338 relations: Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Absorbed dose, Activated carbon, Advances in Space Research, Air & Space/Smithsonian, Al Gore, Aleksandr Kaleri, Aleksandr Laveykin, Aleksandr Lazutkin, Aleksandr Nikolayevich Balandin, Aleksandr Panayotov Aleksandrov, Aleksandr Serebrov, Aleksandr Viktorenko, Almaz, Amateur radio, Amateur radio operator, Ampere, Ampere hour, Anatoly Solovyev, Anatomical terms of location, Androgynous Peripheral Attach System, Andy Thomas, Antenna (radio), Apollo 1, Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, Armageddon (1998 film), Armageddon – Les Effets Speciaux, Artificial gravity, Astronaut, Astronomy, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Atmospheric pressure, Attitude control, Background radiation, Baikonur, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 200, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81, BBC, Biology, Boris Yeltsin, Buran (spacecraft), Buran programme, Carbohydrate, Cataract, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chemical oxygen generator, Chromosome, ..., Circulatory system, Claudie Haigneré, Cleanroom, Cognac, Committee on Space Research, Confidence trick, Contact (1997 American film), Control moment gyroscope, Coolant, Coordinated Universal Time, Cosmic ray, Cosmonautics Day, Daniel Goldin, David Wolf (astronaut), Degree (angle), Deorbit of Mir, Dietitian, Direct current, Discover (magazine), Docking and berthing of spacecraft, Drag (physics), Effect of spaceflight on the human body, Encyclopedia Astronautica, Energia, Energia (corporation), English Americans, Equivalent dose, European Space Agency, Experiment, Extravehicular activity, Extremophile, Fat, Fiji, Film studio, Fire extinguisher, Flatulence, Flight engineer, Franz Viehböck, Gennady Padalka, George H. W. Bush, Government Accountability Office, Gravity-gradient stabilization, Gray (unit), Gyrodine, Gyroscope, Helen Sharman, Henry Danger, Hertz, History of Russia (1991–present), Houston, Human biology, Igla (spacecraft docking system), Immune system, Immunity (medical), Inch of mercury, International Space Station, ISS ECLSS, Ivan Bella, Jean-Loup Chrétien, Jean-Pierre Haigneré, Jerry M. Linenger, John E. Blaha, Johnson Space Center, Kazakhstan, Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Kiev, Klaus-Dietrich Flade, Korolyov, Moscow Oblast, Kristall, Kurs (docking navigation system), Kvant-1, Kvant-2, Laboratory, Labyrinth, Launch vehicle, Léopold Eyharts, Leonid Kizim, Life support system, Lira (ISS), List of government space agencies, List of International Space Station visitors, List of Mir visitors, Low Earth orbit, Luch (satellite), Lyappa arm, Lymphocyte, Manned Maneuvering Unit, Meteor shower, Meteorology, Metres above sea level, Michael Foale, Michel Tognini, Micro-g environment, Micrometeoroid, Mir Core Module, Mir Docking Module, Mir Environmental Effects Payload, Mir EO-12, Mir EO-19, Mir EO-2, Mir EO-21, Mir EO-23, Mir EO-24, Mir EO-4, Mir EO-5, Mir EO-6, Mir EO-7, Mir EO-8, Mir EP-2, Mir EP-3, Mir-2, MirCorp, Mission control center, Mission to Mir, Monogram (company), Moscow Time, Muhammed Faris, Multistage rocket, Muscle atrophy, Nadi, NASA, Nautical mile, NewsBank, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nikolai Budarin, Norman Thagard, Orbital decay, Orbital station-keeping, Orlan space suit, Outer space, Pacific Ocean, Pascal (unit), Pavel Vinogradov, PBS, Perseids, Physician, Physics, Pound (mass), Pounds per square inch, Priroda, Progress (spacecraft), Progress 7K-TG, Progress M-18, Progress M-34, Progress M1-5, Progress-M, Progress-M1, Project Juno, Project West Ford, Protein, Proton (rocket family), Proton-K, Quail, Radiation, Radio, Red blood cell, Reinhold Ewald, Research, Revell, Revolutions per minute, RKA Mission Control Center, Rocket, Roscosmos, RT (TV network), Russia, Russian Orbital Segment, Salyut 1, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Salyut programme, Satellite, Satellite bus, Sergei Avdeyev, Sergei Krikalev, Sergei Zalyotin, Shannon Lucid, Shuttle–Mir Program, Sievert, Skeleton, Skylab, South Atlantic Anomaly, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz T-15, Soyuz TM-1, Soyuz TM-10, Soyuz TM-11, Soyuz TM-13, Soyuz TM-14, Soyuz TM-15, Soyuz TM-16, Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-19, Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21, Soyuz TM-22, Soyuz TM-23, Soyuz TM-24, Soyuz TM-25, Soyuz TM-27, Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-29, Soyuz TM-30, Soyuz TM-7, Soyuz TM-8, Soyuz TM-9, Soyuz-T, Soyuz-TM, Space architecture, Space debris, Space exploration, Space Race, Space rendezvous, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle orbiter, Space station, Space Station Freedom, Space toilet, Spacecraft, Spaceflight osteopenia, Spectrometer, Spektr, Stationary bicycle, Strela (crane), STS-60, STS-63, STS-71, STS-74, STS-76, STS-79, STS-81, STS-84, STS-86, STS-89, STS-91, Sunita Williams, Synthetic-aperture radar, Talgat Musabayev, Telemetry, Television studio, Thomas Reiter, Tidal force, TKS (spacecraft), Tommy Bartlett Exploratory, Tonne, TORU, Toyohiro Akiyama, Tracking ship, Treadmill, Ukraine, Ulf Merbold, Ultra high frequency, Ultraviolet astronomy, Uncontrolled decompression, United States dollar, United States House of Representatives, US-A, UTC+03:00, Valentin Glushko, Valeri Polyakov, Valery Korzun, Vasily Tsibliyev, VBK-Raduga, Vienna, Vika oxygen generator, Viktor Afanasyev (cosmonaut), Viktor Chernomyrdin, Vladimir Chelomey, Vladimir Solovyov (cosmonaut), Vodka, Volt, Warsaw Pact, Weightlessness, Wired (magazine), Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, X-ray telescope, Yelena Kondakova, Yuri Baturin, Yuri Koptev, Yury Romanenko, Zarya, Zvezda (ISS module), 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 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Abdul Ahad Mohmand (born January 1, 1959) is a former Afghan Air Force aviator who became the first Afghan citizen and fourth Muslim to journey to outer space.
Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Advances in Space Research (ASR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published 27 times per year by Elsevier.
Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine is a bimonthly magazine put out by the National Air and Space Museum.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Aleksandr Yuriyevich "Sasha" Kaleri (Александр Юрьевич Калери; born Jūrmala, Latvian SSR, USSR, 13 May 1956) is a Russian cosmonaut and veteran of extended stays on the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station (ISS).
Aleksandr Ivanovich Laveykin (Александр Иванович Лавейкин; born April 21, 1951) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Lazutkin (Александр Иванович Лазуткин; born October 30, 1957) is a Russian cosmonaut.
Aleksandr Nikolayevich Balandin (Александр Николаевич Баландин) (born July 30, 1953) is a Russian cosmonaut.
Aleksandr Panayotov Aleksandrov (Александър Панайотов Александров) (born December 1, 1951) is a retired Bulgarian cosmonaut.
Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Serebrov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Серебро́в, February 15, 1944 – November 12, 2013) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
Aleksandr Stepanovich Viktorenko (Александр Степанович Викторенко) is a Soviet cosmonaut.
The Almaz (Алмаз, "Diamond") program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program, begun in the early 1960s.
Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.
An amateur radio operator is someone who uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other amateur operators on radio frequencies assigned to the amateur radio service.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol Ah; also denoted A⋅h or A h) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.
Anatoly Yakovlevich Solovyev (Анатолий Яковлевич Соловьёв; born January 16, 1948 – alternate spelling "Solovyov") is a retired Russian and Soviet cosmonaut and pilot.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The terms Androgynous Peripheral Attach System (APAS), Androgynous Peripheral Assembly System (APAS) and Androgynous Peripheral Docking System (APDS), are used interchangeably to describe a family of spacecraft docking mechanisms, and are also sometimes used as a generic name for any docking system in that family.
Andrew "Andy" Sydney Withiel Thomas, AO (born 18 December 1951 in Adelaide, South Australia) is an Australian-born American aerospace engineer and a NASA astronaut. He became a U.S. citizen in December 1986, hoping to gain entry to NASA's astronaut program. He is married to fellow NASA astronaut Shannon Walker.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon.
The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) (Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time.
Armageddon is a 1998 American science fiction disaster film directed by Michael Bay, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, and released by Touchstone Pictures.
Armageddon – Les Effets Speciaux is an attraction located in Walt Disney Studios Park at Disneyland Paris.
Artificial gravity (sometimes referred to as pseudogravity) is the creation of an inertial force that mimics the effects of a gravitational force, usually by rotation.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Baikonur (translit; translit), formerly known as Leninsk (also, see Tyuratam), is a city of republic significance in Kazakhstan on the Northern bank of the Syr Darya river, rented and administered by the Russian Federation.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Site 200 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used by Proton rockets.
Site 81 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used, along with Site 200, by Proton rockets.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen via a chemical reaction.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Claudie (André-Deshays) Haigneré (born 13 May 1957) is a French doctor, politician, and former astronaut with the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (1985–1999) and the European Space Agency (1999–2002).
A cleanroom or clean room is a situation, ordinarily utilized as a part of assembling, including of pharmaceutical items or logical research, and in addition aviation semiconductor building applications with a low level of natural toxins, for example, tiny, airborne organisms, vaporized particles, and concoction vapors.
Cognac is a variety of brandy named after the town of Cognac, France.
The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) was established by the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 1958.
A confidence trick (synonyms include con, confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam and stratagem) is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust.
Contact is a 1997 American science fiction drama film directed by Robert Zemeckis.
A control moment gyroscope (CMG) is an attitude control device generally used in spacecraft attitude control systems.
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.
Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001.
David Alexander Wolf (born August 23, 1956) is an American astronaut, medical doctor, electrical engineer.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
The deorbit of Mir was the controlled atmospheric re-entry of the modular Russian space station Mir which was carried out on 23 March 2001.
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.
Docking and berthing of spacecraft is the joining of two space vehicles.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Humans venturing into the environment of space can have negative effects on the body.
The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel.
Energia (Энергия, Energiya, "Energy") (GRAU 11K25) was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
A flight engineer (FE), also sometimes called an air engineer, is the member of an aircraft's flight crew who monitors and operates its complex aircraft systems.
Franz Artur Viehböck (born August 24, 1960 in Vienna) is an Austrian electrical engineer, and was Austria's first cosmonaut.
Gennady Ivanovich Padalka (Гeннадий Иванович Падалка; born 21 June 1958 in Krasnodar, Russia) is a Russian Air Force officer and an RKA cosmonaut.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Gravity-gradient stabilization (a.k.a. "tidal stabilization") is a method of stabilizing artificial satellites or space tethers in a fixed orientation using only the orbited body's mass distribution and gravitational field.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
is a top-down vertical helicopter scrolling shooter for the Nintendo Entertainment System/Family Computer, MSX and arcade developed by Crux and published by Taito in 1984.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Helen Patricia Sharman, CMG, OBE, HonFRSC (born 30 May 1963) is a British chemist who became the first British astronaut and the first woman to visit the Mir space station in 1991.
Henry Danger is an American comedy television series created by Dan Schneider and Dana Olsen that premiered on Nickelodeon on July 26, 2014.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
The history of Russia from 1991 to the present began with the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991, and the establishment of the Russian Federation.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.
The Igla (Игла, "Needle") docking system was a Soviet radio telemetry system for automated docking of Soyuz spacecraft.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Inch of mercury (inHg and ″Hg) is a unit of measurement for pressure.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a life support system that provides or controls atmospheric pressure, fire detection and suppression, oxygen levels, waste management and water supply.
Ivan Bella (born 25 May 1964 in Brezno, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia)) is a Slovak Air Force officer who became the first Slovak citizen to fly in space.
Jean-Loup Jacques Marie Chrétien (born 20 August 1938) is a French retired Général de Brigade (brigadier general) in the Armée de l'Air (French air force), and a former CNES spationaut.
Jean-Pierre Haigneré (born 19 May 1948) is a French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut.
Jerry Michael Linenger (born January 16, 1955) is a retired Captain in the United States Navy Medical Corps, and a former NASA astronaut who flew on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Mir.
John Elmer Blaha (born August 26, 1942, in San Antonio, Texas) is a retired United States Air Force colonel and a former NASA astronaut.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (ГКНПЦ им. М. В. Хру́ничева in Russian) is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Klaus-Dietrich Flade (born August 23, 1952) is a German pilot and former German Aerospace Center astronaut who visited the Mir space station in 1992 aboard the Soyuz TM-14 mission, returning to Earth a week later aboard Soyuz TM-13.
Korolyov or Korolev (p) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration.
The Kristall (Кристалл; Crystal) (77KST, TsM-T, 11F77T) module was the fourth module and the third major addition to the Mir space station.
Kurs (Ukrainian and translit) is a radio telemetry system used by the Soviet and later Russian space program.
Kvant-1 (Квант-1; English: Quantum-I/1) (37KE) was the first module to be attached in 1987 to the Mir Core Module, which formed the core of the Soviet space station Mir.
Kvant-2 (Квант-2; English: Quantum-II/2) (77KSD, TsM-D, 11F77D) was the third module and second major addition to the Mir space station.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Greek: Λαβύρινθος labyrinthos) was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
Léopold Eyharts (born April 28, 1957) is a French Brigadier General in the French Air Force, an engineer and ESA astronaut.
Leonid Denisovich Kizim (Кизим Леонид Денисович) (August 5, 1941 – June 14, 2010) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
In human spaceflight, a life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in space.
The Lira system (Лира) is a two-way communication system used between the International Space Station and Mission Control via the Russian ''Luch'' relay satellite constellation, also known as Altair.
This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.
This is a list of all of the visitors to the International Space Station (ISS), including long-term crew, short-term visitors, and space tourists, in alphabetical order.
This is a list of visitors to the Mir space station in alphabetical order.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The Luch (Луч; lit. Ray) Satellite Data Relay Network (SDRN), also referred to as Altair and Gelios, is a series of geosynchronous Russian relay satellites, used to transmit live TV images, communications and other telemetry from the Soviet/Russian space station Mir, the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) of the International Space Station and other orbital spacecraft to the Earth, in a manner similar to that of the US Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System.
The Lyappa (or Ljappa) arm was a robotic arm used during the assembly of the Soviet/Russian space station Mir.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) is an astronaut propulsion unit that was used by NASA on three Space Shuttle missions in 1984.
A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate, or originate, from one point in the night sky.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Colin Michael Foale (born 6 January 1957) is a British-American astrophysicist and former NASA astronaut.
Michel Ange-Charles Tognini (born September 30, 1949 in Vincennes, France) is a French test pilot, Brigadier General in the French Air Force, and a former CNES and ESA astronaut who serves from 01.01.2005 to 01.11.2011 as Head of the European Astronaut Centre of the European Space Agency.
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram.
Mir (Мир lit: Peace), DOS-7, was the first module of the Soviet/Russian Mir space station complex, in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
The Stykovochnyy Otsek (стыковочный отсек, Docking compartment), GRAU index 316GK, otherwise known as the Mir docking module or SO, was the sixth module of the Russian space station Mir, launched in November 1995 aboard the.
The Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP) was a set of four experiments installed on the Russian space station Mir from March 1996 to October 1997 to study the effects of space debris impacts and exposure to the space environment on a variety of materials.
Mir EO-12 (Мир ЭО-12, also known as Principal Expedition 12) was the twelfth manned expedition to the space station Mir, lasting from July 1992 until February 1993.
Mir EO-19 (Мир ЭО-19, also known as Principal Expedition 19) was the nineteenth manned expedition to the space station Mir, lasting from June to September 1995.
Mir EO-2 (also called Mir Principal Expedition 2) was the second long duration expedition to the Soviet space station Mir, and it lasted from February to December 1987.
Mir EO-21 was a long-duration mission aboard the Russian Space station Mir, which occurred between February and September 1996.
Mir EO-23 was the 23rd long-duration mission to Russia's Mir space station.
Mir EO-24 was the 24th long-duration mission to Russia's Mir space station.
Mir EO-4 (also called Principal Expedition 4) was the fourth long-duration expedition to the Soviet space station Mir.
Mir EO-5 was the 5th long duration expedition to the space station Mir, which lasted from September 1989 to February 1990.
Mir EO-6 was the sixth long duration expedition to the space station Mir.
Mir EO-7 was the seventh long duration expedition to the space station Mir.
Mir EO-8 (Мир ЭО-19) was the eighth manned expedition to the space station Mir, lasting from December 1990 to May 1991.
Mir EP-2 was a visiting expedition to the Mir space station conducted in June 1988 by cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyev, Viktor Savinykh and Aleksandr Aleksandrov.
Mir EP-3 was a week-long manned spaceflight to the Soviet space station Mir, during the long-duration expedition Mir EO-3.
Mir-2 was a space station project which began in February 1976.
MirCorp was a commercial space company created in 1999 by space entrepreneurs and involving the Russian space program that successfully undertook a number of firsts in the business of space exploration by using the aging Russian space station Mir as a commercial platform.
A mission control center (MCC, sometimes called a flight control center or operations center) is a facility that manages space flights, usually from the point of launch until landing or the end of the mission.
Mission to Mir is a 1997 documentary film about the Mir Space Station.
Monogram has been a premier maker of scale plastic models of aircraft, spacecraft, ships, cars, and military vehicles since the early 1950s.
Moscow Time (Моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg.
Muhammed Ahmed Faris (محمد أحمد فارس Muḥammad ʾAḥmad Fāris; born 26 May 1951) is a Syrian military aviator.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
Nadi (pronounced) is the third-largest conurbation in Fiji.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as exactly.
NewsBank is a news database resource which provides archives of media publications as reference materials to libraries.
The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
Nikolai Mikhailovich Budarin (Николай Михайлович Бударин) (born April 29, 1953 in Kirya, Chuvashia) is a retired Russian cosmonaut, a veteran of three extended space missions aboard the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station.
Norman Earl Thagard (born July 3, 1943), (Capt, USMC, Ret.), is an American scientist and former U.S. Marine Corps officer and naval aviator and NASA astronaut.
In orbital mechanics, decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods.
In astrodynamics, the orbital maneuvers made by thruster burns that are needed to keep a spacecraft in a particular assigned orbit are called orbital station-keeping.
Cosmonaut Maksim Surayev next to two Orlan-MK models on the International Space Station The Orlan space suit (Орлан meaning sea eagle) is a series of semi-rigid one-piece space suit models designed and built by NPP Zvezda.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Pavel Vladimirovich Vinogradov (Павел Владимирович Виноградов; born August 31, 1953 in Magadan, USSR) is a cosmonaut and former commander of the International Space Station.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Perseids are prolific meteor showers associated with the comet Swift–Tuttle.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.
The Priroda (Природа; Nature) (TsM-I, 77KSI, 11F77I) module was the seventh and final module of the Mir Space Station.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Progress 7K-TG (Прогресс 7К-ТГ, GRAU index 11F615A15), was a Soviet unmanned spacecraft used to resupply space stations in low Earth orbit.
Progress M-18 (italic) was a Russian cargo unmanned spacecraft which was launched in 1993 to resupply the Mir space station.
Progress M-34 (italic) was a Russian unmanned cargo spacecraft which was launched in 1997 to resupply the Mir space station, and which subsequently collided with Mir during a docking attempt, resulting in significant damage to the space station.
Progress M1-5 was the Progress spacecraft which was launched by Russia in 2001 to deorbit the fifteen-year-old Mir space station before it naturally fell from orbit, potentially landing in a populated area.
Progress-M (Прогресс-М, GRAU indices 11F615A55 and 11F615A60), also known as Progress 7K-TGM, is a Russian, previously Soviet spacecraft which is used to resupply space stations.
Progress-M1 (Прогресс-М1, GRAU indices 11F615A55 and 11F615A70), also known as Progress 7K-TGM1, is a Russian spacecraft which is used to resupply space stations.
Project Juno was a private British space programme which selected Helen Sharman to be the first Briton in space.
Project West Ford (also known as Westford Needles and Project Needles) was a test carried out by Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory on behalf of the United States Military in 1961 and 1963 to create an artificial ionosphere above the Earth.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
The Proton-K, also designated Proton 8K82K after its GRAU index, 8K82K, was a Russian, previously Soviet, carrier rocket derived from the earlier Proton.
Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Revell is the well-known brand name today used by two distinct manufacturers of scale plastic models.
Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.
The RKA Mission Control Center (Центр управления полётами), also known by its acronym ЦУП (TsUP) is the mission control center of the Russian Federal Space Agency.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed in Russia and operated by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos).
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.
Salyut 6 (Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme.
Salyut 7 (Салют-7; Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based.
Sergei Vasilyevich Avdeyev (Сергей Васильеви Авдеев, born 1 January 1956) is a Russian engineer and cosmonaut.
Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev (Серге́й Константинович Крикалёв, also transliterated as Sergei Krikalyov; born August 27, 1958) is a Russian cosmonaut and mechanical engineer.
Sergei Viktorovich Zalyotin (Серге́й Викторович Залётин; born April 21, 1962) is a Russian cosmonaut and a veteran of two space missions.
Shannon Matilda Wells Lucid (born January 14, 1943) is an American biochemist and a retired NASA astronaut.
The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle, and an American astronaut flying aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to engage in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is an area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, dipping down to an altitude of.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
Soyuz T-15 (Союз T-15, Union T-15) was a manned mission to the Mir and Salyut 7 space stations and was part of the Soyuz programme.
Soyuz TM-1 was an unmanned test flight of the Soyuz-TM spacecraft, intended for use in the Mir space station program.
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations.
Soyuz TM-11 was the eleventh expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir, using a Soyuz-TM crew transport vessel.
Soyuz TM-13 was the 13th expedition to Mir space station.
Soyuz TM-14 was the 14th expedition to the Mir space station.
Soyuz TM-15 was the 15th expedition to the Mir space station.
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi- meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations.
Soyuz TM-17 was a Russian mission to the space station Mir, launched on July 1, 1993.
Soyuz TM-18 was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome and landed 112 km north of Arkalyk.
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations.
Soyuz TM-2 was the spacecraft used to launch a long duration crew to the Soviet space station Mir, which was unmanned at the time.
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations.
Soyuz TM-21 was Soyuz mission, a human spaceflight mission transporting personnel to the Russian space station Mir.
Soyuz TM-22 was the 23rd manned spacecraft mission to visit the Soviet Space Station Mir.
Soyuz TM-23 was the 25th manned spacecraft to visit the Soviet Space Station Mir.
Soyuz TM-24 was the 27th expedition to Mir.
Soyuz TM-25 was the 30th manned spacecraft mission to visit the Russian Space Station Mir.
Soyuz TM-27 is a Russian spacecraft that ferried cosmonauts and supplies to the Mir, the Russian space station.
TM-28 was a Soyuz mission to the Mir space station.
Soyuz TM-29 was a Russian manned spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Soyuz 11A511U rocket.
Soyuz TM-30 (Союз ТМ-30, Union TM-30), also known as Mir EO-28, was a Soyuz mission, the 39th and final human spaceflight to the Mir space station.
Soyuz TM-7 was the seventh manned spacecraft to dock with the Soviet Space Station Mir.
Soyuz TM-8 was a spacecraft used to launch and land the crew of the fifth long duration crew to the Soviet Space Station Mir.
Soyuz TM-9 was the ninth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.
The Soyuz-T (Союз-T, Union-T) spacecraft was the third generation Soyuz spacecraft, in service for seven years from 1979 to 1986.
Space architecture, in its simplest definition, is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Space Shuttle orbiter was the spaceplane component of the Space Shuttle, a partially reusable orbital spacecraft system that was part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
Space Station Freedom was a NASA project to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting space station in the 1980s.
A space toilet, or zero gravity toilet is a toilet that can be used in a weightless environment.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spaceflight osteopenia refers to the characteristic bone loss that occurs during spaceflight.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
Spektr (Спектр; Spectrum) (TKM-O, 77KSO, 11F77O) was the fifth module of the Mir Space Station.
A stationary bicycle (also known as exercise bicycle, exercise bike, spinning bike, or exercycle) is a device with saddle, pedals, and some form of handlebars arranged as on a bicycle, but used as exercise equipment rather than transportation.
The Strela (Russian Стрела, means Arrow) cranes are four Russian built cargo cranes used during EVAs to move cosmonauts and components around the exterior of the Soviet/Russian space station Mir and the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station.
STS-60 was the first mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, which carried Sergei K. Krikalev, the first Russian cosmonaut to fly aboard a Space Shuttle.
STS-63 was the first mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, which carried out the first rendezvous of the American Space Shuttle with Russia's space station Mir.
STS-71 was the third mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program and the first Space Shuttle docking to Russian space station Mir.
STS-74 was the fourth mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, and the second docking of the Space Shuttle with Mir.
STS-76 was NASA's 76th Space Shuttle mission, and the 16th mission for ''Atlantis''.
STS-79 was the 17th flight of Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'', and the 79th mission of the Space Shuttle program.
STS-81 was a January 1997 Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'' mission to the Mir space station.
STS-84 was a manned spaceflight mission by Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'' to the Mir space station.
STS-86 was a Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'' mission to the Mir space station.
STS-89 was a space shuttle mission to the Mir space station flown by Space Shuttle '' Endeavour'', and launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 22 January 1998.
STS-91 was the final Space Shuttle mission to the Mir space station.
Sunita Pandya Williams (born September 19, 1965) is an American astronaut and United States Navy officer of Indo-Slovenian descent.
Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar that is used to create two- or three-dimensional images of objects, such as landscapes.
Talgat Amangeldyuly Musabayev (Талғат Аманкелдіұлы Мұсабаев; born 7 January 1951) is a Kazakh test pilot and former cosmonaut who flew on three spaceflights.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
A television studio, also called a television production studio, is an installation room in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production.
Thomas Arthur Reiter (born 23 May 1958 in Frankfurt, West Germany) is a retired European astronaut and is a Brigadier General in the German Air Force currently working as ESA Interagency Coordinator and Advisor to the Director General at the European Space Agency (ESA).
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
The TKS spacecraft (Транспортный корабль снабжения., Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station.
The Tommy Bartlett Exploratory is an attraction in Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin with over 150 interactive science displays.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
TORU (rus. Телеоператорный Режим Управления - Teleoperated Mode of (spacecraft) Control) system is a manual docking system of Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft that serves as a backup to the automatic Kurs system.
is a Japanese TV journalist best known for his flight to the Mir space station aboard a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in 1990.
A tracking ship, also called a missile range instrumentation ship or range ship, is a ship equipped with antennas and electronics to support the launching and tracking of missiles and rockets.
A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running or climbing while staying in the same place.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy.
Uncontrolled decompression is an unplanned drop in the pressure of a sealed system, such as an aircraft cabin or hyperbaric chamber, and typically results from human error, material fatigue, engineering failure, or impact, causing a pressure vessel to vent into its lower-pressure surroundings or fail to pressurize at all.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
Upravlyaemy Sputnik Aktivnyy (Управляемый Спутник Активный for Controlled Active Satellite), or US-A, also known in the west as Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite or RORSAT, was a series of Soviet reconnaissance satellites.
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03.
Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.
Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov (Валерий Владимирович Поляков, born Valeri Ivanovich Korshunov on April 27, 1942) is a former Russian cosmonaut.
Valery Grigoryevich Korzun (Валерий Григорьевич Корзун, born 5 March 1953) is a Russian cosmonaut.
Vasily Vasiliyevich Tsibliyev (Василий Василиевич Циблиев); born on February 20, 1954) is a Russian cosmonaut. He was selected as a cosmonaut on March 26, 1987. Tsibliyev flew as Commander on Soyuz TM-17 from July 1, 1993 to January 14, 1994 and on Soyuz TM-25 from February 2, 1997 to August 14 of the same year. He retired on June 19, 1998. Tsibliyev is currently Chief of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center at Star City, Russia. Tsibliyev is married with two children. Tsibliyev was the commander in charge of Mir when it was hit by a Progress spacecraft in 1997.
The VBK-Raduga capsule was a reentry capsule that was used for returning materials to Earth's surface from the space station Mir.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vika or TGK is an oxygen generating system for spaceflight.
Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev Виктор Михайлович Афанасьев; born 31 December 1948) is a colonel in the Russian Air Force and a test cosmonaut of the Yu. A. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. He was born December 31, 1948, in Bryansk, Russia, and is married to Yelena Ya. Afanasyeva, born 1952. They have two children. His father, Mikhail Z. Afanasyev, is deceased. His mother, Marya S. Afanasyeva, resides in Merkulyevo, Bryansk region, Russia. His recreational interests include football, swimming, and tourism.
Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin (Ви́ктор Степа́нович Черномы́рдин,; 9 April 19383 November 2010) was a Russian politician.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
Vladimir Alekseyevich Solovyov (Влади́мир Алексе́евич Соловьёв; born 11 November 1946) is a former Soviet cosmonaut.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
Wisconsin Dells is a city in south-central Wisconsin, with a population of 2,678 people as of the 2010 census.
An X-ray telescope (XRT) is a telescope that is designed to observe remote objects in the X-ray spectrum.
Yelena Vladimirovna Kondakova (Елена Владимировна Кондакóва; born March 30, 1957) was the third Soviet/Russian female cosmonaut to travel to space and the first woman to make a long-duration spaceflight.
Yuri Mikhailovich Baturin (Юрий Михайлович Батурин (born 12 June 1949, Moscow, Soviet Union), is a Russian cosmonaut and former politician.http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/cosmonauts/english/baturin_yuri.htm Baturin graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1973, and is the former head of National Security; he is also an author in constitutional law. Baturin was also a cosmonaut who flew on two missions. His first spaceflight, sometimes called Mir EP-4, was launched with the spacecraft Soyuz TM-28 13 August 1998, and landed with Soyuz TM-27. He was a Research Cosmonaut for this mission, which lasted for 11 days 19 hours 39 minutes. His second spaceflight was ISS EP-1, which was launched with the spacecraft Soyuz TM-32 on April 28, 2001, and landed with Soyuz TM-31. This mission was notable as carrying to first paying space tourist Dennis Tito. For this mission he was designated a Flight Engineer; the mission lasted for 7 days 22 hours and 4 minutes. He married Svetlana Veniaminovna Polubinskaya, (born 1954); they had a daughter, Alexandra Yurievna Baturina, (born 1982), a student at the Moscow State Academy of Law.
Yuri Nikolayevich Koptev (Юрий Николаевич Коптев, March 13, 1940, Stavropol) is a former General Director of the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos), serving in that role from 1992 to 2004.
Yury Viktorovich Romanenko (Ю́рий Ви́кторович Романе́нко, Jurij Viktorovič Romanenko; born August 1, 1944) is a former Soviet cosmonaut, twice Hero of the Soviet Union (March 16, 1978 and September 26, 1980).
Zarya (Dawn), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the Funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok or ФГБ), is the first module of the International Space Station to be launched.
Zvezda (Звезда́, meaning "star"), DOS-8, also known as the Zvezda Service Module, is a component of the International Space Station (ISS).
The 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held from 25 February to 6 March 1986 in Moscow.