249 relations: Administration (government), Adolf Furtwängler, Adze, Aegean civilizations, Aegean Islands, Aegina, Africa, Akrotiri (Santorini), Amenhotep III, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anemospilia, Aqueduct (water supply), Archaeological record, Archaeology, Archaic Greek alphabets, Archive, Arkalochori, Arkalochori Axe, Arsenical bronze, Arthur Evans, Ashlar, Asia, Asparagus, Atlantis, Attested language, Axe, Barley, Barnes & Noble, Beekeeping, Black pepper, Bodice, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bronze Age Europe, Bull-leaping, Burial, Canaan, Capital (architecture), Carrot, Carrying capacity, Cattle, Caucasus, Celery, Chania, Chickpea, Chisel, Chronology, ..., City-state, Clay, Column, Common fig, Cremation, Cretan hieroglyphs, Crete, Crocus, Cross, Cult (religious practice), Cyclades, Cycladic culture, Cyprus, Date palm, Deforestation, DNA, Donkey, Egypt, Egyptian chronology, Entrepôt, Eteocretan language, Euglyphis, Europe, Faience, Fertility rite, Ficus, Fish bone, Flagstone, Fournou Korifi, Frankincense, Fresco, Galatas Palace, Geography of Greece, Goat, Gold, Gortyn, Gournia, Government, Granulation (jewellery), Greece, Greek Dark Ages, Greek language, Greek mythology, Gypsum, H. E. L. Mellersh, Hafting, Hagia Triada, Haplogroup, Harbor, Harvard University Press, Helladic chronology, Heraklion, Hesperia (journal), Hieroglyph, Hilt, History of Greek, Hittites, Hoe (tool), Homer, Hominini, Horns of Consecration, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hyksos, Ialysos, Iberian Peninsula, Iron Age, Israel, Karfi, Karl Hoeck, Karpathos, Kasos, Kastri, Cythera, Kessinger Publishing, Kilt, Knossos, Kythira, Labrys, Labyrinth, Lemon, Lettuce, Levant, Lightwell, Linear A, Linear B, Loincloth, Lucy Goodison, Malia, Crete, Material culture, Matriarchal religion, Matriarchy, Maya civilization, Mediterranean cuisine, Mesopotamia, Messara Plain, Michael Ventris, Minoa, Minoan chronology, Minoan eruption, Minoan language, Minoan pottery, Minoan religion, Minoan sealstone, Minos, Minotaur, Mitochondrial DNA, Mother goddess, Mount Ida (Crete), Mount Juktas, Mudbrick, Mycenae, Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean Greek, Myrtos Pyrgos, Nature (journal), Neolithic, Nicoletta Momigliano, Nikolaos Platon, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Olive, Olive oil, Orange (fruit), Osprey Publishing, Ox, Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Palace, Papyrus, Patronage, Peak sanctuaries, Pear, Petsofas, Phaistos, Pharaoh, Philistines, Pig farming, Plaster, Plough, Polyculture, Pomegranate, Poppy, Poppy seed, Potnia Theron, Pottery, Precious metal, Pseira, Pumice, Quince, Radiocarbon dating, Rapier, Rhodes, Rhyton, Robe, Rubble, Sacred bull, Sacred caves of Crete, Saffron, Sanitary sewer, Santorini, Saria Island, Serpent (symbolism), Shaft tomb, Shang dynasty, Sheep farming, Shrine, Sickle, Silver, Sinclair Hood, Spiral, Spyridon Marinatos, Stairs, Stigma (botany), Stirrup jar, Stone carving, Stylianos Alexiou, Symmetry, Syria, Tectonics, Tel Kabri, Thebes, Egypt, Toponymy, Trade, Tree, Triangle, Tsunami, Underworld, University of Chicago Press, University of Washington, Vasiliki, Lasithi, Vicia, Viticulture, Volcanic ash, Volcanic Explosivity Index, Wall, Wheat, Wild boar, Will Durant, Yannis Hamilakis, Zakros, Zominthos. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.
Adolf Furtwängler (30 June 1853 – 10 October 1907) was a German archaeologist, teacher, art historian and museum director.
The adze (alternative spelling: adz) is a cutting tool shaped somewhat like an axe that dates back to the stone age.
Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea.
The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, pronounced) is a Minoan Bronze Age settlement on the volcanic Greek island of Santorini (Thera).
Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anemospilia(τα Ανεμόσπηλια)is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan temple on Crete.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
Arkalochori (Αρκαλοχώρι) is a town and a former municipality in the Heraklion regional unit, Crete, Greece.
The Arkalochori Axe is a 2nd millennium BC Minoan bronze votive double axe excavated by Spyridon Marinatos in 1934 in the Arkalochori cave on Crete, which is believed to have been used for religious rituals.
Arsenical bronze is an alloy in which arsenic, as opposed to or in addition to tin or other constituent metals, is added to copper to make bronze.
Sir Arthur John Evans (8 July 1851 – 11 July 1941) was an English archaeologist and pioneer in the study of Aegean civilization in the Bronze Age.
Ashlar is finely dressed (cut, worked) stone, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the structure built of it.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
Atlantis (Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens", the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic.
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented and for which the evidence has survived to the present day.
An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Barnes & Noble, Inc., a Fortune 500 company, is the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States, and a retailer of content, digital media, and educational products.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
A bodice is an article of clothing for women and girls, covering the body from the neck to the waist.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements.
Bull-leaping (also taurokathapsia, from Greek ταυροκαθάψια) is a motif of Middle Bronze Age figurative art, notably of Minoan Crete, but also found in Hittite Anatolia, the Levant, Bactria and the Indus Valley.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
In architecture the capital (from the Latin caput, or "head") or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster).
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity.
Chania (Χανιά,, Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania regional unit.
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical power.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Cretan hieroglyphs are generally considered undeciphered hieroglyphs found on artefacts of early Bronze Age Crete, during the Minoan era.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crocus (English plural: crocuses or croci) is a genus of flowering plants in the iris family comprising 90 species of perennials growing from corms.
A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.
Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c.3200–c.1050) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt.
An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.
Eteocretan (from Eteókrētes, lit. "true Cretans", itself composed from ἐτεός eteós "true" and Κρής Krḗs "Cretan") is the non-Greek language of a few alphabetic inscriptions of ancient Crete.
Euglyphis is a genus of Moth in the family Lasiocampidae.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body.
Fertility rites are religious rituals that reenact, either actually or symbolically, sexual acts and/or reproductive processes: 'sexual intoxication is a typical component of the...rites of the various functional gods who control reproduction, whether of man, beast, cattle, or grains of seed'.
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
Fish bone is any bone of a fish.
Flagstone (flag) is a generic flat stone, usually used for paving slabs or walkways, patios, fences and roofing.
Fournou Korifi is the archaeological site of a Minoan settlement on southern Crete.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
The Galatas Palace is a Minoan site on Crete found in the early 1990s.
Greece is a country in Southern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by the Aegean Sea and Turkey, to the south by the Libyan Sea and to the west by the Ionian Sea, which separates Greece from Italy.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion.
Gournia (Γουρνιά) is the site of a Minoan palace complex on the island of Crete, Greece, excavated in the early 20th century by the American archaeologist, Harriet Boyd-Hawes.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Granulation is a jewellery manufacturing technique whereby a surface is covered in spherules or granules of precious metal.
The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Harold Edward Leslie Mellersh (1897–1980) was a British author, primarily of text books.
Hafting is a process by which an artifact, often bone, metal, or stone, is attached to a haft (handle or strap).
Hagia Triada (also Ayia Triada, Agia Triada, Agia Trias, — Holy Trinity) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan settlement.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Helladic chronology is a relative dating system used in archaeology and art history.
Heraklion (Ηράκλειο, Irákleio) is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete.
Hesperia is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") was a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system.
The hilt (rarely called the haft) of a sword is its handle, consisting of a guard, grip and pommel.
This article is an overview of the history of the Greek language.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural and horticultural hand tool used to shape soil, remove weeds, clear soil, and harvest root crops.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
"Horns of Consecration" is an expression coined by Sir Arthur Evans to describe the symbol, ubiquitous in Minoan civilization, that represents the horns of the sacred bull: Sir Arthur Evans concluded, after noting numerous examples in Minoan and Mycenaean contexts, that the Horns of Consecration were "a more or less conventionalised article of ritual furniture derived from the actual horns of the sacrificial oxen" The much-photographed porous limestone horns of consecration on the East Propyleia at Knossos (illustration, right) are restorations, but horns of consecration in stone or clay were placed on the roofs of buildings in Neopalatial Crete, or on tombs or shrines, probably as signs of sanctity of the structure.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.
Ialysos (Greek: Ιαλυσός, before 1976: Τριάντα Trianta) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Karfi (also Karphi, Καρφί) is an archaeological site high up in the Dikti Mountains in eastern Crete, Greece.
Karl Friedrich Christian Hoeck (born May 13, 1794 at Oelber am weißen Wege; died January 13, 1877 in Göttingen) was a German classical historian and philologist as well as a librarian.
Karpathos (Κάρπαθος) is the second largest of the Greek Dodecanese islands, in the southeastern Aegean Sea.
Kασος (also Kassos, Kασος) is a Greek island municipality in the Dodecanese.
Kastri is a village in the island of Cythera, Islands regional unit, Greece.
Kessinger Publishing LLC is an American print on demand publishing company located in Whitefish, Montana that specializes in rare, out of print books.
A kilt (fèileadh) is a knee-length non-bifurcated skirt-type garment, with pleats at the back, originating in the traditional dress of Gaelic men and boys in the Scottish Highlands.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.
Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrus) is, according to Plutarch (Quaestiones Graecae 2.302a) the Lydian word for the double-bitted axe called in Greek a πέλεκυς (pélekus).
In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Greek: Λαβύρινθος labyrinthos) was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
In architecture a lightwell, light well or air shaft is an unroofed external space provided within the volume of a large building to allow light and air to reach what would otherwise be a dark or unventilated area.
Linear A is one of two currently undeciphered writing systems used in ancient Greece (Cretan hieroglyphic is the other).
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
A loincloth is a one-piece male garment, sometimes kept in place by knots, safety pins, velcro straps, buttons, snaps, buckles, zippers or hook-and-eye closures and worn as outer clothing or in the external environment.
Lucy Goodison is an archeologist and author from Dorset in the United Kingdom.
Malia or Mallia (Μάλια) is a coastal town and a former municipality in the northeast corner of the Heraklion regional unit in Crete, Greece.
Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.
A matriarchal religion is a religion that focuses on a goddess or goddesses.
Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Messara Plain or simply Messara (Μεσσαρά) is an illuvial plain in southern Crete, stretching about 50 km west-to-east and 7 km north-to-south, making it the largest plain in Crete.
Michael George Francis Ventris, OBE (12 July 1922 – 6 September 1956) was an English architect, classicist and philologist who deciphered Linear B, the ancient Mycenaean Greek script.
Minoa is the name of several Bronze-Age cities on the coasts of the Aegean islands and Corfu in Greece, as well as Sicily.
Sir Arthur Evans developed a relative dating scheme of Minoan chronology based on the excavations initiated and managed by him at the site of the ancient city of Knossos.
The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption, Santorini eruption, or Late Bronze Age eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of, Dated to the mid-second millennium BCE, the eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history.
The Minoan language is the language (or languages) of the ancient Minoan civilization of Crete written in the Cretan hieroglyphs and later in the Linear A syllabary.
Minoan pottery has been used as a tool for dating the mute Minoan civilization.
Minoan religion was the religion of the Bronze Age Minoan civilization of Crete.
Minoan seal-stones are gemstones, or near-gem-quality stones produced in the Minoan civilization.
In Greek mythology, Minos (Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Μῑνώταυρος, Minotaurus, Etruscan: Θevrumineś) is a mythical creature portrayed in Classical times with the head of a bull and the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, a being "part man and part bull".
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A mother goddess is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth.
Mount Ida, known variously as Idha, Ídhi, Idi, Ita and now Psiloritis (Ψηλορείτης, "high mountain"), at 2,456 m (8,057 feet), is the highest mountain on Crete.
A mountain in north-central Crete, Mount Juktas (Γιούχτας - Giouchtas), also spelled Iuktas, Iouktas, or Ioukhtas, was an important religious site for the Minoan civilization.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
Pyrgos (also Myrtos-Pyrgos) is an archaeological site of the Minoan civilization near Myrtos in the municipality of Ierapetra on the south coast of Crete.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nicoletta Momigliano, FSA, is an archaeologist specialising in Minoan Crete and its modern reception.
Nikolaos Platon (Greek Νικόλαος Πλάτων, Anglicised Nicolas Platon; –) was a renowned Greek archaeologist.
The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
The Oxford Classical Dictionary (OCD) is generally considered "the best one-volume dictionary on antiquity," an encyclopedic work in English consisting of articles relating to classical antiquity and its civilizations.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Minoan peak sanctuaries are widespread throughout the island of Crete (Greece).
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Petsofas is the archaeological site of a Minoan peak sanctuary in eastern Crete.
Phaistos (Φαιστός,; Ancient Greek: Φαιστός), also transliterated as Phaestos, Festos and Latin Phaestus, currently refers to a Bronze Age archaeological site at modern Phaistos, a municipality in south central Crete.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Pig farming is the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock, and is a branch of animal husbandry.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, providing crop diversity in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy (Papaver somniferum).
Potnia Theron (Ἡ Πότνια Θηρῶν, "The Mistress of the Animals") is a term first used (once) by Homer (Iliad 21. 470) and often used to describe female divinities associated with animals.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Pseira (Greek Ψείρα) is an islet in the Gulf of Mirabello in northeastern Crete with the archaeological remains of Minoan and Mycenean civilisation.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Rapier or espada ropera, is a loose term for a type of slender, sharply pointed sword.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
A rhyton (plural rhytons or, following the Greek plural, rhyta) is a roughly conical container from which fluids were intended to be drunk or to be poured in some ceremony such as libation, or merely at table.
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.
Rubble is broken stone, of irregular size, shape and texture; undressed especially as a filling-in.
Numerous peoples throughout the world have at one point in time honored bulls as sacred.
Sacred caves and peak sanctuaries are characteristic holy places of ancient Minoan Crete.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.
Saria Island (Σαρία) is an island in Greece.
The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.
A shaft tomb or shaft grave is a type of deep rectangular burial structure, similar in shape to the much shallower cist grave, containing a floor of pebbles, walls of rubble masonry, and a roof constructed of wooden planks.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Sheep farming is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep.
A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
A sickle, or bagging hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Martin Sinclair Frankland Hood (born 31 January 1917), generally known as Sinclair Hood, is an archaeologist and academic.
In mathematics, a spiral is a curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point.
Spyridon Nikolaou Marinatos (Σπυρίδων Νικολάου Μαρινάτος; November 4, 1901 – October 1, 1974) was a Greek archaeologist.
A stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs, or simply stairs is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
A stirrup jar is a style of pottery vessel which originated during the Bronze Age.
Stone carving is an activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone.
Stylianos Alexiou (Στυλιανός Αλεξίου, 13 February 1921 – 12 November 2013) was an archaeologist, philologist and university professor.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Tel Kabri (תֵל כַבְרִי; تَلْ ألْقَهوَة, Tell al-Qahweh, "the mound of coffee") is an archaeological site of a tell (hill city), containing one of the largest Middle Bronze (MB) Age (2,100–1,550 BC) Canaanite palaces in ancient Israel, and the largest such palace excavated as of 2014.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
Vasiliki is the name of a village in the municipality of Ierapetra, in the prefecture of Lasithi, on Crete, and the name of the nearby Minoan archeological site.
Vicia is a genus of about 140 species of flowering plants that are part of the legume family (Fabaceae), and which are commonly known as vetches.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.
A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
Yannis Hamilakis (Γιάννης Χαμηλάκης,; born 1966) is a Greek archaeologist and writer who is the Joukowsky Family Professor of Archaeology and Professor of Modern Greek Studies at Brown University.
Zakros (Ζάκρος) is a site on the eastern coast of the island of Crete, Greece, containing ruins from the Minoan civilization.
Zominthos (Ζώμινθος, alternative spellings Ζόμινθος or Ζόμιθος) is a small plateau in the northern foothills of Mount Ida (Psiloritis), οn the island of Crete.
Ancient Minoa, Ancient Minoan, Ancient Minoans, Cretan Culture, Cretan civilization, Cretan culture, Early Minoan, Early Minoan I, Early Minoan III, Late Minoan, Middle Minoan, Minoan, Minoan Civilisation, Minoan Civilization, Minoan Crete, Minoan Culture, Minoan architecture, Minoan civilisation, Minoan culture, Minoan empire, Minoan palaces, Minoan people, Minoans, Pax Minoica, The Minoan civilization.