39 relations: Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Al-Monitor, Ali Fallahian, Ali Younesi, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, BBC News, Chain murders of Iran, Classified information, Council for Intelligence Coordination, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, Ghorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi, GlobalSecurity.org, Heydar Moslehi, Ijtihad, Intelligence agency, Iran, Iranian.com, Iraq, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Judicial system of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud Alavi, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Reyshahri, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Oghab 2, Pahlavi dynasty, Persian language, President of Iran, Prime Ministry Intelligence Office, Reporters Without Borders, Ruhollah Khomeini, Saeed Emami, Saeed Hajjarian, SAVAK, Supreme Leader of Iran, The New York Times.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.
Ali Fallahian, (علی فلاحیان., born 23 October 1945) is an Iranian politician and cleric.
Ali Younesi (born 1 January 1951) is an Iranian politician, who served in different positions.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Chain Murders of Iran (Persian:قتلهای زنجیره ای), or Serial Murders, were a series of 1988–98 murders and disappearances of certain Iranian dissident intellectuals who had been critical of the Islamic Republic system in some way by Iranian government internal operatives.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
Iran Intelligence Community refers to 16 separate active intelligence agencies in Iran.
Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i (غلامحسین محسنی اژهای,; born 1956) is an Iranian conservative politician, judge and prosecutor who currently serves as the second-highest official in the Judicial system of Iran.
Ghorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi (قربانعلی دری نجفآبادی.; born 1950) is an Iranian politician and cleric, previously the Minister of Intelligence of Islamic Republic of Iran.
GlobalSecurity.org is a nonpartisan, independent, nonprofit organization that serves as a think tank, research and consultancy group, and website.
Heydar Moslehi (born 1957 in Isfahan) is an Iranian cleric and politician who served as the minister of intelligence from 2009 to 2013.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian.com is a website that hosts blogs, news, and commentaries by and for the Iranian diaspora.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Mahmoud Alavi (محمود علوی; born 4 May 1954) is an Iranian cleric, conservative politician, and the minister of intelligence in Hassan Rouhani's government.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Mohammad Reyshahri (محمد ریشهری), also known as Mohammad Mohammadi-Nik, (born 29 October 1946), best known as Reyshahri, is an Iranian politician and cleric who was the first Minister of Intelligence, served from 1984 to 1989 in cabinet of Prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Oghab 2 ("Eagle 2") (عقاب ۲) is an Iranian counter-espionage agency tasked to protect Iran's nuclear facilities from threats, including sabotage and cyber warfare.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Prime Ministry Intelligence Office (دفتر اطلاعات نخستوزیری) was an Intelligence agency in Iran directly subordinated to the Prime Minister's Office.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Saeid Emami (سعید امامی; né Saeid Eslami also known as Daniyal Ghavami; 1958–1999) was the Iranian deputy minister of intelligence under Ali Fallahian, and adviser to the Ghorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi.
Saeed Hajjarian (سعید حجاریان, born 1954) is an Iranian reformist political strategist, journalist, pro-democracy activist and former intelligence officer.
SAVAK (ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, literally "Organization of National Intelligence and Security") was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service of Pahlavi dynasty.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Intelligence Ministry of Iran, Intelligence minister of Iran, Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security, Iranian Intelligence Service, Iranian Ministry of Intelligence, Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security, MISIRI, Ministry of Information (Iran), Ministry of Information of Iran, Ministry of Intelligence (Iran), Ministry of Intelligence and National Security (Iran), Ministry of Intelligence and National Security of Iran, Ministry of Intelligence and Security, Ministry of Intelligence of Iran, Ministry of intelligence (Iran), SAVAMA, VEVAK, Vezarat-e Ettela'at Jomhuri-e Eslami, Vezarate Ettelaat Va Amniate Keshwar, وزارت اطلاعات جمهوری اسلامی.