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Index Mineralogy

Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts. [1]

178 relations: Agriculture, Al-Biruni, Alabandite, American Mineralogist, Angle, Aqueous solution, Artifact (archaeology), Assimilation (phonology), Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Atomic emission spectroscopy, Babylonia, Becke line test, Beirut, Biology, Botryoidal, Bravais lattice, Brine, Brittleness, Bunsenite, Calcite, Carbonate minerals, Cement, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemistry, Chlorargyrite, Clay minerals, Cleavage (crystal), Colorimetry (chemical method), Commodity, Conchoidal fracture, Copper, Cristobalite, Crust (geology), Crystal habit, Crystal structure, Crystal twinning, Crystallographic point group, Crystallography, Cubic crystal system, De Natura Fossilium, De re metallica, Deformation (engineering), Density, Diagenesis, Diffraction, Ductility, Electron microprobe, Encyclopedia Americana, ..., Fertilizer, Fracture (mineralogy), Galena, Geology, Georgius Agricola, German Renaissance, Glass, Glide plane, Gold, Granite, Gravel, Gravimetric analysis, Greco-Roman world, Halite, Henry Clifton Sorby, History of China, History of India, Hobby, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrothermal circulation, Igneous petrology, Improper rotation, Inorganic chemistry, International Mineralogical Association, Ionic bonding, Isomorphism (crystallography), James Dwight Dana, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle, Kyanite, Lava, Lawrence Bragg, Lebanon, Limestone, List of mineralogists, List of minerals, List of minerals (complete), Luminescence, Lustre (mineralogy), Machine (mechanical), Magma, Mantle (geology), Marble, Materials science, Max von Laue, Metallic bonding, Metallurgy, Metamorphism, Metasomatism, Microscope, Microscopic scale, Miller index, Mim Museum, Mineral, Mineral collecting, Mineral physics, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Natural History (Pliny), Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Natural History Museum, London, Neutron diffraction, Nicol prism, Nicolas Steno, Oil immersion, Optical mineralogy, Ore, Paleontology, Periclase, Perovskite, Petrographic microscope, Petrology, Phosphate minerals, Plaster, Pliny the Elder, Point reflection, Polarization (waves), Polarizer, Polymorphism (materials science), Powder diffraction, Quartz, Ray (optics), Redox, Reflection (physics), Reflection symmetry, Refraction, Refractive index, Renaissance, René Just Haüy, Rotational symmetry, Sanskrit, Sclerometer, Screw axis, Sectility, Seismology, Silicate minerals, Silver, Smithsonian Institution, Snell's law, Soil, Solid solution, Solid-state physics, Space group, Specific gravity, Speed of light, Spelling pronunciation, Stiffness, Streak (mineralogy), Sulfide minerals, Sulfosalt minerals, Sulfur, Sylvite, Taxonomy (general), Tenacity (mineralogy), Titanium nitride, Titration, Translational symmetry, Transparency and translucency, Tridymite, Vacuum, Volcanic sublimate, Volcano, Weathering, Wet chemistry, William Henry Bragg, William Nicol (geologist), X-ray, X-ray fluorescence. Expand index (128 more) »


Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Alabandite or alabandine is a rarely occurring manganese sulfide mineral.

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American Mineralogist

American Mineralogist: An International Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the general fields of mineralogy, crystallography, geochemistry, and petrology.

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In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Artifact (archaeology)

An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.

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Atomic emission spectroscopy

Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is a method of chemical analysis that uses the intensity of light emitted from a flame, plasma, arc, or spark at a particular wavelength to determine the quantity of an element in a sample.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Becke line test

The Becke line test is a technique in optical mineralogy that helps determine the relative refractive index of two materials.

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Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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A botryoidal texture or mineral habit is one in which the mineral has a globular external form resembling a bunch of grapes as derived from the Greek botruoeidēs.

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Bravais lattice

In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.

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Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.

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Bunsenite is the naturally occurring form of nickel(II) oxide, NiO.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Carbonate minerals

Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−.

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A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chlorargyrite is the mineral form of silver chloride (AgCl).

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Clay minerals

Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.

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Cleavage (crystal)

Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.

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Colorimetry (chemical method)

In physical and analytical chemistry, colorimetry or colourimetry is a technique "used to determine the concentration of colored compounds in solution." A colorimeter is a device used to test the concentration of a solution by measuring its absorbance of a specific wavelength of light (not to be confused with the tristimulus colorimeter used to measure colors in general).

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In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Conchoidal fracture

Conchoidal fracture describes the way that brittle materials break or fracture when they do not follow any natural planes of separation.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Crystal habit

In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystal twinning

Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.

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Crystallographic point group

In crystallography, a crystallographic point group is a set of symmetry operations, like rotations or reflections, that leave a central point fixed while moving other directions and faces of the crystal to the positions of features of the same kind.

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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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De Natura Fossilium

De Natura Fossilium is a scientific text written by Georg Bauer also known as Georgius Agricola, first published in 1546.

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De re metallica

De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.

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Deformation (engineering)

In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Diagenesis is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (lithification), at temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation of metamorphic rocks.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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Electron microprobe

An electron microprobe (EMP), also known as an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA), is an analytical tool used to non-destructively determine the chemical composition of small volumes of solid materials.

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Encyclopedia Americana

Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fracture (mineralogy)

In the field of mineralogy, fracture is the texture and shape of a rock's surface formed when a mineral is fractured.

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Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Georgius Agricola

Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.

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German Renaissance

The German Renaissance, part of the Northern Renaissance, was a cultural and artistic movement that spread among German thinkers in the 15th and 16th centuries, which developed from the Italian Renaissance.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glide plane

In geometry and crystallography, a glide plane (or transflection) is a symmetry operation describing how a reflection in a plane, followed by a translation parallel with that plane, may leave the crystal unchanged.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Gravimetric analysis

Gravimetric analysis describes a set of methods used in analytical chemistry for the quantitative determination of an analyte (the ion being analyzed) based on its mass.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).

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Henry Clifton Sorby

Henry Clifton Sorby (10 May 1826 – 9 March 1908), was an English microscopist and geologist.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydrogen chloride

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.

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Hydrothermal circulation

Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.

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Igneous petrology

Igneous petrology is the study of igneous rocks—those that are formed from magma.

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Improper rotation

In geometry, an improper rotation,.

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Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.

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International Mineralogical Association

The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is an international group of 38 national societies.

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Isomorphism (crystallography)

In crystallography crystals are described as isomorphous if they are closely similar in shape.

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James Dwight Dana

James Dwight Dana FRS FRSE (February 12, 1813 – April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist, and zoologist.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle

Jean-Baptiste Louis Romé de l'Isle (August 26, 1736 – July 3, 1790) was a French mineralogist, considered one of the creators of modern crystallography.

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Kyanite is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock.

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Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.

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Lawrence Bragg

Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of mineralogists

The following is a list of notable mineralogists and other people who made notable contributions to mineralogy.

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List of minerals

This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.

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List of minerals (complete)

Mineralogy is an active science in which minerals are discovered or recognised on a regular basis.

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Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.

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Lustre (mineralogy)

Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.

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Machine (mechanical)

Machines employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion).

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Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Max von Laue

Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

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Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).

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Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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Miller index

Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.

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Mim Museum

The Mim Museum is a private museum in Beirut, Lebanon.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mineral collecting

Mineral collecting is the hobby of systematically collecting, identifying and displaying mineral specimens.

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Mineral physics

Mineral physics is the science of materials that compose the interior of planets, particularly the Earth.

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Mohs scale of mineral hardness

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County is the largest natural and historical museum in the western United States.

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Natural History Museum, London

The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.

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Neutron diffraction

Neutron diffraction or elastic neutron scattering is the application of neutron scattering to the determination of the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material.

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Nicol prism

A Nicol prism is a type of polarizer, an optical device used to produce a polarized beam of light.

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Nicolas Steno

Nicolas Steno (Niels Steensen; Latinized to Nicolaus Stenonis or Nicolaus Stenonius; 1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 – Aber, James S. 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2012.) was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his later years.

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Oil immersion

In light microscopy, oil immersion is a technique used to increase the resolving power of a microscope.

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Optical mineralogy

Optical mineralogy is the study of minerals and rocks by measuring their optical properties.

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An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Periclase is a magnesium mineral that occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks.

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Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).

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Petrographic microscope

A petrographic microscope is a type of optical microscope used in petrology and optical mineralogy to identify rocks and minerals in thin sections.

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Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.

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Phosphate minerals

Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43−) and vanadate (VO43−).

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Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Point reflection

In geometry, a point reflection or inversion in a point (or inversion through a point, or central inversion) is a type of isometry of Euclidean space.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.

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Polymorphism (materials science)

In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.

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Powder diffraction

Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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Ray (optics)

In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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Reflection symmetry

Reflection symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, mirror-image symmetry, is symmetry with respect to reflection.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Just Haüy

René Just Haüy FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French priest and mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame.

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Rotational symmetry

Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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The Sclerometer, also known as the Turner-Sclerometer (from σκληρός meaning "hard"), is an instrument used by metallurgists, material scientists and mineralogists to measure the scratch hardness of materials.

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Screw axis

A screw axis (helical axis or twist axis) is a line that is simultaneously the axis of rotation and the line along which translation of a body occurs.

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Sectility is the ability to be cut into pieces.

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Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

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Silicate minerals

Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Snell's law

Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solid solution

A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.

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Solid-state physics

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.

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Space group

In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.

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Specific gravity

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spelling pronunciation

A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.

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Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.

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Streak (mineralogy)

The streak (also called "powder color") of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across an un-weathered surface.

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Sulfide minerals

The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.

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Sulfosalt minerals

Sulfosalt minerals are those complex sulfide minerals with the general formula: AmBnSp; where A represents a metal such as copper, lead, silver, iron, and rarely mercury, zinc, vanadium; B usually represents semi-metal such as arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and rarely germanium, or metals like tin and rarely vanadium; and S is sulfur or rarely selenium or/and tellurium.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sylvite, or sylvine, is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form.

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Taxonomy (general)

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.

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Tenacity (mineralogy)

In mineralogy, tenacity is a mineral's behavior when deformed or broken.

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Titanium nitride

Titanium nitride (sometimes known as tinite) is an extremely hard ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminium components to improve the substrate's surface properties.

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Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.

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Translational symmetry

In geometry, a translation "slides" a thing by a: Ta(p).

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal crystals, or scales, in cavities in felsic volcanic rocks.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Volcanic sublimate

A volcanic sublimate or fumarolic sublimate is a mineral which forms directly from volcanic gas, by the process of deposition, during an eruption or discharge from a volcanic vent or fumarole.

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.

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Wet chemistry

Wet chemistry is a form of analytical chemistry that uses classical methods such as observation to analyze materials.

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William Henry Bragg

Sir William Henry Bragg (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquelyThis is still a unique accomplishment, because no other parent-child combination has yet shared a Nobel Prize (in any field).

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William Nicol (geologist)

Dr William Nicol FRSE FCS (18 April 1770 – 2 September 1851) was a Scottish geologist and physicist who invented the Nicol prism, the first device for obtaining plane-polarized light, in 1828.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mineralogy

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