316 relations: Adit, Alluvium, Aluminium, Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Anglo American plc, Antonio Pigafetta, Aqueduct (water supply), Arrastra, Artisanal mining, Asbestosis, Asphyxia, Asteroid mining, Aswan, Athens, Australian gold rushes, Automated mining, Banknote, Banská Štiavnica, Base metal, Bauxite, Bedrock, Bellows, Benxihu Colliery, BHP, Bingham Canyon Mine, Biodiversity, Blood diamond, Boksburg, Boulby Mine, Britannia, British Museum, Broken Hill ore deposit, California Gold Rush, Carajás Mine, Carletonville, Cassiterite, Cave-in, Ceramic, Ceres (organization), Chalk, Chalk mining, Chemical synthesis, Chile, China, Chloroauric acid, Chuquicamata, City-state, Clay, ..., Coal mining, Coal seam fire, Comminution, Commodity, Conflict resource, Copper, Cornwall, Courrières mine disaster, Critical mineral raw materials, Cultural artifact, Czech Republic, Dam, De la pirotechnia, De re metallica, Denver, Diesel generator, Dimension stone, Diodorus Siculus, Dolaucothi Gold Mines, Drift mining, Dutch disease, Ear protection, Earth, Earth Summit, Earthworks (engineering), East Rand Mine, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Egyptians, Embankment dam, England, Enrichment factor, Environmental economics, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental impact of mining, Environmental monitoring, Environmental racism, Environmental resource management, Equator Principles, Equity (economics), Erosion, Escondida, Exploration diamond drilling, Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, Extractive metallurgy, Finland, Fire-setting, Flint, Fossil water, France, Fraser Institute, Gangue, Garzweiler surface mine, Gemstone, General Mining Act of 1872, Geometallurgy, Georgius Agricola, Germany, Global Reporting Initiative, Gold, Gold mining, Gravel, Greenschist, Grime's Graves, Groundwater, Gunpowder, Hambach surface mine, Hearing loss, Heavy equipment, Hematite, Hungary, Hushing, Hydraulic mining, In situ leach, Industry self-regulation, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Council on Mining and Metals, International Finance Corporation, International Organization for Standardization, International Resource Panel, Iron Knob, ISO 14000, ISO 9000, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of the Southwest, Keswick, Cumbria, Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, Kingdom of Hungary, Kiruna, Kiruna Mine, Kola Superdeep Borehole, Krzemionki, Lake District, Lake Superior, Land rehabilitation, Landfill, Landfill mining, Langdale axe industry, Las Médulas, Laurium, Lead, Limestone, List of mining companies, Lode, Longwall mining, Maadi, Mail (armour), Malachite, Marcopper mining disaster, Market capitalization, Metal, Metallurgy, Middle Ages, Millennium, Mindoro, Mine closure, Mine closure planning, Mine reclamation, Mine safety, Mineral, Mineral industry of Africa, Mineral industry of Peru, Mineral processing, Mineral resource classification, Mining accident, Mining engineering, Mining feasibility study, Mining in Australia, Mining in India, Mining in the United States, Mining industry of Egypt, Mount Morgan Mine, Mountaintop removal mining, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Occupational Research Agenda, Natural capital, Natural resource, Neanderthal, Neolithic, New Mexico, Ngwenya Mine, Non-governmental organization, Non-renewable resource, North West (South African province), Nubia, Obsidian, Occupational hazard, Ochre, Oil shale, Open-pit mining, Ore, Outline of mining, Overburden, Paleolithic, Paros, Příbram, PDF, Peak minerals, Pennines, Philip II of Macedon, Pigment, Placer deposit, Placer mining, Platinum group, Plowshare, Pneumoconiosis, Political risk, Potash, Potassium chloride, Pre-Columbian era, Precious metal, Prehistory, Prospecting, Pyhäjärvi, Pyhäsalmi Mine, Quarry, Quartz reef mining, Radiocarbon dating, Ranch, Rare-earth mineral, Recycling, Redox, Reservoir, Resource curse, Retreat mining, Reverse overshot water-wheel, Rio Tinto (river), Rio Tinto Group, Rock (geology), Rockdust, Rockfall, Roman conquest of Britain, Roman Empire, Room and pillar mining, Saarland, Sacramento, California, Scientific drilling, Sea level, Shaft mining, Silicosis, Silver, Sinai Peninsula, Sinkhole, Slope mining, Sluice, Slurry, Smelting, Socially responsible investing, Socioeconomics, Sodium chloride, Sodium cyanide, Sodium sulfate, Soil contamination, Solar power, South Africa, South America, Spain, State-owned enterprise, Stirrup, Stone industry, Stone tool, Stoping, Surface mining, Surface water, Sustainable development, Swaziland, Sweden, Tailings, TauTona Mine, Tel Aviv, Thasos, Thermal shock, Threshing, Timna Valley, Tin, Tool, Tora, Egypt, Tram, Trommel screen, TSX Venture Exchange, Turquoise, U.S. News & World Report, Ulyanovskaya Mine disaster, Underground mine ventilation, Underground mining (hard rock), Underground mining (soft rock), United Nations Environment Programme, United States, United States territorial acquisitions, University of Notre Dame, Upper Big Branch Mine disaster, Uranium mining, Uranium oxide, Utah, Vale (company), Vannoccio Biringuccio, Vein (geology), Wadi Hammamat, Wadi Maghareh, Water table, Watermill, Weapon, Wind power, World Bank, 2000s commodities boom, 2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion. Expand index (266 more) » « Shrink index
An adit (from Latin aditus, entrance) is an entrance to an underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water, ventilated, and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, formerly the National Museums and Galleries of Wales, is a Welsh Government sponsored body that comprises seven museums in Wales.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anglo American plc is a multinational mining company based in Johannesburg, South Africa and London, United Kingdom.
Antonio Pigafetta (c. 1491 – c. 1531) was an Italian scholar and explorer from the Republic of Venice.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
An Arrastra (or Arastra) is a primitive mill for grinding and pulverizing (typically) gold or silver ore.
Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM) is emerging as an important socio-economic sector for the rural poor in many developing nations.
Asbestosis is long term inflammation and scarring of the lungs due to asbestos.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers (both from other areas within Australia and from overseas) relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered.
Automated mining involves the removal of human labor from the mining process.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz; Selmecbánya (Selmec)) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.
Benxihu (Honkeiko) Colliery, located in Benxi, Liaoning, China, was first mined in 1905.
BHP, formerly known as BHP Billiton, is the trading entity of BHP Billiton Limited and BHP Billiton plc, an Anglo-Australian multinational mining, metals and petroleum dual-listed public company headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
The Bingham Canyon Mine, more commonly known as Kennecott Copper Mine among locals, is an open-pit mining operation extracting a large porphyry copper deposit southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah, in the Oquirrh Mountains.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity.
Boksburg is a city on the East Rand of Gauteng province of South Africa.
Boulby Mine is a site located just south-east of the village of Boulby, on the north-east coast of the North York Moors in Redcar and Cleveland, England.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Broken Hill Ore Deposit is located underneath Broken Hill in western New South Wales, Australia, and is the namesake for the town.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.
The Carajás Mine is the largest iron ore mine in the world.
Carletonville is a gold-mining town in western Gauteng, South Africa.
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2.
A cave-in is a collapse of a geologic formation, mine or structure which may occur during mining or tunneling.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Ceres is a non-profit sustainability advocacy organization based in Boston, Massachusetts.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chalk mining is the extraction of chalk from underground and above ground deposits by mining.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chloroauric acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known, is by excavated volume the largest open pit copper mine in the world, located in the north of Chile, just outside Calama at above sea level, northeast of Antofagasta and north of the capital, Santiago.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
A coal-seam fire refers to natural burning of an outcrop or underground coal seam.
Comminution is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by crushing, grinding, cutting, vibrating, or other processes.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Conflict resources are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, caused the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France on 10 March 1906.
The 27 minerals and other commodities defined as "critical", "at risk", or "strategical" are necessary for a number of technologies of strategic importance; laptops and mobile phones in particular.
A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
De la Pirotechnia is considered to be the first printed book on metallurgy to have been published in Europe.
De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy.
Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and finished (i.e., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
The Dolaucothi Gold Mines (Mwynfeydd Aur Dolaucothi), also known as the Ogofau Gold Mine, are ancient Roman surface and underground mines located in the valley of the River Cothi, near Pumsaint, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
Drift mining is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed.
In economics, the Dutch disease is the apparent causal relationship between the increase in the economic development of a specific sector (for example natural resources) and a decline in other sectors (like the manufacturing sector or agriculture).
Ear protection refers to devices used to protect the ear, either externally from elements such as cold, intrusion by water and other environmental conditions, debris, or specifically from noise.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock.
East Rand Proprietary Mines (ERPM) is a 120-year-old underground gold mining operation on the Witwatersrand Basin at Boksburg, to the east of Johannesburg.
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
An embankment dam is a large artificial dam.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Enrichment Factor is used to describe bodies of mineral ore.
Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues.
Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action.
The environmental impact of mining includes erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by chemicals from mining processes.
Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterise and monitor the quality of the environment.
Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.
Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.
The is a risk management framework, adopted by financial institutions, for determining, assessing and managing environmental and social risk in project finance.
Equity or economic equality is the concept or idea of fairness in economics, particularly in regard to taxation or welfare economics.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Escondida is a copper mine in the Atacama Desert in Antofagasta Region, Chile.
Exploration diamond drilling is used in the mining industry to probe the contents of known ore deposits and potential sites.
The is a global standard for the good governance of oil, gas and mineral resources.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Fire-setting is a method of traditional mining used most commonly from prehistoric times up to the Middle Ages.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Fossil water or paleowater is an ancient body of water that has been contained in some undisturbed space, typically groundwater in an aquifer, for millennia.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Fraser Institute is a Canadian public policy think tank and registered charity.
In mining, gangue is the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit.
The Tagebau Garzweiler is a large surface mine (Tagebau) in the German state of North-Rhine Westphalia.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
The General Mining Act of 1872 is a United States federal law that authorizes and governs prospecting and mining for economic minerals, such as gold, platinum, and silver, on federal public lands.
Geometallurgy relates to the practice of combining geology or geostatistics with metallurgy, or, more specifically, extractive metallurgy, to create a spatially or geologically based predictive model for mineral processing plants.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Global Reporting Initiative (known as GRI) is an international independent standards organization that helps businesses, governments and other organizations understand and communicate their impacts on issues such as climate change, human rights and corruption.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
Greenschists are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures usually produced by regional metamorphism, typically and 2–10 kilobars.
Grime's Graves is a large Neolithic flint mining complex in Norfolk, England.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The Tagebau Hambach is a large open-pit coal mine (Tagebau) in Niederzier and Elsdorf, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hushing is an ancient and historic mining method using a flood or torrent of water to reveal mineral veins.
Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a mining process used to recover minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit, in situ.
Industry self-regulation is the process whereby an organization monitors its own adherence to legal, ethical, or safety standards, rather than have an outside, independent agency such as a third party entity monitor and enforce those standards.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) was founded in 2001 to improve sustainable development performance in the mining and metals industry.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset-management services to encourage private-sector development in developing countries.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
Iron Knob is a town in the Australian state of South Australia on the Eyre Peninsula immediately south of the Eyre Highway.
ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements; and (c) continually improve in the above.
The ISO 9000 family of quality management systems standards is designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or service.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The Journal of the Southwest is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by the Southwest Center, at the University of Arizona, with a focus on the American Southwest and adjacent northwestern Mexico.
Keswick is an English market town and civil parish, historically in Cumberland, and since 1974 in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria.
The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is the process established in 2000 to prevent "conflict diamonds" from entering the mainstream rough diamond market by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 55/56 following recommendations in the Fowler Report.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
Kiruna (Northern Sami: Giron, Finnish: Kiiruna) is the northernmost town in Sweden, situated in the province of Lapland.
The Kiruna mine is the largest and most modern underground iron ore mine in the world.
The Kola Superdeep Borehole (tr) is the result of a scientific drilling project of the Soviet Union in the Pechengsky District, on the Kola Peninsula.
Krzemionki, also Krzemionki Opatowskie, is a Neolithic and early Bronze Age complex of flint mines for the extraction of Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) banded flints located about eight kilometers north-east of the Polish city of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski.
The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.
Lake Superior (Lac Supérieur; ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ, Gitchi-Gami) is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America.
Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters, etc.) has resulted in its damage.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) is a process whereby solid wastes which have previously been landfilled are excavated and processed.
The Langdale axe industry is the name given by archaeologists to specialised stone tool manufacturing centred at Great Langdale in England's Lake District during the Neolithic period (beginning about 4000 BC in Britain).
Las Médulas is a historic gold-mining site near the town of Ponferrada in the comarca of El Bierzo (province of León, Castile and León, Spain).
Laurium or Lavrio or Lavrion (Λαύριο; Λαύριον; before early 11th century BC: Θορικός Thorikos; from Middle Ages until 1908: Εργαστήρια - Ergastiria) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is an incomplete alphabetical list of mining companies.
In geology, a lode is a deposit of metalliferous ore that fills or is embedded in a fissure (or crack) in a rock formation or a vein of ore that is deposited or embedded between layers of rock.
Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically 0.6 – 1.0 m thick).
Maadi or al-Ma'adi (معادي الخبيري - المعادي / transliterated) is an affluent, leafy suburban district south of Cairo, Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile about 12 km upriver from downtown Cairo.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
The Marcopper Mining Disaster occurred on March 24, 1996, on the Philippine island of Marinduque, a province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
Mindoro is the seventh largest island in the Philippines by land area with a total of 10,571 km2 (4,082 sq.mi) and with a total population of 1,331,473 as of 2015.
Mine closure is the period of time when the ore-extracting activities of a mine have ceased, and final decommissioning and mine reclamation are being completed.
Mine closure planning involves planning effectively for the after-mining landscape – all activities required before, during, and after the operating life of a mine that are needed to produce an acceptable landscape economically.
Mine reclamation is the process of restoring land that has been mined to a natural or economically usable state.
Safety has long been a concern in the mining business, especially in underground mining.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The mineral industry of Africa is the largest mineral industries in the world.
The mineral industry provides a major source of economic growth in Peru's national development.
In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores.
Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral resources based on an increasing level of geological knowledge and confidence.
A mining accident is an accident that occurs during the process of mining minerals.
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth.
A mining feasibility study is an evaluation of a proposed mining project to determine whether the mineral resource can be mined economically.
Mining in Australia is a significant primary industry and contributor to the Australian economy.
The Mining industry in India is a major economic activity which contributes significantly to the economy of India.
Mining in the United States has been active since colonial times, but became a major industry in the 19th century with a number of new mineral discoveries causing a series of mining "rushes." In 2015, the value of coal, metals, and industrial minerals mined in the United States was US $109.6 billion.
Mining in Egypt has had a long history that goes back to predynastic times.
Mount Morgan Mine was a copper, gold and silver mine in Queensland, Australia.
Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) is an international financial institution which offers political risk insurance and credit enhancement guarantees.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) is a partnership program developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The Ngwenya Mine is located on Bomvu Ridge, northwest of Mbabane and near the north-western border of Swaziland.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
A non-renewable resource (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames.
North West is a province of South Africa.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
An occupational hazard is a hazard experienced in the workplace.
Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to mining: Mining – extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam.
In mining, overburden (also called waste or spoil) is the material that lies above an area that lends itself to economical exploitation, such as the rock, soil, and ecosystem that lies above a coal seam or ore body.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Paros (Πάρος; Venetian: Paro) is a Greek island in the central Aegean Sea.
Příbram (Freiberg in Böhmen, Przibram or Pribram, in the time of the German occupation (1939–1945) Pibrans) is a city in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic with a population of 35,147.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peak minerals marks the point in time when the largest production of a mineral will occur in an area, with production declining in subsequent years.
The Pennines, also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
Placer mining is the mining of stream bed (alluvial) deposits for minerals.
The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.
In agriculture, a plowshare (US) or ploughshare (UK) is a component of a plow (or plough).
Pneumoconiosis is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture.
Political risk is a type of risk faced by investors, corporations, and governments that political decisions, events, or conditions will significantly affect the profitability of a business actor or the expected value of a given economic action.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis (second – exploration) of a territory.
Pyhäjärvi (1993–1995 Pyhäsalmi) is a town and municipality in the south of Northern Ostrobothnia region, Finland.
Pyhäsalmi Mine, the deepest base metal mine in Europe, retrieved on 2007-10-14 (having depth of) is located at the Pyhäjärvi municipality in the south of Oulu province, Finland.
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
Quartz reef mining played an important role in 19th Century gold-mining districts such as Bendigo, Victoria, Central Otago in New Zealand, and the California mother lode.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.
A rare-earth mineral contains one or more rare-earth elements as major metal constituents.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
The resource curse, also known as the paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources (like fossil fuels and certain minerals), tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources.
Retreat mining is the removal of pillars in the underground mining technique known as room and pillar mining.
Frequently used in mines and probably elsewhere (such as agricultural drainage), the reverse overshot water wheel was a Roman innovation to help remove water from the lowest levels of underground workings.
The Río Tinto (red river) is a river in southwestern Spain that rises in the Sierra Morena mountains of Andalusia.
Rio Tinto Group is an Australian-British multinational and one of the world's largest metals and mining corporations.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Rock dust, also known as rock powders, rock minerals, rock flour, soil remineralization, and mineral fines, consists of finely crushed rock, processed by natural or mechanical means, containing minerals and trace elements widely used in organic farming practices.
A rockfall or rock-fallWhittow, John (1984).
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Room and pillar (variant of breast stoping), also called pillar and stall, is a mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane, creating horizontal arrays of rooms and pillars.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County.
Scientific drilling into the Earth is a way for scientists to probe the Earth's sediments, crust, and upper mantle.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Shaft mining or shaft sinking is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
Slope mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Socially responsible investing (SRI), or social investment, also known as sustainable, socially conscious, "green" or ethical investing, is any investment strategy which seeks to consider both financial return and social/environmental good to bring about a positive change.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium cyanide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCN.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather.
Stone industry refers to the part of the primary sector of the economy, similar to the mining industry, but concerned with excavations of stones, in particular granite, marble, slate and sandstone.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
Stoping is the process of extracting the desired ore or other mineral from an underground mine, leaving behind an open space known as a stope.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
The TauTona Mine or Western Deep No.3 Shaft,http://www.infomine.com/index/properties/TAUTONA_(WESTERN_DEEP_NO.3_SHAFT).html is a gold mine in South Africa.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος) is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit.
Thermal shock occurs when a thermal gradient causes different parts of an object to expand by different amounts.
Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.
The Timna Valley is located in southern Israel in the southwestern Arava/Arabah, approximately north of the Gulf of Aqaba and the city of Eilat.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
Tora (طرة) was a site in ancient Egypt, located about halfway between modern Cairo and Helwan.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
A trommel screen, also known as a rotary screen, is a mechanical screening machine used to separate materials, mainly in the mineral and solid-waste processing industries.
The TSX Venture Exchange is a stock exchange in Canada.
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
The Ulyanovskaya Mine disaster was caused by a methane explosion that occurred on March 19, 2007 in the Ulyanovskaya longwall coal mine in the Kemerovo Oblast.
Underground mine ventilation provides a flow of air to the underground workings of a mine of sufficient volume to dilute and remove dust and noxious gases (typically NOx, SO2, methane, CO2 and CO) and to regulate temperature.
Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds.
Underground soft rock mining is a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale, potash and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
This is a United States territorial acquisitions and conquests list, beginning with American independence.
The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame or ND) is a private, non-profit Catholic research university in the community of Notre Dame, Indiana, near the city of South Bend, in the United States.
The Upper Big Branch Mine disaster occurred on April 5, 2010 roughly underground in Raleigh County, West Virginia at Massey Energy's Upper Big Branch coal mine located in Montcoal.
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.
Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Vale S.A. is a Brazilian multinational corporation engaged in metals and mining and one of the largest logistics operators in Brazil.
Vannoccio Biringuccio, sometimes spelt Vannocio Biringuccio (c. 1480 – c. 1539), was an Italian metallurgist.
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
Wadi Hammamat (Valley of Many Baths) is a dry river bed in Egypt's Eastern Desert, about halfway between Al-Qusayr and Qena.
Wadi Maghareh (also spelled Maghara or Magharah, meaning "The Valley of Caves" in Egyptian Arabic), is an archaeological site located in the southwestern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The 2000s commodities boom or the commodities super cycle was the rise, and fall, of many physical commodity prices (such as those of food, oil, metals, chemicals, fuels and the like) during the early 21st century (2000–2014), following the Great Commodities Depression of the 1980s and 1990s.
The 2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion was a mining accident that occurred on November 21, 2009, near Hegang in Heilongjiang province, northeastern China, which killed 108 people.
History of mining, Metal mining, Metal/nonmetal mining, Mine (industry), Mine (mining), Mine (structure), Mine Planning, Mine planning, Mine workings, Mineral Extraction, Mineral extraction, Mineral industry, Mineral waste, Minerals extraction, Mining area, Mining equipment, Mining industry, Mining machine, Mining operations, Mining sector, Mining, history of, Nonmetal mining, Ore Body, Renewable energy and mining, Sub-surface mining, Subsurface mining, Underground Mining Equipment, Underground mine, Underground mining.