon, Sillimanite, Sodium, Solid solution, Solubility, Solution, Specific gravity, Spessartine, Sphalerite, Spinel, Spinel group, Staurolite, Stishovite, Stoichiometry, Stratosphere, Streak (mineralogy), Sulfate minerals, Sulfide minerals, Sulfosalt minerals, Sylvite, Systema Naturae, Taenite, Talc, Taphonomy, Tectonics, Telluric iron, Tenacity (mineralogy), Tephroite, Tetragonal crystal system, Tetrahedron, Thermodynamics, Thin section, Tin, Titanium, Topaz, Total organic carbon, Tourmaline, Transparency and translucency, Tremolite, Triclinic crystal system, Tridymite, Uraninite, Uvarovite, Van der Waals force, Vesuvianite, Wave interference, Weathering, Whewellite, Wolframite, X-ray, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, Zeolite, Zircon. Expand index (269 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Actinolite is an amphibole silicate mineral with the chemical formula.
In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings.
Albite is a plagioclase feldspar mineral.
The alkali feldspar group are those feldspar minerals rich in the alkali elements like potassium and sodium.
Almandine, also known incorrectly as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amateur geology (known as rockhounding in the United States and Canada.) is the recreational study and hobby of collecting rocks and mineral specimens from their natural environment.
American Mineralogist: An International Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the general fields of mineralogy, crystallography, geochemistry, and petrology.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
Andalusite is an aluminium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.
Andesine is a silicate mineral, a member of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series.
Andradite is a species of the garnet group.
Anglesite is a lead sulfate mineral with the chemical formula PbSO4.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
Annite is a phyllosilicate mineral in the mica family.
Anorthite is the calcium endmember of plagioclase feldspar.
Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral: ☐Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 (☐ is for a vacancy, a point defect in the crystal structure), magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
The name apophyllite refers to a specific group of phyllosilicates, a class of minerals.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
An aragonite sea contains aragonite and high-magnesium calcite as the primary inorganic calcium carbonate precipitates.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asbestiform is a crystal habit.
Asbestosis is long term inflammation and scarring of the lungs due to asbestos.
Asterism (from ἀστήρ star), the property of a star stone (asteria), is the phenomenon of gemstones exhibiting a star-like concentration of reflected or refracted light when cut en cabochon (shaped and polished rather than faceted).
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Autunite (hydrated calcium uranyl phosphate) with formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2·10-12H2O is a yellow - greenish fluorescent mineral with a hardness of 2 -. Autunite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and often occurs as tabular square crystals.
Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.
Banalsite is a rare barium, sodium aluminium silicate mineral with formula: BaNa2Al4Si4O16.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere).
Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.
A biosignature (sometimes called chemical fossil or molecular fossil) is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Blueschist, also called glaucophane schist, is a metavolcanic rock that forms by the metamorphism of basalt and rocks with similar composition at high pressures and low temperatures (200 to ~500 degrees Celsius), approximately corresponding to a depth of 15 to 30 kilometers.
Boehmite or böhmite is an aluminium oxide hydroxide (γ-AlO(OH)) mineral, a component of the aluminium ore bauxite.
Bornite, also known as peacock ore, is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).
Brucite is the mineral form of magnesium hydroxide, with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Bytownite is a calcium rich member of the plagioclase solid solution series of feldspar minerals with composition between anorthite and labradorite.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
A calcite sea is one in which low-magnesium calcite is the primary inorganic marine calcium carbonate precipitate.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Celestine or celestite is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate (SrSO4).
Celsian is an uncommon feldspar mineral, barium aluminosilicate, BaAl2Si2O8.
In gemology, chatoyancy, or chatoyance or cat's eye effect, is an optical reflectance effect seen in certain gemstones.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4.
Chrysotile or white asbestos is the most commonly encountered form of asbestos, accounting for approximately 95% of the asbestos in the United StatesOccupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor (2007).
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coesite is a form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide SiO2 that is formed when very high pressure (2–3 gigapascals), and moderately high temperature, are applied to quartz.
"Praseolite" redirects here.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate) is an uncommon mineral identified with the once large deposit at Ivigtût on the west coast of Greenland, depleted by 1987.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
In crystallography, a crystallographic point group is a set of symmetry operations, like rotations or reflections, that leave a central point fixed while moving other directions and faces of the crystal to the positions of features of the same kind.
The crystallographic restriction theorem in its basic form was based on the observation that the rotational symmetries of a crystal are usually limited to 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, and 6-fold.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cuprite is an oxide mineral composed of copper(I) oxide Cu2O, and is a minor ore of copper.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Desert rose is the colloquial name given to rose-like formations of crystal clusters of gypsum or baryte which include abundant sand grains.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diaspore, also known as diasporite, empholite, kayserite, or tanatarite, is an aluminium oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
An endmember (also end-member or end member) in mineralogy is a mineral that is at the extreme end of a mineral series in terms of purity.
Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
Fayalite (Fe2SiO4; commonly abbreviated to Fa), also called iron chrysolite, is the iron-rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
The feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content.
Ferberite is the iron endmember of the manganese - iron wolframite solid solution series.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Forsterite (Mg2SiO4; commonly abbreviated as Fo) is the magnesium-rich end-member of the olivine solid solution series.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
In the field of mineralogy, fracture is the texture and shape of a rock's surface formed when a mineral is fractured.
In chemical thermodynamics, the fugacity of a real gas is an effective partial pressure which replaces the mechanical partial pressure in an accurate computation of the chemical equilibrium constant.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Gibbsite, Al(OH)3, is one of the mineral forms of aluminium hydroxide.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Grossular is a calcium-aluminium species of the garnet group of minerals.
Grunerite is a mineral of the amphibole group of minerals with formula Fe7Si8O22(OH)2.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
The halide mineral class include those minerals with a dominant halide anion (F−, Cl−, Br− and I−).
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hübnerite or hubnerite is a mineral consisting of manganese tungsten oxide (chemical formula: MnWO4, it isn't a tungstate).
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
A regular icosahedron has 60 rotational (or orientation-preserving) symmetries, and a symmetry order of 120 including transformations that combine a reflection and a rotation.
Icosahedrite is the first known naturally occurring quasicrystal phase.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.
Industrial resources (minerals) are geological materials which are mined for their commercial value, which are not fuel (fuel minerals or mineral fuels) and are not sources of metals (metallic minerals) but are used in the industries based on their physical and/or chemical properties.
The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is an international group of 38 national societies.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.
In crystallography crystals are described as isomorphous if they are closely similar in shape.
Ivittuut, formerly Ivigtût (Kalaallisut: "Grassy Place") is an abandoned mining town near Cape Desolation in southwestern Greenland, in the modern Sermersooq municipality on the ruins of the former Norse Middle Settlement.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6.
James Dwight Dana FRS FRSE (February 12, 1813 – April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist, and zoologist.
Kamacite is an alloy of iron and nickel, which is found on Earth only in meteorites.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Karl Hugo Strunz (24 February 1910 – 19 April 2006) was a German mineralogist.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Kyanite is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock.
Labradorite ((Ca, Na)(Al, Si)4O8), a feldspar mineral, is an intermediate to calcic member of the plagioclase series.
Lacustrine Plains (or lake plains) are lakes that get filled by incoming sediment.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lawsonite is a hydrous calcium aluminium sorosilicate mineral with formula CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2·H2O.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.
This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.
Mineralogy is an active science in which minerals are discovered or recognised on a regular basis.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Mackinawite is an iron nickel sulfide mineral with formula (Fe,Ni)1 + xS (where x.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
The mineral marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2) with orthorhombic crystal structure.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) is a forum created by NASA to enable the scientific community to provide input for the planning and prioritizing of the exploration of Mars over the next several decades.
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mindat.org is a non-commercial online mineralogical database, claiming to be the largest mineral database and mineralogical reference website on the internet.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Mineral collecting is the hobby of systematically collecting, identifying and displaying mineral specimens.
The Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) is a scientific membership organization.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
A mineraloid is a mineral-like substance that does not demonstrate crystallinity.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
Monazite geochronology is a dating technique to study geological history using the mineral monazite.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Native copper is an uncombined form of copper that occurs as a natural mineral.
Native element minerals are those elements that occur in nature in uncombined form with a distinct mineral structure.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
Natrolite is a tectosilicate mineral species belonging to the zeolite group.
Not to be confused with Nephrite. Nepheline, also called nephelite (from Greek: νεφέλη, "cloud"), is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites.
Nephrite is a variety of the calcium, magnesium, and iron-rich amphibole minerals tremolite or actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos).
Nickel–Strunz classification is a scheme for categorizing minerals based upon their chemical composition, introduced by German mineralogist Karl Hugo Strunz (24 February 1910 – 19 April 2006) in his Mineralogische Tabellen (1941).
Oligoclase is a rock-forming mineral belonging to the plagioclase feldspars.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
Optical mineralogy is the study of minerals and rocks by measuring their optical properties.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In chemistry and mineralogy, an organic mineral is a mineral that contains carbon.
Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
The oxide mineral class includes those minerals in which the oxide anion (O2−) is bonded to one or more metal ions.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A pelite (Ancient Greek pelos, clay) is a metamorphosed fine-grained sedimentary rock, i.e. mudstone or siltstone.
Periclase is a magnesium mineral that occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks.
A perovskite is any material with the same type of crystal structure as calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3), known as the perovskite structure, or XIIA2+VIB4+X2−3 with the oxygen in the edge centers.
Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks.
Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish, or reddish-brown member of the mica family of phyllosilicates.
Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43−) and vanadate (VO43−).
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
Pleochroism (from Greek πλέων, pléōn, "more" and χρῶμα, khrôma, "color") is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light.
In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting essentially of manganese dioxide (MnO2) and is important as an ore of manganese.
The mineral pyrope is a member of the garnet group.
Pyrophyllite is a phyllosilicate mineral composed of aluminium silicate hydroxide: Al2Si4O10(OH)2.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Pyrrhotite is an iron sulfide mineral with the formula Fe(1-x)S (x.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.
A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiohalos or pleochroic halos are microscopic, spherical shells of discolouration within minerals such as biotite that occur in granite and other igneous rocks.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Rhodochrosite is a manganese carbonate mineral with chemical composition MnCO3.
Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals, chemical formula Na2(Fe2+3Fe3+2)Si8O22(OH)2.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Robert Miller Hazen (born November 1, 1948) is an American mineralogist and astrobiologist.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the time-consuming transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite-serpentine group) are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Siderophyllite is a rare member of the mica group of silicate minerals with formula KFe2+2Al(Al2Si2)O10(F,OH)2.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicic acid is the general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups, with the general formula n or,equivalently, n. They are generally colorless and sparingly soluble in water.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Sillimanite is an aluminosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
Spessartine, sometimes mistakenly referred to as spessartite, is a nesosilicate, manganese aluminium garnet species, Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3.Gemological Institute of America, GIA Gem Reference Guide 1995, The mineral spessartine should not be confused with a type of igneous rock (a lamprophyre) called spessartite. Spessartine's name is a derivative of Spessart in Bavaria, Germany, the type locality of the mineral. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low-grade metamorphic phyllites. Sources include Australia, Myanmar, India, Afghanistan, Israel, Madagascar, Tanzania and the United States. Spessartine of an orange-yellow has been called Mandarin garnet and is found in Madagascar. Violet-red spessartines are found in rhyolites in Colorado and Maine. In Madagascar, spessartines are exploited either in their bedrock or in alluvium. The orange garnets result from sodium-rich pegmatites. Spessartines are found in bedrock in the highlands in the Sahatany valley. Those in alluvium are generally found in southern Madagascar or in the Maevatanana region. Spessartine forms a solid solution series with the garnet species almandine. Well-formed crystals from this series, varying in color from very dark-red to bright yellow-orange, were found in Latinka, Rhodope Mountains, Kardzhali Province, Bulgaria. Spessartine, like the other garnets, always occurs as a blend with other species. Gems with high spessartine content tend toward a light orange hue, while almandine prevalence induces red or brownish hues.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
The spinels are any of a class of minerals of general formulation which crystallise in the cubic (isometric) crystal system, with the X anions (typically chalcogens, like oxygen and sulfur) arranged in a cubic close-packed lattice and the cations A and B occupying some or all of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the lattice.
Staurolite is a red brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate mineral with a white streak.
Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
The streak (also called "powder color") of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across an un-weathered surface.
The sulfate minerals are a class of minerals that include the sulfate ion (SO42−) within their structure.
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.
Sulfosalt minerals are those complex sulfide minerals with the general formula: AmBnSp; where A represents a metal such as copper, lead, silver, iron, and rarely mercury, zinc, vanadium; B usually represents semi-metal such as arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and rarely germanium, or metals like tin and rarely vanadium; and S is sulfur or rarely selenium or/and tellurium.
Sylvite, or sylvine, is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Taenite (Fe,Ni) is a mineral found naturally on Earth mostly in iron meteorites.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Taphonomy is the study of how organisms decay and become fossilized.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Telluric iron, also called native iron, is iron that originated on Earth, and is found in a metallic form rather than as an ore.
In mineralogy, tenacity is a mineral's behavior when deformed or broken.
Tephroite is the manganese endmember of the olivine group of nesosilicate minerals with the formula Mn2SiO4.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
Total organic carbon (TOC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality or cleanliness of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: ☐Ca2(Mg5.0-4.5Fe2+0.0-0.5)Si8O22(OH)2.
Triclinic (a ≠ b ≠ c and α ≠ β ≠ γ) In crystallography, the triclinic (or anorthic) crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal crystals, or scales, in cavities in felsic volcanic rocks.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uvarovite is a chromium-bearing garnet group species with the formula: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vesuvianite, also known as idocrase, is a green, brown, yellow, or blue silicate mineral.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Whewellite is a mineral, hydrated calcium oxalate, formula CaC2O4·H2O.
Wolframite, (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and hübnerite (Mn2+ rich).
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used technique for determining the local geometric and/or electronic structure of matter.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
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