429 relations: Abraham Ortelius, Aerodynamics, Age of Discovery, Agricultural lime, Albert M. Craig, Alexander Wylie (missionary), Amdo, Amur River, Ancestor veneration in China, Ancient Egypt, Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest, Andrew H. Plaks, Astronomical clock, Automaton, Battle of Beijing (1644), Battle of Lake Poyang, Beijing, Bimetallism, Blue and white pottery, Booster (rocketry), Brill Publishers, Brothel, Buddhism, Carved lacquer, Cash (Chinese coin), Catholic Church in China, Censorate, Censorship, Chen Youliang, Chengdu, Chenghua Emperor, Chili pepper, China, Chinese astronomy, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese calendar, Chinese cash (currency unit), Chinese characters, Chinese era name, Chinese export porcelain, Chinese folk religion, Chinese geography, Chinese jade, Chinese literature, Chinese opera, Chinese painting, Chinese poetry, Chinese Rites controversy, Chinese theology, Chinese treasure ship, ..., Chongzhen Emperor, Church of the East in China, Circuit (administrative division), City Wall of Nanjing, Classic Chinese Novels, Classical Chinese, Cloisonné, Columbia University Press, Columbian Exchange, Compendium of Materia Medica, Confucianism, Confucius, Courtesan, Crucible, Crystallization, Dalai Lama, Dali Kingdom, Daozang, Dehua porcelain, Dial (measurement), Dominican Order, Dong Qichang, Donglin Academy, Donglin movement, Dorgon, Duke Yansheng, Dutch Empire, Dynastic cycle, Dynasties in Chinese history, Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815), Economy of the Ming dynasty, Economy of the Song dynasty, Edwin O. Reischauer, Eight Banners, Eight-legged essay, Embroidered Uniform Guard, Emperor of China, Emperor Yingzong of Ming, Equal temperament, Esen Taishi, Euclid, Euclid's Elements, Eunuch, Fang Xiaoru, Feng Menglong, Feoffment, Fernão Pires de Andrade, Fiat money, Field mill (carriage), Fire ship, Floruit, Forbidden City, Foreign relations of imperial China, Four Books and Five Classics, Four Masters of the Ming dynasty, Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam, Franciscans, Fubing system, Fujian, Galileo Galilei, Gazette, Gazetteer, Güshi Khan, Gelug, Gerardus Mercator, Government of the Han dynasty, Grand Canal (China), Grand chancellor (China), Grand coordinator and provincial governor, Grand Secretariat, Great Wall of China, Gregorian calendar, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guerrilla warfare, Guizhou, Gun barrel, Guo Shoujing, Haijin, Haixi Jurchens, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Han River (Hubei), Hand cannon, Hanlin Academy, Harvard University Press, He Chaozong, Heliocentrism, Henan, History of geography, History of Ming, History of the Jews in China, History of trigonometry, History of Yuan, Hong Taiji, Hongwu Emperor, Hongxi Emperor, Hongzhi Emperor, House of Zhu, Hu Weiyong, Huai River, Huang-Ming Zuxun, Hubei, Hui people, Huolongjing, Hyperinflation, Imperial City, Beijing, Imperial Clan Court, Imperial examination, Incense clock, Infanticide, Inflation, International Studies Quarterly, Islam during the Ming dynasty, Islam during the Tang dynasty, Islam during the Yuan dynasty, Islam in China, Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine, Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Jesuit China missions, Jiajing Emperor, Jiangxi, Jianwen Emperor, Jiao Yu, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin Ping Mei, Jingkang incident, Jingnan Campaign, Jingtai Emperor, Johann Adam Schall von Bell, Johann Schreck, Johannes Kepler, John Fryer Thomas Keane, John K. 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Abraham Ortelius (also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598) was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Agricultural lime, also called aglime, agricultural limestone, garden lime or liming, is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk.
Albert Morton Craig (born 1927) is an American academic, historian, author and professor emeritus in the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at Harvard University.
Alexander Wylie (Traditional Chinese: 偉烈亞力, Simplified Chinese: 伟烈亚力) (6 April 181510 February 1887), was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China.
Amdo (ʔam˥˥.to˥˥) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1 November 1739 in Werkhoven – 8 July 1801 in Amsterdam) Dutch-American merchant who is mostly known for his participation in the last Dutch embassy to China under the tributary system.
Andrew Henry Plaks (born 1945) is an American sinologist who specializes in the study of the vernacular fiction of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.
The Battle of Beijing took place between February and April 1644 in the areas surrounding Beijing, and was fought between forces of the Ming Dynasty and rebel forces led by Li Zicheng.
The battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) was a naval conflict which took place 30 August – 4 October 1363 between the rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang and Chen Youliang during the Red Turban Rebellion which led to the fall of the Yuan dynasty.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Bimetallism is the economic term for a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent to certain quantities of two metals, typically gold and silver, creating a fixed rate of exchange between them.
"Blue and white pottery" covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide.
A booster rocket (or engine) is either the first stage of a multistage launch vehicle, or else a shorter-burning rocket used in parallel with longer-burning sustainer rockets to augment the space vehicle's takeoff thrust and payload capability.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Carved lacquer or Qīdiāo is a distinctive Chinese form of decorated lacquerware.
Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD.
Catholic Church in China (called Tiānzhǔ Jiào, 天主教, literally, "Religion of the Lord of Heaven", after the term for God traditionally used in Chinese by Catholics) has a long and complicated history.
The Censorate was a high-level supervisory agency in ancient China, first established during the Qin dynasty (221–207 BCE).
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Chen Youliang (1320 – August 23, 1363) was the founder of the insurgent state of Da Han (大漢; literally: "Great Han") in the late Yuan Dynasty period of Chinese history.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
The Chenghua Emperor (9 December 1447 – 9 September 1487), born Zhu Jianshen, was the ninth Emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, between 1464 and 1487.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
The cash was a currency denomination used in China in imperial times.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
Chinese export porcelain includes a wide range of Chinese porcelain that was made (almost) exclusively for export to Europe and later to North America between the 16th and the 20th century.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
The study of geography in China begins in the Warring States period (5th century BC).
Chinese jade refers to the jade mined or carved in China from the Neolithic onward.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language.
The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute among Roman Catholic missionaries over the religiosity of Confucianism and Chinese rituals during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.
A Chinese treasure ship was a type of large wooden ship in the fleet of admiral Zheng He, who led seven voyages during the early 15th-century Ming dynasty.
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
The Church of the East or Nestorian Church had a presence in China during two periods: first from the 7th through the 10th century, and later during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in the 13th and 14th centuries.
A circuit was a historical political division of China and is a historical and modern administrative unit in Japan.
The City Wall of Nanjing was designed by Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (r. 1328–1398) after he founded the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) and established Nanjing as the capital 600 years ago.
In sinology, the Classic Chinese Novels are two sets of the four or six best-known traditional Chinese novels.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
The Compendium of Materia Medica (also known by the romanizations Bencao Gangmu or Pen-tsao Kang-mu) is a Chinese herbology volume written by Li Shizhen during the Ming dynasty; its first draft was completed in 1578.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
A courtesan was originally a courtier, which means a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person.
A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
The Dali Kingdom, also known as the Dali State (Bai: Dablit Guaif), was a kingdom situated in modern Yunnan province, China from 937 until 1253 when it was conquered by the Mongols.
Daozang (Wade-Giles: Tao Tsang), meaning "Taoist Canon", consists of around 1,400 texts that were collected c. 400 (after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Taoist texts).
Dehua porcelain is a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province.
A dial is generally a flat surface, circular or rectangular, with numbers or similar markings on it, used for displaying the setting or output of a timepiece, radio, clock, watch, or measuring instrument.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Dong Qichang (courtesy name Xuanzai (玄宰); 1555–1636), was a Chinese painter, scholar, calligrapher, and art theorist of the later period of the Ming Dynasty.
The Donglin Academy (Wade–Giles Tung-lin), also known as the Guishan Academy (龜山書院 Guīshān Shūyuàn), was a former Chinese educational institution in Wuxi, China.
The Donglin movement was an ideological and philosophical movement of the late Ming and early Qing dynasties of China.
Dorgon (Manchu:, literally "badger"; 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), formally known as Prince Rui, was a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing dynasty.
The Duke of Yansheng, literally "Duke Overflowing with Sagacity", sometimes translated as Holy Duke of Yen, was a Chinese title of nobility.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
Dynastic cycle is an important political theory in Chinese history.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
The economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815) is the history of an economy that scholar Jan de Vries calls the first "modern" economy.
The economy of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) of China was the largest in the world during that period.
For over three centuries during the Song dynasty (960–1279) China experienced sustained growth in per capita income and population, structural change in the economy, and increased pace of technological innovation.
Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (October 15, 1910 – September 1, 1990) was an American educator and professor at Harvard University.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.
The eight-legged essay was a style of essay writing that needed to be used to pass the imperial examinations during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
The Embroidered Uniform Guard was the imperial secret police that served the emperors of the Ming dynasty in China.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Zhu Qizhen (29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464) was the sixth and eighth emperor of the Ming dynasty.
An equal temperament is a musical temperament, or a system of tuning, in which the frequency interval between every pair of adjacent notes has the same ratio.
Esen Taishi (d. 1455) was a powerful Oirat Taishi and de facto ruler of the Northern Yuan in 15th century Mongolia.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Fang Xiaoru was an orthodox Confucian scholar-bureaucrat of the Ming Dynasty, famous for his continuation of the Jinhua school of Zhu Xi and later for his loyalty to his former pupil, the Jianwen Emperor, who died in the rebellion of the Prince of Yan.
Feng Menglong (1574–1646) was a Chinese vernacular writer and poet of the late Ming Dynasty.
In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.
Captain Fernão Pires de Andrade (also spelled as Fernão Peres de Andrade; in contemporary sources, Fernam (Fernã) Perez Dandrade) (died 1552) was a Portuguese merchant, pharmacist, and official diplomat under the explorer and Portuguese Malacca governor Afonso de Albuquerque.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
A field mill, also known as a camp mill, was a premodern vehicle which acted as a mobile mill used for grinding grains, which had the very practical use of feeding a moving army.
A fire ship or fireship, used in the days of wooden rowed or sailing ships, was a ship filled with combustibles, deliberately set on fire and steered (or, when possible, allowed to drift) into an enemy fleet, in order to destroy ships, or to create panic and make the enemy break formation.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
Imperial China had a long tradition of foreign relations.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.
The Four Masters of the Ming dynasty are a traditional grouping in Chinese art history of four famous Chinese painters of the Ming dynasty.
The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
The fubing system was a local militia system in China from 6th to 8th centuries AD, originating in Western Wei and subsequently utilized during the Sui and Tang dynasties.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
A gazette is an official journal, a newspaper of record, or simply a newspaper.
A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.
Güshi Khan (also spelled Gushri Khan, Гүш хаан, གུ་ཤྲཱི་བསྟན་འཛིན, 1582 – 14 January 1655) was a Khoshut prince and leader of the Khoshut Khanate, who supplanted the Tumed descendants of Altan Khan as the main benefactor of the Dalai Lama and the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
The Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) of ancient China was the second imperial dynasty of China, following the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC).
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.
A xunfu was an important imperial Chinese provincial office under both the Ming (14th–17th centuries) and Qing dynasties (17th–20th centuries).
The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
Guo Shoujing (1231–1316), courtesy name Ruosi (若思), was a Chinese astronomer, engineer, and mathematician born in Xingtai, Hebei who lived during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368).
The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing.
The Haixi Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China.
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.
The Hanlin Academy (Manchu: bithei yamun) was an academic and administrative institution founded in the eighth-century Tang China by Emperor Xuanzong in Chang'an.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
He Chaozong was a celebrated early 17th-century Chinese potter.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
The History of Ming or the Ming History (Míng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories.
Jews and Judaism in China are predominantly composed of Sephardi Jews and their descendants.
Early study of triangles can be traced to the 2nd millennium BC, in Egyptian mathematics (Rhind Mathematical Papyrus) and Babylonian mathematics.
The History of Yuan (Yuán Shǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China.
Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
The Hongxi Emperor (洪熙; 16 August 1378 – 29 May 1425), personal name Zhu Gaochi (朱高熾), was the fourth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China.
The Hongzhi Emperor (30 July 1470 – 9 June 1505) was the tenth emperor of the Ming dynasty in China between 1487 and 1505.
House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China.
Hu Weiyong (? - 1380) was the first chancellor of the Ming dynasty, from 1373 to 1380.
The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.
The Huáng-Míng Zǔxùn (Instructions of the Ancestor of the August Ming) were admonitions left by the Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Chinese Ming dynasty, to his descendants.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
The Imperial City is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the Forbidden City at its center.
The Imperial Clan Court or Court of the Imperial Clan was an institution responsible for all matters pertaining to the imperial family under the Ming and Qing dynasties of imperial China.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
The incense clock is a Chinese timekeeping device that appeared during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) and spread to neighboring East Asian countries such as Japan and Korea.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
As the Yuan dynasty ended, many Mongols as well as the Muslims who came with them remained in China.
The History of Islam in China goes back to the earliest years of Islam.
The establishment of the Yuan dynasty in China in the 13th century dramatically increased the number of Muslims in China.
Islam in China has existed through 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.
The was an underground silver mine in the city of Ōda, in Shimane Prefecture on the main island of Honshu, Japan.
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.
The Jiajing Emperor (16September 150723January 1567) was the 12th emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty who ruled from 1521 to 1567.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jianwen Emperor (5 December 1377 – 13 July 1402?) was the second emperor of the Ming dynasty in China.
Jiao Yu was a Chinese military officer, philosopher, and writer of the Ming dynasty under Zhu Yuanzhang, who founded the dynasty and became known as the Hongwu Emperor.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jin Ping Mei — translated into English as The Plum in the Golden Vase or The Golden Lotus — is a Chinese novel of manners composed in vernacular Chinese during the late Ming dynasty (1368–1644).
The Jingkang Incident, also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty.
Jingnan Campaign, or Jingnan Rebellion, was a civil war in the early years of the Ming Dynasty of China between the Jianwen Emperor and his uncle Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan.
The Jingtai Emperor (景泰) (21 September 1428 – 14 March 1457), born Zhu Qiyu, was Emperor of China from 1449 to 1457.
Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1 May 1591 – 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit and astronomer.
Johann(es) Schreck, also Terrenz or Terrentius Constantiensis, Deng Yuhan Hanpo 鄧玉函, Deng Zhen Lohan, (1576, Bingen, Baden-Württemberg or Constance – 11 May 1630, Beijing) was a German Jesuit, missionary to China and polymath.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Fryer Thomas Keane (4 October 1854 – 1 September 1937), popularly known as Jack Keane, was a Yorkshire clergyman's son who went to sea at the age of twelve.
John King Fairbank (May 24, 1907 – September 14, 1991), was a prominent American historian of China.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
Jonathan Dermot Spence (born 11 August 1936) is a British-born American historian and public intellectual specialising in Chinese history.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Edkins (19 December 1823 – 23 April 1905) was a British Protestant missionary who spent 57 years in China, 30 of them in Beijing.
Joss paper (or, also known as ghost money) are sheets of paper or papercrafts made into burnt offerings common in Chinese ancestral worship such as the veneration of the deceased family members and relatives on holidays and special occasions.
Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en.
Juan González de Mendoza, O.S.A. (1545 – 14 February 1618) was the author of one of the earliest Western histories of China.
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.
Jurchen language is the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria, the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
The Kaifeng Jews are members of a small Jewish community in Kaifeng, in the Henan province of China who have assimilated into Chinese society while preserving some Jewish traditions and customs.
Khanbaliq or Dadu was the capital of the Yuan dynasty, the main center of the Mongol Empire founded by Kublai Khan in what is now Beijing, also the capital of China today.
The Khoshut Khanate was an Oirat khanate based in the Tibetan Plateau in the 17th and the 18th centuries.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.
Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.
Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (Carta Geografica Completa di tutti i Regni del Mondo, "Complete Geographical Map of all the Kingdoms of the World"), printed in China at the request of the Wanli Emperor during 1602 by the Italian Catholic missionary Matteo Ricci and Chinese collaborators, Mandarin Zhong Wentao and the technical translator, Li Zhizao, is the earliest known Chinese world map with the style of European maps.
Lan Yu (died 1393) was a Chinese general who contributed to the founding of the Ming Dynasty.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The languages of China are the languages that are spoken in China.
The title of "largest naval battle in history" is disputed between adherents of different criteria which include the numbers of personnel and/or vessels involved in the battle, and the total tonnage of the vessels involved.
Latticework is an openwork framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, typically wood or metal.
The Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê dynasty (the earlier Lê dynasty ruled only for a brief period (980–1009)), was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six-year interruption of the Mạc dynasty usurpers (1527–1533).
Lê Lợi (– 1433), posthumously known by his temple name Lê Thái Tổ, was emperor of Vietnam and founder of the Later Lê dynasty.
Li Shizhen (July 3, 1518 – 1593), courtesy name Dongbi, was a Chinese polymath, physician, scientist, pharmacologist, herbalist and acupuncturist of the Ming dynasty.
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.
Ling Mengchu (1580–1644) was a Chinese writer of the Ming Dynasty.
The Ming dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, succeeding the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty and falling amidst much peasant turmoil to the Manchu-ruled Qing dynasty.
This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.
The following is a list of Chinese languages and dialects, many of which are mutually unintelligible.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
Liu Ji (July 1, 1311 — May 16, 1375),Jiang, Yonglin.
Liú Jĭn (28 February 1451 – 25 August 1510) was a powerful Ming dynasty Chinese eunuch during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor (r. 1506–1521).
Liu Tong (c. 1593–1637) was a Chinese prose master and official from Macheng in Huanggang.
A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry.
The Luchuan–Pingmian Campaigns (1436–49) were punitive expeditions carried out by the Ming dynasty under the rule of the Zhengtong Emperor against the Shan state of Mong Mao, on the Burma-Yunnan frontier.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.
Manchuria under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynasty's rule over Manchuria, including modern Northeast China and Outer Manchuria from the beginning to the end of the dynasty.
Mandarin was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Marquis of Extended Grace was a title held by a descendant of the imperial family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) during the subsequent Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
The Miao rebellions were a series of rebellions of the indigenous tribes of southern China against the Ming Dynasty.
Michał Piotr BoymHis first name is also often rendered as Michele, Michel, Miguel, Michael Peter (Transliterated also (using Wade-Giles) as Pu Che-yuen Mi-ko c. 1612–1659) was a Polish Jesuit missionary to China, scientist and explorer.
The military conquests of the Ming dynasty were instrumental to the dynasty's hold on power during the early Ming.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
The Ming campaign against the Uriankhai of 1387 was an offensive military expedition campaign of Ming China's army led by General Feng Sheng against the Uriankhai horde of the Mongol chieftain Naghachu in Manchuria.
The headwear of a Han Chinese official during Ming dynasty China consisted of a black hat with two wing-like flaps of thin, oval shaped boards on each side called the wushamao (烏紗帽，formally known as futou 襆頭).
Ming poetry refers to the poetry of or typical of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).
The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China.
The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.
The Ministry or was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry of Personnel was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry or Board of Revenue was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry or Board of Rites was one of the Six Ministries of government in late imperial China.
The Ministry of War was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry of Works or was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
There were several Mongol invasions of Tibet.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
Mu Ying (1345-1392) was a general during the Ming Dynasty, and an adopted son of its founder, the Hongwu Emperor (aka Zhu Yuanzhang).
In mathematics, a multiplication table (sometimes, less formally, a times table) is a mathematical table used to define a multiplication operation for an algebraic system.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China.
Naghachu (script, d. 1388), also written as Nahacu, was a Uriankhai leader and general of the Northern Yuan dynasty in Manchuria, which was under Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanjing Incident of 1616 or the Nanjing Church Incident was a set-back for Christianity in China after the initial success of Matteo Ricci and other members of the Jesuit China mission to use western science and technology to integrate themselves into the Ming Dynasty bureaucracy and scholarly culture.
The naval history of China dates back thousands of years, with archives existing since the late Spring and Autumn period (722 BC – 481 BC) about the ancient navy of China and the various ship types used in war.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
The Nestorian Stele, also known as the Nestorian Stone, Nestorian Monument, or Nestorian Tablet, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents 150 years of early Christianity in China.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Ni Zan (1301–1374) was a Chinese painter during the Yuan and early Ming periods.
Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628) was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
The nine familial exterminations or nine kinship exterminations (also known as zú zhū (族誅), literally "family execution" and miè zú (灭族/滅族), literally "family extermination" or "execution of nine relations") was the most serious punishment for a capital offense in Ancient China.
North Zhili was composed of parts of the modern provinces of Hebei, Henan, Shandong, including the provincial-level municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.
The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.
The Nurgan Regional Military Commission was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria during the Ming dynasty, located on the banks of the Amur River, about 100 km from the sea, at modern Tyr, Russia.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
The Old Uyghur language was a Turkic language which was spoken in the Kingdom of Qocho from the 9th–14th centuries and in Gansu.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing and cleaning between the teeth.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pavilion of Prince Teng is a building in the north west of the city of Nanchang, in Jiangxi province, China, on the east bank of the Gan River and is one of the Three Great Towers of southern China.
Pederasty or paederasty is a (usually erotic) homosexual relationship between an adult male and a pubescent or adolescent male.
Penn State University Press, also called The Pennsylvania State University Press, was established in 1956 and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Portuguese Macau was the period of Macau as a Portuguese colony and later, an overseas province under Portuguese administration from 1557 to 1999.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.
A primer (in this sense usually pronounced, sometimes) is a first textbook for teaching of reading, such as an alphabet book or basal reader.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness at a time when most people did not have access to private bathing facilities.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing invasion of Joseon occurred in the winter of 1636 when the newly established Manchu Qing dynasty invaded Korea's Joseon kingdom, establishing its status as the center of the Imperial Chinese tributary system and formally severing Joseon's relationship with the Ming dynasty.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qiu Ying (1494? – 1552)Cihai page 211.
Qocho (Mongolian Uihur "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory") was a Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843.
In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.
Rafael Perestrello (fl. 1514–1517) was a Portuguese explorer and a cousin of Filipa Moniz Perestrello, the wife of explorer Christopher Columbus.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Rebellion of Cao Qin was a day-long uprising in the Ming Dynasty capital of Beijing on August7, 1461, staged by Chinese general Cao Qin (曹钦; d. 7 August 1461) and his Ming troops of Mongol and Han descent against the Tianshun Emperor (1457–1464).
The Red Turban Rebellion was an uprising influenced by the White Lotus Society members that, between 1351 and 1368, targeted the ruling Mongol Yuan dynasty, eventually leading to the overthrowing of Mongol rule in China.
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
Sabatino de Ursis (1575–1620, Chinese name: 熊三拔; pinyin: Xióng Sānbá) was an Italian Jesuit who was active in 17th-century China, during the Jesuit China missions.
The Salar people (Salır, سالار;, Xiao'erjing: صَالاذُ) are an ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz Turkic language.
Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.
Shangdu, also known as Xanadu (Mongolian: Šandu), was the capital of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty in China, before he decided to move his throne to the Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū, which he renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.
Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.
Shanhaiguan District, formerly Shan-hai-kwan or Shan-hai-kuan, is a district of the city of Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China, named after the pass of the Great Wall within the district, Shanhai Pass.
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Shen Zhou (1427–1509), courtesy name Qi'nan (启南) and Shitian (石田), was a Chinese painter in the Ming dynasty.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun, was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.
The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Sichuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Szechuan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan Province.
Simon Stevin (1548–1620), sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician, physicist and military engineer.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Snorkeling (British and Commonwealth English spelling: snorkelling) is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese: 宋應星; Simplified Chinese: 宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).
The Southern Ming was a loyalist movement that was active in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse in 1644.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
A striking clock (also known as chiming clock) is a clock that sounds the hours audibly on a bell or gong.
Su Shi (8January103724August1101), also known as Su Dongpo, was a Chinese writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and a statesman of the Song dynasty.
Su Song (courtesy name: Zirong 子容) (1020–1101 AD) was a renowned Hokkien polymath who was described as a scientist, mathematician, statesman, astronomer, cartographer, horologist, medical doctor, pharmacologist, mineralogist, zoologist, botanist, mechanical and architectural engineer, poet, antiquarian, and ambassador of the Song Dynasty (960–1279).
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
A sycee (.. from Cantonese 細絲, sai-sì,. "fine silk").
Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tang Code was a penal code that was established and used during the Tang Dynasty in China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang Xianzu (September 24, 1550 – July 29, 1616), courtesy name Yireng (義仍), was a Chinese playwright of the Ming Dynasty.
Tang Yin (1470–1524), courtesy name Tang Bohu (唐伯虎), was a Chinese scholar, painter, calligrapher, and poet of the Ming dynasty period whose life story has become a part of popular lore.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Taxation in premodern China varied greatly over time.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China is an influential Passim, but states that the book is "now-influential": "...
The Peony Pavilion (Chinese: 牡丹亭; pinyin: Mǔdān tíng; Wade–Giles: Mu-tan t'ing), also named The Return of Soul at the Peony Pavilion, is a romantic tragicomedy play written by dramatist Tang Xianzu in 1598, and the plot was drawn from the short story Du Liniang Revives For Love. It depictes a love story between Du Liniang and Liu Mengmei, overcomes all difficulties, transcending time and space, life and death, and finally get together.
The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).
In Chinese philosophy, the phrase three teachings refers to Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism when considered as a harmonious aggregate.
The Tiangong Kaiwu (天工開物), or The Exploitation of the Works of Nature was a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Song Yingxing.
The Tianqi Emperor (23 December 1605 – 30 September 1627), personal name Zhu Youjiao, was the 16th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, reigning from 1620–1627.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
Timothy James Brook (Chinese name: 卜正民; born January 6, 1951) is a Canadian historian, sinologist, and writer specializing in the study of China (sinology).
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth, gums, and tongue.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).
The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.
A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.
The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Uriankhai (also written as "Uriyangkhai", "Urianhai", or "Uryangkhai") is a Mongolian term applied to several neighboring "forest" ethnic groups such as the Altai Uriankhai, Tuvans and Yakuts.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.
Wang Yangming (26 October 1472 – 9 January 1529), courtesy name Bo'an, was a Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian philosopher, official, educationist, calligraphist and general during the Ming dynasty.
Wáng Zhèn (王振) was the first Ming Dynasty eunuch with power in the court.
Wang Zhi was a Chinese pirate and trader of the 16th century, one of the chief named and known figures among the wokou ("Japanese" pirates; wako in Japanese) prevalent during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor.
The Wanli Emperor (4 September 1563 – 18 August 1620), personal name Zhu Yijun, was the 14th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
Water Margin, also translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an.
Wei Zhongxian (Xian of Suning 1568 – Pekin, December 12, 1627) was a Chinese court eunuch who lived in the late Ming dynasty.
Wen Zhengming (November 28, 1470–1559), born Wen Bi, was a leading Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, poet, and scholar.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A wheellock, wheel-lock or wheel lock, is a friction-wheel mechanism to cause a spark for firing a firearm.
The White Lotus was a religious and political movement that appealed to many Han Chinese who found solace in worship of Wusheng Laomu ("Unborn Venerable Mother"), who was to gather all her children at the millennium into one family.
Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, and stood on the right (southeastern) bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River. The two other cities, Hanyang and Hankou, were on the left (northwestern) bank, separated from each other by the Han. The name "Wuchang" remains in common use for the part of urban Wuhan south of the Yangtze River. Administratively, however, it is split between several districts of the City of Wuhan. The historic center of Wuchang lies within the modern Wuchang District, which has an area of and a population of 1,003,400. Other parts of what is colloquially known as Wuchang are within Hongshan District (south and south-east) and Qingshan District (north-east). Presently, on the right bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Qingshan (for a very small section) to the northeast and Hongshan to the east and south; on the opposite bank it borders Jiang'an, Jianghan and Hanyang. On 10 October 1911, the New Army stationed in the city started the Wuchang Uprising, a turning point of the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xu Guangqi or Hsü Kuang-ch'i (April 24, 1562– November 8, 1633), also known by his baptismal name Paul, was a Chinese scholar-bureaucrat, Catholic convert, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician under the Ming dynasty.
Xu Xiake (January 5, 1587 – March 8, 1641), born Xu Hongzu (徐弘祖), courtesy name Zhenzhi (振之), was a Chinese travel writer and geographer of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), known best for his famous geographical treatise, and noted for his bravery and humility.
The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yao people (its majority branch is also known as Mien;; người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam.
Ye Chunji (1532–1595) was a Chinese county official and scholar during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) of China.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yi Xing (683–727), born Zhang Sui, was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer and Buddhist monk of the Tang dynasty (618–907).
Yishiha (also Išiqa or Isiha Jurchen) (fl. 1409–1451) was a Jurchen eunuch in the service of the Ming dynasty emperors who carried out several expeditions down the Songhua and Amur Rivers during the period of Ming rule of Manchuria, and is credited with the construction of the only two Ming dynasty Buddhist temples ever built on the territory of present-day Russia.
The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.
Yongle Emperor's campaigns against the Mongols (1410-1424) was the military campaign of Ming China under Yongle Emperor against the Mongols in the north.
The Yongzheng Emperor (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Yu Qian (1398–1457), courtesy name Tingyi, art name Jie'an, was a Chinese official who served under the Ming dynasty.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuan Hongdao (1568–1610) was a Chinese poet of the Ming Dynasty, and one of the Three Yuan Brothers, along with his brothers Yuan Zongdao and Yuan Zhongdao.
Yuan Zhongdao (袁中道, Wade-Giles Yüan Chung-tao; 1570–1624) was a Chinese poet, essayist, travel diarist and official was born in Kung-an in Hukuang.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
Zhang Juzheng (1525–1582), courtesy name Shuda, pseudonym Taiyue, was a Chinese reformer and statesman who served as Grand Secretary in the late Ming dynasty during the reigns of the Longqing and Wanli emperors.
Zhang Xianzhong or Chang Hsien-chung (September 18, 1606 – January 2, 1647), nicknamed Yellow Tiger, was a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an, Shaanxi Province.
Zhaoqing, formerly romanized as Shiuhing, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province, China.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
Zheng Zhilong (1604–1661), also known as Nicholas Iquan Gaspard and Ching Chih-lung, was a Chinese merchant, pirate and military leader in the late Ming dynasty who later defected to the Qing dynasty.
The Zhengde Emperor (26October 149120April 1521) was the 11th Ming dynasty Emperor of China between 1505–1521.
Zhou were historical political divisions of China.
Zhu Quan (Chinese: t 權, s 权, p Zhū Quán; 27 May 1378 – 12 October 1448), Prince of Ning (t 寧王, s 宁王, Nìngwáng) was the 17th son of Ming Hongwu Emperor.
Zhu Shugui (1617 – 21 July 1683), courtesy name Tianqiu and art name Yiyuanzi, formally known as the Prince of Ningjing, was a Ming dynasty prince and the last of the pretenders to the Ming throne after the fall of the Ming Empire in 1644.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
The Gengyin Emperor (1618–1662), personal name Zhu Yihai, was an emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty, reigning from 1645 to 1655.
The Yongli Emperor (1623–1662; reigned 18 November 1646 – 1 June 1662), personal name Zhu Youlang, was the fourth and last emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty of China.
Zhu Zaiyu (1536 – 19 May 1611) was a Chinese mathematician, physicist, choreographer, and musician.
The zuihuai is a specimen of the pagoda tree (Styphnolobium japonicum) located in Jingshan Park, Beijing, China.
The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake or Huaxian earthquake or Jiajing earthquake was a catastrophic earthquake and is also the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people.
1587, a Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline is Chinese historian Ray Huang's most famous work.
The 1642 Yellow River flood or Kaifeng flood was a man-made disaster that principally affected Kaifeng and Xuzhou.
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