203 relations: Adzebill, Africa, Agenian, Albedo, Allodesmus, Anatinae, Andes, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctic Plate, Ape, Aphelops, Aquitanian (stage), Arabian Peninsula, Ardipithecus, Argentina, Arikareean, Asia, Astaracian, Australia, Barstovian, Bat, Bear, Beaver, Bipedalism, Bird, Borophaginae, Brown algae, Burdigalian, C3 carbon fixation, Caiman, Camelid, Canidae, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sequestration, Carcharocles chubutensis, Cetacea, Charles Lyell, Chile Rise, Chile Triple Junction, Chimpanzee, Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, Clarendonian, Cockatoo, Coevolution, Colhuehuapian, Colloncuran, Colubridae, Continental drift, Crocodile, ..., Crow, Cursorial, Cycad, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Deer, Dryolestoidea, Early Miocene, East Africa, East Asia, Ecosystem, Elapidae, Entelodont, Eocene, Epoch (geology), Equidae, Eurasia, Europe, Evapotranspiration, Evolutionary radiation, Extinction, False gharial, Fauna, Fish, Friasian, Geologic time scale, Geology of the Himalaya, Glacial period, Gomphothere, Gondwanatheria, Grassland, Grazing, Great Plains, Greenhouse gas, Greenland, Hemingfordian North American Stage, Hemipristis serra, Hemphillian, Herd behavior, Herpetotheriidae, Hominidae, Hominini, Huayquerian, Human evolution, Hypsodont, Ice age, India, Inland sea (geology), International Commission on Stratigraphy, Invertebrate, Island Arc (journal), Journal of Paleontology, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Kelp, Kelp forest, Kingsnake, Kiwi, Langhian, Late Miocene, Laventan, List of fossil sites, Livyatan, Mantle convection, Marine transgression, Mayoan, Mediterranean Sea, Megapiranha, Merycoidodontoidea, Mesoamerica, Messinian, Messinian salinity crisis, Metatheria, Middle Miocene, Middle Miocene disruption, Miohippus, Moa, Mollisol, Monsoon, Montehermosan, Mountain range, Mourasuchus, National Museum of Natural History, Nature (journal), Nazca Plate, Necrolestes, Neogene, Nerodia, New Zealand, Nicholas Fraser, Nimravidae, North America, Oceanic dispersal, Old World, Oligocene, Online Etymology Dictionary, Orleanian, Orogeny, Orrorin, Otter, Pacific Ocean, Pantherophis, Patagonia, Patagonia (mammal), Pelagiarctos, Penguin, Phytolith, Piacenzian, Pinniped, Piranha, Pituophis, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Plover, Poaceae, Predation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Procyonidae, Purussaurus, Rhamphosuchus, Rhynchocephalia, River incision, Sahelanthropus, Saint Bathans Fauna, Saint Bathans mammal, Santacrucian, Science (journal), Serravallian, Siamoperadectes, Slab window, Smithsonian Institution, South America, Sparassodonta, Sperm whale, Stage (stratigraphy), Strait of Magellan, Subduction, Teleoceras, Tethys Ocean, The Journal of Geology, Thinobadistes, Tortonian, Tropical rainforest, True owl, Turkey, Turolian, Turtle, Ungulate, Vallesian, Viperidae, Walrus, Whale, Year. Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
The adzebills, genus Aptornis, were two closely related bird species, the North Island adzebill, Aptornis otidiformis, and the South Island adzebill, Aptornis defossor, of the extinct family Aptornithidae.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Agenian age is a period of geologic time (23.8—20 Ma) within the Miocene used more specifically with European Land Mammal Ages.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Allodesmus is an extinct genus of pinniped from the middle to late Miocene of California and Japan that belongs to the extinct pinniped family Desmatophocidae.
The Anatinae are a subfamily of the family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks).
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica.
The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.
The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
Aphelops is an extinct genus of rhinoceros endemic to North America during the Miocene through the Pliocene, living from 20.43—4.9 mya.
The Aquitanian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the oldest age or lowest stage in the Miocene.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Ardipithecus is a genus of an extinct hominine that lived during Late Miocene and Early Pliocene in Afar Depression, Ethiopia.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Arikareean North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 30,600,000 to 20,800,000 years BP, a period of.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Astaracian age is a period of geologic time, equivalent with the Middle Miocene and used more specifically with European Land Mammal Ages.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Barstovian North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 16,300,000 to 13,600,000 years BP, a period of.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The subfamily Borophaginae is an extinct group of canids called "bone-crushing dogs" that were endemic to North America during the Oligocene to Pliocene and lived roughly 36—2.5 million years ago and existing for about.
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
The Burdigalian is, in the geologic timescale, an age or stage in the early Miocene.
carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.
A caiman is an alligatorid crocodilian belonging to the subfamily Caimaninae, one of two primary lineages within Alligatoridae, the other being alligators.
Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only currently living family in the suborder Tylopoda.
The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
Carcharocles chubutensis, meaning "glorious shark of Chubut", from Ancient Greek: κλέϝος (kléwos) “glory/fame” + καρχαρίας (karkharías) “shark”, is an extinct species of prehistoric megatoothed sharks in the genus Carcharocles, that lived during Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene epochs, approximately 28 – 5 million years ago.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
The Chile Rise or Chile Ridge is an oceanic ridge, a tectonic divergent plate boundary between the Nazca and Antarctic Plates.
The Chile Triple Junction (or Chile Margin Triple Junction) is a geologic triple junction located on the seafloor of the Pacific Ocean off Taitao and Tres Montes Peninsula on the southern coast of Chile.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
The chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, or CHLCA, is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee) genera of Hominini.
The Clarendonian North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 13,600,000 to 10,300,000 years BP, a period of.
A cockatoo is a parrot that is any of the 21 species belonging to the bird family Cacatuidae, the only family in the superfamily Cacatuoidea.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
The Colhuehuapian age is a period of geologic time (21.0—17.5 Ma) within the Miocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
The Colloncuran age is a period of geologic time (15.5—13.8 Ma) within the Miocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
Colubridae (from Latin coluber, snake) is a family of snakes.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.
A cursorial organism is one that is adapted specifically to run.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) was an ocean drilling project operated from 1968 to 1983.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Dryolestoidea is an extinct clade of Mesozoic mammals that only contains two orders.
The Early Miocene (also known as Lower Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages: the Aquitanian and Burdigalian stages.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
The Elapidae (ἔλλοψ éllops, "sea-fish") are a family of venomous snakes found in the tropics and subtropics around the world, with terrestrial forms in Asia, Australia, Africa, North America, and South America as well as marine forms in the Pacific and Indian oceans.
Entelodonts — sometimes facetiously termed hell pigs or terminator pigs — are an extinct family of pig-like omnivores of the forests and plains of North America, Europe, and Asia from the middle EoceneI.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.
Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
The false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii), also known as Malayan gharial, Sunda gharial and tomistoma, is a freshwater crocodilian native to Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra and Java.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The Friasian age is a period of geologic time (16.3—15.5 Ma) within the Miocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
The geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
Gomphotheres are any members of the diverse, extinct taxonomic family Gomphotheriidae.
Gondwanatheria is an extinct group of mammals that lived in the Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica, during the Upper Cretaceous through the Miocene (and possibly much earlier, if Allostaffia is a member of this group).
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Hemingfordian North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 20,600,000 to 16,300,000 years BP.
Hemipristis serra is an extinct species of weasel shark which existed during the Miocene epoch.
The Hemphillian North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 10,300,000 to 4,900,000 years BP, a period of.
Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act collectively without centralized direction.
Herpetotheriidae is an extinct family of metatherians.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
The Huayquerian age is a period of geologic time (9.0—6.8 Ma) within the Miocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
Hypsodont is a pattern of dentition with high-crowned teeth and enamel extending past the gum line, providing extra material for wear and tear.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An inland sea (also known as an epeiric sea or an epicontinental sea) is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during periods of high sea level that result in marine transgressions.
The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Island Arc (print:, online) is a peer-reviewed quarterly scientific journal that was established in 1992, covering "Earth Sciences of Convergent Plate Margins and Related Topics".
The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.
The Journal of South American Earth Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
The Journal of Systematic Palaeontology (Print:, online) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of palaeontology published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the British Natural History Museum.
The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (JVP) was founded in 1980 at the University of Oklahoma by Dr.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
Kingsnakes are colubrid New World constrictors, members of the genus Lampropeltis, which include milk snakes and four other species.
Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.
The Langhian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, an age or stage in the middle Miocene epoch/series.
The Late Miocene (also known as Upper Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages.
The Laventan age is a period of geologic time (13.8 to 11.8 Ma) within the Miocene epoch of the Neogene, used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
This list of fossil sites is a worldwide list of localities known well for the presence of fossils.
Livyatan is an extinct genus of sperm whale containing one species: L. melvillei.
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.
A marine transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding.
The Mayoan age is a period of geologic time (11.8—10 Ma) within the Miocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megapiranha is an extinct serrasalmid characin fish from the Late Miocene (8–10 million years ago) Ituzaingó Formation of Argentina, described in 2009.
Merycoidodontoidea, sometimes called "oreodonts," or "ruminating hogs", is an extinct superfamily of prehistoric cud-chewing artiodactyls with short faces and fang-like canine teeth.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Messinian is in the geologic timescale the last age or uppermost stage of the Miocene.
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), also referred to as the Messinian Event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, was a geological event during which the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of partly or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian age of the Miocene epoch, from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma (million years ago).
Metatheria is a mammalian clade that includes all mammals more closely related to marsupials than to placentals.
The Middle Miocene is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages: the Langhian and Serravallian stages.
The term Middle Miocene disruption, alternatively the Middle Miocene extinction or Middle Miocene extinction peak, refers to a wave of extinctions of terrestrial and aquatic life forms that occurred around the middle of the Miocene, roughly 14 million years ago, during the Langhian stage of the Miocene.
Miohippus (meaning "small horse") was a genus of prehistoric horse existing longer than most Equidae.
The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.
Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Montehermosan age is a period of geologic time (6.8—4.0 Ma) within the Miocene and Pliocene epochs of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Mourasuchus is an extinct genus of giant, aberrant caiman from the Miocene of South America.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America.
Necrolestes ("grave robber" or "thief of the dead") is an extinct genus of non-therian mammals, which lived during the Early Miocene in what is now Argentine Patagonia.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
Nerodia is a genus of nonvenomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as water snakes due to their aquatic behavior.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nicholas Campbell Fraser (born 14 January 1956), known as Nicholas C. Fraser, is a British palaeontologist, academic, and museum curator.
Nimravidae is an extinct family of mammalian carnivores, sometimes known as false saber-toothed cats, whose fossils are found in North America, and Eurasia.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Oceanic dispersal is a type of biological dispersal that occurs when terrestrial organisms transfer from one land mass to another by way of a sea crossing.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
The Orleanian age is a period of geologic time (MN 3–5, (mya)), within the Miocene and used more specifically with European Land Mammal Ages.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Orrorin tugenensis is a postulated early species of Homininae, estimated at and discovered in 2000.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Pantherophis is a genus of nonvenomous colubrid snakes endemic to North America and Central America, commonly called ratsnakes or rat snakes.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Patagonia is an extinct genus of non-placental mammal from the Miocene of Argentina.
Pelagiarctos was a genus of walrus that lived during the Mid Miocene, approx.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
The Piacenzian is in the international geologic time scale the upper stage or latest age of the Pliocene.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
A piranha or piraña, a member of family Characidae in order Characiformes, is a freshwater fish that inhabits South American rivers, floodplains, lakes and reservoirs.
Pituophis is a genus of nonvenomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as gopher snakes, pine snakes, and bull snakes, which are endemic to North America.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Plovers are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Procyonidae is a New World family of the order Carnivora.
Purussaurus is an extinct genus of giant caiman that lived in South America during the Miocene epoch, from the Colhuehuapian to the Montehermosan in the SALMA classification.
Rhamphosuchus ("Beak crocodile") is an extinct relative of the modern false gharial.
Rhynchocephalia is an order of lizard-like reptiles that includes only one living species of tuatara, which in turn has two subspecies (Sphenodon punctatus punctatus and Sphenodon punctatus guntheri), which only inhabit parts of New Zealand.
River incision is the narrow erosion caused by a river or stream that is far from its base level.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct homininae species and is probably the ancestor to Orrorin that is dated to about, during the Miocene epoch, possibly very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence.
The Saint Bathans Fauna, or St Bathans Fauna, is found in the lower Bannockburn Formation of the Manuherikia Group of Central Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand.
The Saint Bathans mammal is a currently unnamed extinct mammal from the Miocene of New Zealand.
The Santacrucian age is a period of geologic time (17.5—16.3 Ma) within the Miocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The Serravallian is in the geologic timescale an age or a stage in the middle Miocene epoch/series, that spans the time between 13.65 ± 0.05 Ma and 11.608 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago).
Siamoperadectes is a genus of non-marsupial metatherian from the Miocene of Thailand.
In geology, a slab window is a gap that forms in a subducted oceanic plate when a mid-ocean ridge meets with a subduction zone and plate divergence at the ridge and convergence at the subduction zone continue, causing the ridge to be subducted.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Sparassodonta is an extinct order of carnivorous metatherian mammals native to South America.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Teleoceras is an extinct genus of grazing rhinoceros.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
The Journal of Geology publishes research on geology, geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences.
Thinobadistes is an extinct genus of ground sloth of the family Mylodontidae, endemic to North America during the Miocene-Pleistocene epochs.
The Tortonian is in the geologic timescale an age or stage of the late Miocene that spans the time between 11.608 ± 0.005 Ma and 7.246 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago).
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
The true owls or typical owls (family Strigidae) are one of the two generally accepted families of owls, the other being the barn owls (Tytonidae).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turolian age is a period of geologic time (9.0—5.3 Ma) within the Miocene used more specifically with European Land Mammal Ages.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The Vallesian age is a period of geologic time (11.6—9.0 Ma) within the Miocene used more specifically with European Land Mammal Ages.
The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.