351 relations: Aŭtazavodskaja line, Abu Dhabi, Academy of Public Administration (Belarus), Agricultural machinery, Ales Michalevic, Alexander Jagiellon, Alexander Lukashenko, Alexander Rybak, Alexis of Russia, Algeria, Ammonia, Andrei Arlovski, Andrei Shorets, Ankara, Anna Smashnova, Arizona, Armenians, Ashkenazi Jews, Atlantic Ocean, Atlas (appliance company), Avraham Even-Shoshan, Azerbaijanis, Łódź, Bangalore, Baroque, Battle on the Nemiga River, BBC News, BC Tsmoki-Minsk, Belarus, Belarusian diaspora, Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum, Belarusian language, Belarusian National Arts Museum, Belarusian National History Museum, Belarusian National Technical University, Belarusian Nature and Environment Museum, Belarusian Orthodox Church, Belarusian People's Republic, Belarusian presidential election, 2010, Belarusian ruble, Belarusian State Economic University, Belarusian State Medical University, Belarusian State Technological University, Belarusian State University, Belarusian State University of Agricultural Technology, Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Belarusian State University of Physical Training, Belarusians, Belo Horizonte, ..., Bishkek, Black Sea, Bolsheviks, Bonn, Boris Gelfand, Boris Khaykin, Brest, Belarus, Bronislava Nijinska, Brześć Kujawski, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Capital city, Casimir IV Jagiellon, Cathedral of Saint Virgin Mary, Catholic Church, Caucasus, Changchun, Charles XII of Sweden, Chelyuskinites Park, Chernobyl disaster, Chișinău, Children's Railroad (Minsk), Chromium, Church of Saints Simon and Helena, Cistercians, City, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Cultural studies, Darya Domracheva, Dimitry Elyashkevich, Dregoviches, Dushanbe, Ў gallery, Early Middle Ages, East Slavs, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Orthodox Church, Economics, Egypt, Eindhoven, Ella German, Eurasia, European Olympic Committees, Eurovision Song Contest 2009, FC Dinamo Minsk, FC Minsk, FC Torpedo Minsk, Feast of the Cross, Finance, Financial crisis, Foreign direct investment, Foreign language, Formaldehyde, French invasion of Russia, Frunzyenski District, Further education, Further-eastern European Time, Gazprom, Georgians, Ghetto, Gomel, Gorky Park (Minsk), Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grande Armée, Great Northern War, Gross domestic product, Gross regional product, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Havana, HC Dinamo Minsk, Hero City, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Ho Chi Minh City, Humid continental climate, Ice sheet, Independence Palace, Minsk, Independence Square, Minsk, Information technology, Intelligentsia, International airport, International law, International relations, International Sakharov Environmental Institute, Isaac Boleslavsky, Isaak Mazel, Islamabad, Israel, Ivan Lubennikov, Jewish population by country, John F. 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The Aŭtazavodskaja line is a line of the Minsk Metro.
Abu Dhabi (أبو ظبي) is the capital and the second most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (the most populous being Dubai), and also capital of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the largest of the UAE's seven emirates.
The Academy of Public Administration under the aegis of the President of the Republic of Belarus (Акадэ́мiя кiрава́ння пры Прэзiдэ́нце Рэспу́блiкi Белару́сь, Акаде́мия управле́ния при Президе́нте Респу́блики Белару́сь), Minsk, is the leading higher educational establishment in a national education system of the Republic of Belarus and head establishment of education in system of training, retraining and in-service training of the personnel in management sphere.
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in farming or other agriculture.
Ales (Alaksiej) Anatoljevich Michalevic (Але́сь Мiхале́вiч, Aleś Michalevič, Ales Mikhalevich, born 15 May 1975 in Minsk, Byelorussian SSR) is a Belarusian public figure and politician, candidate in the Belarusian presidential election, 2010.
Alexander I Jagiellon (Aleksander Jagiellończyk; Aleksandras Jogailaitis) (5 August 1461 – 19 August 1506) of the House of Jagiellon was the Grand Duke of Lithuania and later also King of Poland.
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.
Alexander Igoryevich Rybak (born 13 May 1986) is a Belarusian-Norwegian singer-composer, violinist, pianist and actor.
Aleksey Mikhailovich (p; –) was the tsar of Russia from 12 July 1645 until his death, 29 January 1676.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Andrei Valeryevich Arlovski (Андрэй Валер'евіч Арлоўскі,, born February 4, 1979), nicknamed The Pitbull, is a Belarusian mixed martial artist, actor and former UFC Heavyweight Champion.
Andrei Viktorovich Shorets (Андрэй Віктаравіч Шорац) is the current chairman of the City Executive Committee of Minsk, the capital and largest city of the Republic of Belarus.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Anna Smashnova (אנה סמשנובה, Анна Смашнова; born July 16, 1976) is a former Israeli tennis player.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Atlas (Атлант, the transliteration into Latin script being Atlant) is a company, based in Minsk, Belarus, which makes household appliances, and also the brand of those appliances.
Avraham Even-Shoshan (אַבְרָהָם אֶבֶן שׁוֹשָׁן; 1906–1984) was a Russian-born Hebrew linguist and lexicographer, compiler of the Even-Shoshan dictionary, one of the foremost dictionaries of the Hebrew language.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Battle on the Nemiga River (Бітва на Нямізе, Сраже́ние на Неми́ге) was a battle of the Kievan Rus' feudal period that occurred on March 3, 1067 on the Niamiha River.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Basketball Club Tsmoki-Minsk (Цмокі-Мінск) is a professional basketball club that is based in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian diaspora refers to emigrants from the territory of Belarus as well for people of Belarusian descent.
The Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum is a museum in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The National Art Museum of the Republic of Belarus (Нацыянальны мастацкі музей Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a museum in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarusian National History and Culture Museum is a museum in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) is the major technical university in Belarus.
The Museum of Nature and Environment of the Republic of Belarus is a museum in Minsk, Belarus, founded in 1991 at Minsk on the basis of the nature of Belarusian National History and Culture Museum.
Belarusian Orthodox Church (Беларуская праваслаўная царква, Белорусская православная церковь) is the official name of the Belarusian Exarchate (Беларускі экзархат, Белорусский экзархат) of the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus.
The Belarusian People's Republic (Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка,, transliterated as Bielarúskaja Naródnaja Respúblika, BNR), (Белорусская народная республика) (transliterated as Belorusskaya narodnaya respublika), historically referred to as the White Ruthenian Democratic Republic (Weißruthenische Volksrepublik) was a failed attempt to create a Belarusian state on the territory controlled by the German Imperial Army during World War I. The BNR existed from 1918 to 1919.
A presidential election was held in Belarus on 19 December 2010.
The Belarusian ruble or rouble (рубель rubieĺ, plural: рублі rubli, genitive plural: рублёў rublioŭ) is the official currency of Belarus.
Belarus State Economic University is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarusian State Medical University (educational establishment “Belarusian State Medical University” – BSMU; Belarusian language: установа адукацыi Беларускі дзяржаўны медыцынскі універсітэт — БДМУ) is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarusian State Technological University (Белорусский государственный технологический университет; Беларускі Дзяржаўны Тэхналагічны Універсітэт) is a University in Minsk, Belarus specialized in engineering and technology.
Belarusian State University (BSU) (Белару́скі дзяржа́ўны ўніверсітэ́т,; Белору́сский госуда́рственный университе́т) is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
The Belarusian State University of Agricultural Technology is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts (Belarusian: Беларускі дзяржаўны універсітэт культуры і мастацтваў Russian: Белорусский государственный университет культуры и искусств) is a state-owned institution of higher education in Minsk, Belarus.
The Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, also known as BSUIR (Беларускі дзяржаўны ўніверсітэт інфарматыкі і радыёэлектронікі), is a public Higher Education Institution accredited by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus.
Belarusian State University of Physical Culture is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Belo Horizonte ("Beautiful Horizon") is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas.
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Boris Abramovich Gelfand (Барыс Абрамавіч Гельфанд, Barys Abramavich Hel'fand; Борис Абрамович Гельфанд, Boris Abramovich Gel'fand; בוריס אברמוביץ' גלפנד; born 24 June 1968) is an Israeli chess Grandmaster.
Boris Emmanuilovich Khaykin (Борис Эммануилович Хайкин; Барыс Эмануілавіч Хайкін; – 10 May 1978) was a Russian Jewish conductor who was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1972.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
Bronislava Nijinska (Bronisława Niżyńska; Бронисла́ва Фоми́нична Нижи́нская, Bronislava Fominichna Nizhinskaya, Браніслава Ніжынская); (– February 21, 1972) was a Polish ballet dancer, and an innovative choreographer.
Brześć Kujawski, often anglicized to Kuyavian Brest, is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.
Cathedral of the Holy Name of Mary (Архікатэдральны касцёл Імя Найсвяцейшай Панны Марыі, Archikatedralny kascioł Imia Najsviaciejšaj Panny Maryi) is a Roman Catholic baroque cathedral in Minsk.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Čaliuskincaŭ Park (Парк Чалюскiнцаў, Парк Челюскинцев) is an urban forest park in Minsk, Belarus.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Church of Saints Simon and Helena (Касцёл святых Сымона і Алены) (Kościół św.) also known as the Red Church (Чырвоны касцёл) is a Roman Catholic church on Independence Square in Minsk, Belarus.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
A city is a large human settlement.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
Dárya Vladímirovna Dómracheva (Дар’я Уладзіміраўна Домрачава; Darja Uładzimiraŭna Domračava; born 3 August 1986) is a retired Belarusian biathlete who has been competing in the Biathlon World Cup from 2006 to 2018.
Dimitry Elyashkevich (Дзмітрый Еляшкевіч; Дмитрий Еляшкевич; born February 23, 1975) is a producer and camera operator of the MTV series of Jackass and Wildboyz.
The Dregoviches or Dregovichi (Belarusian: дрыгавічы, dryhavičy,; дреговичи, dregovichi; дреговичі, drehovychi) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs, and inhabited the territories down the stream of the Pripyat River and northern parts of the right bank of the Dnieper river (more exact extents of the tribe's domain are still unknown).
Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
The Ў Gallery (Галерэя Ў - Gallery Short U) is an art gallery showcasing modern art in Minsk.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eindhoven is a municipality and city in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.
Ella German (Эла Герман; born 1937) is a Belarusian woman known for having a brief relationship with Lee Harvey Oswald after his defection to the Soviet Union in 1959.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The European Olympic Committees is an organisation based in Rome, Italy.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2009 was the 54th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
FC Dinamo Minsk (ФК Дынама Мінск, FK Dynama Minsk; ФК Динамо Минск) is a professional football club based in the Belarusian capital city of Minsk.
FC Minsk (ФК Мінск) is a professional football club based in Minsk, Belarus.
FC Torpedo Minsk (ПФК Тарпеда Мінск, PFK Tarpeda Minsk; ПФК Торпедо Минск) is a Belarusian football club, playing in Minsk.
In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Frunzienski District (Фрунзенскі; Фрунзенский) is an administrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the higher education (HE) offered in universities and other academic institutions.
Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Gomel (also Homieĺ, Homiel, Homel or Homyel’; Belarusian: Го́мель, Łacinka: Homiel,, Russian: Го́мель) is the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants (2015 census) the second-most populous city of Belarus.
Gorky Park (Парк Горкага, Цэнтральны дзіцячы парк імя Максіма Горкага, Maksim Gorky Central Children's Park) is a public park in Minsk, Belarus.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Hockey Club Dinamo Minsk (Дина́мо-Минск; Дынама-Мінск, Dynama-Minsk) is an ice hockey team based in Minsk, Belarus.
Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
Independence Palace (Палац Незалежнасцi) is a palace in Minsk.
Independence Square (Belarusian: Плошча Незалежнасці, Russian: Площадь независимости) is a square in Minsk, Belarus.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
International Sakharov Environmental Institute is an institute in Minsk, Belarus, part of the Belarusian State University.
Isaac Yefremovich Boleslavsky (Ісаак Єфремович Болеславський, Исаак Ефремович Болеславский; June 9, 1919 in Zolotonosha, Ukraine – February 15, 1977 in Minsk) was a Soviet chess grandmaster.
Isaak Yakovlevich Mazel (Ісак Якаўлевіч Мазэль; December 1911, Minsk – March 31, 1945, Tashkent) was a Belarusian–Russian chess master.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Ivan Leonidovich Lubennikov is a Russian painter, born in 1951 in Minsk.
The world's core Jewish population was estimated at 14,511,000 in April 2018, up from 14.41 million in 2016.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John II Casimir (Jan II Kazimierz Waza; Johann II.; Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kalvaryja (Belarusian: Кальварыя) is a Catholic Calvary cemetery in Minsk, Belarus.
Kastryčnicki District (Кастрычніцкі раён, Октябрьский район) is an adiministrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
The Krivichs (Kryvichs) (Крывічы, Kryvičý,; p) was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was a Marxist and ex-Marine who assassinated United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963.
Lieninski District (Ленінскі, Ленинский) is an adiministrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
The Libau–Romny Railway was a railway line built by the Russian Empire in 1871–74 to connect Romny in Ukraine with the port in Libau (Liepāja) in present-day Latvia.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.
#d6d6d6 | 3089 Oujianquan || || December 3, 1981 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
This is a list of central squares of Minsk, the capital of Belarus.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Louis Burt Mayer (born Lazar Meir; July 12, 1884 – October 29, 1957; Лазарь Меир) was an American film producer and co-founder of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios (MGM) in 1924.
The PJSC Lukoil Oil Company (stylized as LUKOIL) is a Russian multinational energy corporation headquartered in Moscow, specializing in the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
Maksim Bahdanovič Literary Museum is a museum in Minsk, Belarus.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Marina Gordon (11 December 1917 – 13 December 2013) was a Belarusian-born American singer and coloratura soprano.
Mark Slavin (מרק סלבין, Марк Славин; January 31, 1954 – September 6, 1972) was an Israeli Olympic Greco-Roman wrestler and victim of the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка), from marshrutne taksi routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as a share taxi for the countries of CIS, the Baltic states, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, and Georgia.
Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.
Maryna Linchuk (Марына Лінчук; born 4 September 1987) is a Belarusian model.
Maria "Masha" Bruskina (Марыя Барысаўна Брускіна Marïya Barïsawna Bruskina; Мария Борисовна Брускина Mariya Borisovna Bruskina; 1924 – 26 October 1941 in Minsk) was a Jewish member of the Minsk Resistance during World War II.
The Maskoŭskaja line (lit: "Moscow line") is a line of the Minsk Metro.
Maskoŭski District (Маскоўскі, Московский) is an adiministrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
Maksim "Max" Geller (מקס גלר; born April 20, 1971) is an Israeli former Olympic wrestler.
Maksim "Max" Mirnyi (Максім Мікалаевіч Мірны,; Максим Николаевич Мирный,; born 6 July 1977 in Minsk) is a Belarusian professional tennis player.
Maxim Tank Belarusian State Pedagogical University also known as BSPU (Беларускі дзяржаўны педагагічны ўніверсітэт імя Максіма Танка) is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
May Day is a public holiday usually celebrated on 1 May.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Mazut is a heavy, low quality fuel oil, used in generating plants and similar applications.
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (initialized as MGM or hyphenated as M-G-M, also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or simply Metro, and for a former interval known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, or MGM/UA) is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs.
Mińsk Mazowiecki "Masovian Minsk" is a town in central Poland with 40,211 inhabitants (2015).
Microdistrict, or microraion (микрорайо́н, мікрараён, мікрорайон, միկրոշրջան), is a residential complex—a primary structural element of the residential area construction in the Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet and former Communist states.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Military Cemetery is a cemetery in Minsk, Belarus.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Minsk Automobile Plant (MAZ), (Адкрытaе Акцыянэрнaе Таварыства «Мінскі аўтамабільны завод», Open JSC Minski Autamabilny Zavod, Минский автомобильный завод Minskyi Avtomobilnyi Zavod) is a state-run automotive manufacturer association in Belarus, one of the largest in Eastern Europe.
The Minsk Ghetto was created soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
The Minsk Governorate (Минская губерния) or Government of Minsk was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire.
(up to 2001 − Private Institute of Management) (Минский институт управления) was established in 1991.
The Minsk Metro (Мінскі метрапалітэн, Минский метрополитен) is a rapid-transit system that serves Minsk, the capital of Belarus.
Minsk National Airport (Национальный аэропорт Минск), formerly named Minsk-2 – not to be confused with the now defunct Minsk-1 Airport near downtown Minsk, is the main international airport in Belarus, located 42 km (26 mi) to the east of the capital Minsk, geographically lying in the territory of Smalyavichy Raion but administratively being subordinated to Kastrychnitski District of Minsk.
Minsk-Pasažyrski (Мінск-Пасажырскі, Минск-Пассажирский) is the main passenger railway station in Minsk, Belarus.
Minsk Region or Minsk Voblasć or Minsk Oblast (Мі́нская во́бласць, Minskaja voblasć; Минская о́бласть, Minskaja oblastj) is one of the regions of Belarus.
Minsk State Linguistic University is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
Minsk Tractor Works (Belarusian: Мінскі трактарны завод, Minski Traktarny Zavod; Russian: Минский тракторный завод, МТЗ, MTZ) may refer to two entities: a plant in Minsk, Belarus and a plant association in Belarus.
Minsk Voivodeship (Менскае ваяводзтва, Menskaje vajavodztva, Województwo mińskie, Palatinatus Minscensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 1566 and later in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the partitions of the Commonwealth in 1793.
Minsk-1 Airport was a Belarusian airport located within the city limits of Minsk, just a few kilometres south from the centre.
Minsk Arena (Мінск-Арэна, Минск-Арена) is a multi-use indoor arena in Minsk, Belarus.
MKAD is the name of the beltway that goes around Minsk, Belarus.
Moisei Yakovlevich Ginzburg (Майсей Якаўлевіч Гінзбург, Моисей Яковлевич Гинзбург;, Minsk – 7 January 1946, Moscow) was a Soviet constructivist architect, best known for his 1929 Narkomfin Building in Moscow.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Moscow Time (Моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg.
MTS (Mobile TeleSystems) is the largest mobile operator in Russia and CIS with over 102.4 million subscribers as of 31 December 2009.
The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officer.
N.R.M. (Niezaležnaya Respublika Mroya, "Independent Republic of Dreams" in English) are a rock band from Minsk, Belarus, founded in 1981 as Mroya (Мроя).
The National Academic Grand Opera and Ballet Theatre of the Republic of Belarus (Нацыянальны акадэмічны Вялікі тэатр оперы і балета) is located in a park in the Trinity Banlieu of the city of Minsk.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh (Николай Степанович Черных) (6 October 1931 – 26 May 2004) was a Russian-born Soviet astronomer and discoverer of minor planets and comets at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in Nauchnij, on the Crimean peninsula.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The Nyamiha (Nemiga) is a river in Minsk.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Belarusian History Museum is a museum in Minsk, Belarus.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
Oleg Nikolayevich Karavayev (Олег Николаевич Караваев, 20 May 1936 – 23 August 1978) was a Soviet bantamweight Greco-Roman wrestler.
Operation Bagration (Операция Багратио́н, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation, (Белорусская наступательная операция «Багратион», Belorusskaya nastupatelnaya Operatsiya Bagration) a military campaign fought between 22 June and 19 August 1944 in Soviet Byelorussia in the Eastern Front of World War II.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Mińsk was a military offensive of the Polish Army resulting in the recapture of Minsk from the Bolsheviks around August 8, 1919.
Partyzanski District (Партызанскі, Партизанский) is an adiministrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga (Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The term Polish–Lithuanian Union refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—the "Republic of the Two Nations"—in 1569 and eventually to the creation of a short-lived unitary state in 1791.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
The Principality of Minsk was an appanage principality of the Duchy of Polotsk and centered on the city of Minsk (today in Belarus).
The Principality of Polotsk (По́лацкае кня́ства; По́лоцкое кня́жество), also known as the Kingdom of Polotsk or the Duchy of Polotsk, was a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Pieršamajski District (Першамайскі, Первомайский) is an adiministrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Rachel Bernstein Wischnitzer (German: Rahel Wischnitzer-Bernstein), (April 14, 1885 – November 20, 1989) was an architect and art historian.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
A residential area is a land used in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romny (Ромни́; Ромны́) is a city in northern Ukrainian Sumy Oblast.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Joseph (translit) is a figure in the Gospels who was married to Mary, Jesus' mother, and, in the Christian tradition, was Jesus's legal father.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saviecki District (Савецкі, Советский) is an administrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The 1793 Second Partition of Poland was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, the largest city in the Tōhoku region, and the second largest city north of Tokyo.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Shalom (Simcha) Zorin (1902–1974) was a Jewish Soviet partisan commander in Minsk.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
SKA Minsk is a team handball club from Minsk, Belarus.
A skilled worker is any worker who has special skill, training, knowledge, and (usually acquired) ability in their work.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Sophie Fedorovitch (Сафія Федаровіч; 3 December 1893 – 25 January 1953) was a Russian-born theatrical designer who worked with ballet choreographer Sir Frederick Ashton from his first choreographed ballet in 1926 until her accidental death in 1953.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
The State Security Agency of the Republic of Belarus (Комитет государственной безопасности Республики Беларусь, КГБ, KGB; translit. Kamitet Dziaržaǔnaj Biaspieki, KDB) is the national intelligence agency of Belarus.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
A street or road name or odonym is an identifying name given to a street.
Svetlana Leonidovna Boginskaya (Святлана Леанідаўна Багінская; born February 9, 1973) is a former artistic gymnast for the Soviet Union and Belarus.
Svislach (Свíслач) or Svisloch (Свислочь) is a river in Belarus, a right tributary of the Biarezina river.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.
Trasianka (трасянка) refers to a mixed form of speech in which Belarusian and Russian elements and structures alternate in rapid succession.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Centraĺny District (Цэнтральны раён, Центральный район) is an administrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
The Union of Brest, or Union of Brześć, was the 1595-96 decision of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church eparchies (dioceses) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to break relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church and to enter into communion with, and place itself under the authority of the Pope of Rome.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
An Urstromtal (plural: Urstromtäler) is a type of broad glacial valley, for example, in northern Central Europe, that appeared during the ice ages, or individual glacial periods of an ice age, at the edge of the Scandinavian ice sheet and was formed by meltwaters that flowed more or less parallel to the ice margin.
Vanda Skuratovich (Ванда Скуратовіч, 1925, Raubichy – 12 January 2010, Minsk) was a Belarusian Roman Catholic activist.
velcom and Privet are the trademarks of the second largest cell-phone operator in Belarus, Unitary enterprise velcom (Унитарное предприятие "Велком").
Victória Fyódorovna Azárenka (Вікторыя Фёдараўна Азаранка; Russian: Виктория Фёдоровна Азаренко; born 31 July 1989) is a Belarusian professional tennis player.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a device used to wash laundry.
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Front was a front of the Red Army, one of the Red Army Fronts during World War II.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yanka Kupala Park is a park in Minsk, Belarus located along Svislach river.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
Yulia Raskina (Юлия Раскина) (born April 9, 1982 in Minsk, Belarus) is a former individual rhythmic gymnast.
HC Yunost-Minsk (Belar. Юнасць Мінск, Junaść Minsk) is a Belarusian ice hockey team that currently plays in the Belarusian Extraleague.
Yuri Gorbachev (Юрый Гарбачоў, born August 27, 1987), better known as Yuri Bessmertny (Юрый Бяссмертны), is a Belarusian Muay Thai kickboxer who competes in the middleweight and super middleweight divisions.
Yuri Shulman (Юрый Маркавіч Шульман; born April 29, 1975 in Minsk, Belarus, former USSR) is a Belarusian American chess grandmaster.
Zavodski District (Заводскі, Заводской) is an administrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus.
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
The 1st Congress of the RSDLP (Russian: Российская социал-демократическая рабочая партия, РСДРП) was held between March 13–March 15 (March 1–March 3, O.S.) 1898 in Minsk, Russian Empire (now Belarus) in secrecy.
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.
The 2014 IIHF World Championship was hosted by Belarus in its capital, Minsk.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
The 2016 European Speed Skating Championships were held in Minsk, Belarus, from 9 to 10 January 2016.
2019 European Games (Еўрапейскія гульні 2019, Jeŭrapiejskija hulni 2019; Европейские игры 2019, Jevropejskije igry 2019) also known as the 2nd European Games will be held in Minsk, Belarus from June 21 to June 30, 2019.