124 relations: Altair 8800, Apollo Computer, Architecture of Windows NT, Arithmetic logic unit, BASIC, CDC 160 series, CDC 1700, Central processing unit, Charles Babbage Institute, Compaq, Computer, Computer architecture, Computer hardware, Computer multitasking, Computer terminal, Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Computervision, Control Data Corporation, CP/M, Data General, Data General Nova, Dell EMC, Digital Equipment Corporation, Dual in-line package, Eclipse (software), Fortran, FreeBSD, Groupe Bull, Hewlett-Packard, History of computing hardware (1960s–present), Honeywell, Honeywell Level 6, HP 2100, HP 3000, HP Integrity Servers, IBM, IBM PC compatible, IBM Power Systems, IBM System i, IBM System/34, IBM System/38, Integrated circuit, Intel, Intel 4004, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Interdata 7/32 and 8/32, Itanium, Java (software platform), ..., K-202, LINC, Linux, Local area network, Magnetic-core memory, Mainframe computer, Manufacturing resource planning, Massachusetts Miracle, Massachusetts Route 128, Microcomputer, Microprocessor, Microsoft Visual Studio, Microsoft Windows, Midrange computer, Motorola 68020, MS-DOS, Multiplexer, NetBSD, Nettop, New England, Nicolet 1080, NonStop (server computers), Nord-1, Nord-10, Nord-100, Norsk Data, OpenBSD, OpenVMS, Oracle Corporation, Original equipment manufacturer, OS/8, PDP-1, PDP-5, PDP-8, Power Architecture, Prime Computer, Process control, Programmed Data Processor, Radio-Electronics, RSTS/E, RT-11, Scientific Data Systems, Server (computing), Small form factor, Solaris (operating system), SPARC, Superminicomputer, Systems Engineering Laboratories, Tandem Computers, Teletype Model 33, Texas Instruments, The New York Times, The Soul of a New Machine, TI-990, Transistor, Transistor–transistor logic, Turnkey, TX-0, TX-2, United States dollar, Unix, Unix-like, Value-added reseller, Varian Data Machines, VAX, Very-large-scale integration, Wang Laboratories, Workstation, X86, 16-bit, 19-inch rack, 32-bit, 7400 series, 74181. Expand index (74 more) » « Shrink index
The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080 CPU.
Apollo Computer Inc., founded 1980 in Chelmsford, Massachusetts by William Poduska (a founder of Prime Computer) and others, developed and produced Apollo/Domain workstations in the 1980s.
The architecture of Windows NT, a line of operating systems produced and sold by Microsoft, is a layered design that consists of two main components, user mode and kernel mode.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
The CDC 160 series was a series of minicomputers built by Control Data Corporation.
The CDC 1700 was a 16-bit word minicomputer, manufactured by the Control Data Corporation with deliveries beginning in May 1966.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.
Compaq (a portmanteau of Compatibility And Quality; occasionally referred to as CQ prior to its final logo) was a company founded in 1982 that developed, sold, and supported computers and related products and services.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces.
Computervision, Inc. (CV) was an early pioneer in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM).
Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s.
The Data General Nova is a series of 16-bit minicomputers released by the American company Data General.
Dell EMC (formerly EMC Corporation until 2016) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, United States.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP) is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins.
Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE) used in computer programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
Bull SAS (also known as Groupe Bull, Bull Information Systems, or simply Bull) is a French-owned computer company headquartered in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, in the western suburbs of Paris.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
The history of computing hardware starting at 1960 is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid-state devices such as the transistor and later the integrated circuit.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
The Honeywell Level 6 was a line of 16-bit minicomputers, later upgraded to 32-bits, manufactured by Honeywell, Inc. from the mid 1970s.
The HP 2100 was a series of minicomputers produced by Hewlett-Packard (HP) from the mid-1960s to early 1990s.
The HP 3000 series is a family of minicomputers released by Hewlett-Packard in 1972.
HP Integrity is a series of server computers produced by Hewlett Packard Enterprise (formerly Hewlett-Packard) since 2003, based on the Itanium processor.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
Power Systems is IBM's Power Architecture-based server line.
The IBM System i is IBM's previous generation of midrange computer systems for IBM i users, and was subsequently replaced by the IBM Power Systems in April 2008.
The IBM System/34 was an IBM midrange computer introduced in 1977.
The System/38 was a midrange computer server platform manufactured and sold by the IBM Corporation.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.
The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
The Model 7/32 and Model 8/32 were 32-bit minicomputers introduced by Perkin-Elmer after they acquired Interdata, Inc., in 1973.
Itanium is a family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64).
Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment.
K-202 was a 16-bit minicomputer, created by a team led by Polish scientist Jacek Karpiński between 1970–1973 in cooperation with British companies Data-Loop and M.B. Metals.
The LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer) is a 12-bit, 2048-word transistorized computer.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) is defined as a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company.
The Massachusetts Miracle was a period of economic growth in Massachusetts during most of the 1980s.
Route 128 (designated as the Yankee Division Highway) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Midrange computers, or midrange systems, are a class of computer systems which fall in between mainframe computers and microcomputers.
The Motorola 68020 ("sixty-eight-oh-twenty", "sixty-eight-oh-two-oh" or "six-eight-oh-two-oh") is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1984.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
A nettop (or miniature PC, Mini PC or Smart Micro PC) is a small-sized, inexpensive, low-power, legacy-free desktop computer designed for basic tasks such as Internet surfing, accessing web-based applications, document processing, and audio/video playback.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The Nicolet 1080 computer was the successor of the Nicolet 1070/PDP-8 computer, released in 1971 by Nicolet Instrument Corporation, which operated between 1966 and 1992 in Madison, Wisconsin.
NonStop is a series of server computers introduced to market in 1976 by Tandem Computers Inc., beginning with the NonStop product line, which was followed by the Hewlett-Packard Integrity NonStop product line extension.
Nord-1 was Norsk Data's first minicomputer and the first commercially available computer made in Norway.
Nord-10 was a medium-sized general-purpose 16-bit minicomputer designed for multilingual time-sharing applications and for real-time multi-program systems, produced by Norsk Data.
The Nord-100 was a 16-bit minicomputer series made by Norsk Data, introduced in 1979.
Norsk Data was a (mini-)computer manufacturer located in Oslo, Norway.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
An Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer.
OS/8 was the primary operating system used on the Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-8 minicomputer.
The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959.
The PDP-5 was Digital Equipment Corporation's first 12-bit computer, introduced in 1963.
The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
Power Architecture is a registered trademark for similar reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction sets for microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale/NXP, AppliedMicro, LSI, Teledyne e2v and Synopsys.
Prime Computer, Inc. was a Natick, Massachusetts-based producer of minicomputers from 1972 until 1992.
Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.
Programmed Data Processor (PDP), referred to by some customers, media and authors as "Programmable Data Processor, is a term used by the Digital Equipment Corporation from 1957 to 1990 for several lines of minicomputers.
Radio-Electronics was an American electronics magazine that was published under various titles from 1929 to 2003.
RSTS is a multi-user time-sharing operating system, initially developed by Evans, Griffiths, & Hart of Boston, and acquired by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, now part of Hewlett Packard) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers.
RT-11 ("RT" for real-time) is a discontinued small, single-user real-time operating system for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 family of 16-bit computers.
Scientific Data Systems, or SDS, was an American computer company founded in September 1961 by Max Palevsky and Robert Beck, veterans of Packard Bell and Bendix, along with eleven other computer scientists.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
A small form factor (SFF) is a computer form factor designed to minimize the volume and footprint of a desktop computer.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
A superminicomputer, or supermini, was “a minicomputer with high performance compared to ordinary minicomputers.” The term was an invention used from the mid-1970s mainly to distinguish the emerging 32-bit minis from the classical 16-bit minicomputers.
Systems Engineering Laboratories (also called SEL) was a manufacturer of minicomputers in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Tandem Computers, Inc. was the dominant manufacturer of fault-tolerant computer systems for ATM networks, banks, stock exchanges, telephone switching centers, and other similar commercial transaction processing applications requiring maximum uptime and zero data loss.
The Teletype Model 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Soul of a New Machine is a non-fiction book written by Tracy Kidder and published in 1981.
The TI-990 was a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Texas Instruments (TI) in the 1970s and 1980s.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
A turnkey or a turnkey project (also spelled turn-key) is a type of project that is constructed so that it can be sold to any buyer as a completed product.
The TX-0, for Transistorized Experimental computer zero, but affectionately referred to as tixo (pronounced "tix oh"), was an early fully transistorized computer and contained a then-huge 64K of 18-bit words of magnetic core memory.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2 computer was the successor to the Lincoln TX-0 and was known for its role in advancing both artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A value-added reseller (VAR) is a company that adds features or services to an existing product, then resells it (usually to end-users) as an integrated product or complete "turn-key" solution.
Varian Data Machines was a division of Varian Associates which sold minicomputers.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.
Wang Laboratories was a computer company founded in 1951, by An Wang and G. Y. Chu.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
A 19-inch rack is a standardized frame or enclosure for mounting multiple electronic equipment modules.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.
The 74181 is a bit slice arithmetic logic unit (ALU), implemented as a 7400 series TTL integrated circuit.