119 relations: Abbas Gharabaghi, Abolhassan Banisadr, Advisor to the President of Iran, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Velayati, Ali Khamenei, Ali Shariati, Alzahra University, Amnesty International, Arabic, Assembly of Experts, Association of Combatant Clerics, Azerbaijani language, Barack Obama, Basij, BBC, Behesht-e Zahra, Chancellor, Che Guevara, Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Constitutional monarchy, Council of the Islamic Revolution, Death of Neda Agha-Soltan, East Azerbaijan Province, Economy of Iran, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Electoral fraud, Emad Afroogh, Expediency Discernment Council, Financial Times, Freedom Movement of Iran, Frontline (U.S. TV series), General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Guidance Patrol, Habibollah Peyman, Hassan Firouzabadi, Hassan Rouhani, Hosseiniyeh Ershad, House arrest, Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Iran, Iran–Contra affair, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Academy of the Arts, Iranian architecture, Iranian Azerbaijanis, Iranian constitutional referendum, 1989, Iranian Cultural Revolution, Iranian Green Movement, ..., Iranian presidential election, 1989, Iranian presidential election, 2005, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian presidential election, 2013, Iranian presidential election, October 1981, Iranian Reformists, Iranian Revolution, Islamic Association of Students, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic republic, Islamic Republic News Agency, Islamic Republican (newspaper), Islamic Republican Party, Khamaneh, List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Iran, List of Prime Ministers of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud Taleghani, MEED, Mehdi Bazargan, Mehdi Karroubi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iran), Ministry of Interior (Iran), Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Mohammad Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein Sharifzadegan, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad-Ali Rajai, Mohammad-Javad Bahonar, Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mohsen Rafighdoost, Mojtaba Samareh Hashemi, Mostafa Chamran, Mostazafan Foundation, Motion of no confidence, Movement of Militant Muslims, Nuclear program of Iran, Order of Independence (Iran), Persian language, President of Iran, Press TV, Prime Minister of Iran, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sadegh Mahsouli, Sayyid, Shahid Beheshti University, Shiraz, Sohrab Aarabi, Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, Supreme leader, Supreme Leader of Iran, Tabriz, Taraneh Mousavi, Tarbiat Modares University, Tasnim News Agency, Tehran, Tehran Bureau, The Green Path of Hope, The Holocaust, Tunisian Revolution, United Press International, Voucher, Women's rights in Iran, Yadollah Sahabi, Zahra Rahnavard, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Gharabaghi (1 November 1918 – 14 October 2000) was the last chief of staff of the Iranian armed forces as well as deputy commander-in-chief of the Iranian Imperial Army during the rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
Seyyed Abolhassan Banisadr (Seyyed Abolhasan Banisadr; born 22 March 1933) is an Iranian politician and economist.
Advisor to the President of Iran (مشاور رئیسجمهور ایران) is an official appointed by the President of Iran with the responsibility to aid him as a consultant.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Ali Akbar Velayati (علیاکبر ولایتی; born 24 June 1945, Tehran) is an Iranian physician and conservative politician.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Shariati Mazinani (علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion.
Alzahra University (in Persian: دانشگاه الزهرا) is a female-only state-run university in Vanak, Tehran, Tehran Province, Iran.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari) —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Association of Combatant Clerics (majma'-e rowhāniyūn-e mobārez) is an Iranian reformist clerical political party.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Behesht-e Zahra (بهشت زهرا,The Paradise of Zahra, from Fatima az-Zahra), is the largest cemetery in Iran.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Farmandeye Koll-e Qova (فرمانده کل قوا), formerly known as Bozorg Arteshtaran (بزرگارتشتاران), is the supreme commanding authority of all the Armed Forces of Iran and the highest possible military position within the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Council of the Islamic Revolution (Šūrā-ye enqelāb-e eslāmī) was a group formed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to manage the Iranian Revolution on 10 January 1979, shortly before he returned to Iran.
Footage of the death of Nedā Āghā-Soltān (نِدا آقاسُلطان – Nedā Āġā Soltān; 23 January 1983 – 20 June 2009) drew worldwide attention after she was shot dead during the 2009 Iranian election protests.
East Azerbaijan Province (استان آذربایجان شرقی Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; شرقی آذربایجان اوستانی) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Emad Afroogh (born 1956) is an Iranian sociologist and conservative politician.
The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The Freedom Movement of Iran (FMI) or Liberation Movement of Iran (LMI; Nahżat-e āzādi-e Irān) is an Iranian pro-democracy political organization which was founded in 1961, by members describing themselves as "Muslims, Iranians, Constitutionalists and Mossadeghists".
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (ستاد کل نیروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the most senior military body in Iran, with an aim to implement policy, monitor and coordinate activities within the Armed Forces.
Guidance Patrol (گشت ارشاد, gašt-e eršād; also known as morality police) is a kind of vice squad in the Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran, established in 2005 with the task to arrest mostly women (but also some men) who deem improperly dressed according to the dress code.
Habibollah Peyman (born 1935 in Shiraz, Iran) is an Iranian politician.
Hassan Firouzabadi (حسن فيروزآبادی) is an Iranian ophthalmologist and retired military officer who is currently a member of the Expediency Discernment Council, and a senior military advisor to the Supreme Leader of Iran.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
The Hosseinieh Ershad or Hosseiniyeh Ershad (حسینیه ارشاد) is a non-traditionalist religious institute established by Nasser Minachi in Tehran, Iran.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iranian Academy of Arts (IAA) (Persian: فرهنگستان هنر ایران; formally Academy of Arts of the Islamic Republic of Iran) was established in March 2000.
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Iranian Azerbaijanis (ایران آذربایجانلیلاری – İran azərbaycanlıları), also known as Iranian Azeris, Iranian Turks, Persian Turks, Azeri Turks, Azerbaijani Turks or Persian Azerbaijanis, are Iranians of Azerbaijani ethnicity who speak the Azerbaijani language as their first language.
A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 28 July 1989, alongside presidential elections.
The Cultural Revolution (1980–1983) (انقلاب فرهنگی.) was a period following the Iranian Revolution, when the academia of Iran was purged of Western and non-Islamic influences (even traditionalist unpolitical Islamic doctrines) to bring it in line with the revolutionary and Political Islam.
The Iranian Green Movement (جنبش سبز ایران), also known as the Persian Awakening or Persian Spring by the western media, refers to a political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office.
The Iranian presidential election of 1989 took place on July 28, 1989, after the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the selection of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the previous President of Iran, as the new Supreme Leader of Iran.
Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013.
The Iranian presidential election of October 1981, took place on 2 October 1981, after the assassination of Mohammad-Ali Rajai, the previous President of Iran, during the interim premiership of Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani.
The Iranian reformists (Eslâh-Talabân) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Anjoman-e Eslami (Islamic Association, also Anjoman-e Eslami-ye Daneshjouyan Islamic Association of Students) is an Islamic student association in Iran that has backed Iranian reformers such as former President Mohammad Khatami and sponsored lectures by Abdol Karim Soroush and other prominent reformists.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
The Islamic Republic News Agency (خبرگزاری جمهوری اسلامی), or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Jomhouri-e Eslami (جمهوری اسلامی) is an official Iranian newspaper, which started its work on 30 May 1979, as the newspaper of Islamic Republic Party.
The Islamic Republican Party (IRP; Ḥezb-e Jomhūrī-e Eslāmī, also translated Islamic Republic Party) formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran.
Khamaneh (خامنه; also Romanized as Khāmeneh, Khamaneh, and Khāmneh; also known as Khumla and Khumna) is a city in the Central District of Shabestar County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran and a member of the Cabinet.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Iran from the creation of the office in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution, until 1989 when the post was abolished after the constitutional referendum.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Mahmoud Taleghani (محمود طالقانی,; 5 March 1911 – 9 September 1979) was an Iranian theologian, Muslim reformer, democracy advocate and a senior Shi'a cleric of Iran.
MEED, abbreviated from the former name Middle East Economic Digest, is a business intelligence tool for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing analysis and commentary on Middle Eastern markets, companies, people and data on the regional projects market.
Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان; 1 September 1907 – 20 January 1995) was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
Mehdi Karroubi (Mehdī Karrūbĩ, born 26 September 1937) is an Iranian Shia cleric and reformist politician leading the National Trust Party.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (وزارت امور خارجه Vezārat-e Omūr-e Khārejeh) is an Iranian government ministry headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who is a member of cabinet.
The Ministry of Interior (وزارت کشور) of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in charge of performing, supervising and reporting elections, policing, and other responsibilities related to an interior ministry.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی; 24 October 1928 – 28 June 1981) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution.
Mohammad Hossein Sharifzadegan (محمدحسین شریفزادگان) is an Iranian reformist politician.
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha (born 1942) is an Iranian cleric and secretary general of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammad-Ali Rajai (محمدعلی رجائی; 15 June 1933 – 30 August 1981) was the second President of Iran from 2 to 30 August 1981 after serving as prime minister under Abolhassan Banisadr.
Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر, 5 September 1933 – 30 August 1981) was a Shia Iranian theologian and politician who served as the Prime minister of Iran for less than one month in August 1981.
Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani (محمدرضا مهدوی کنی., 6 August 1931 – 21 October 2014) was an Iranian cleric, writer and conservative politician who was Acting Prime Minister of Iran from 2 September until 29 October 1981.
Mohsen Makhmalbaf (محسن مخملباف, Mohsen Makhmalbaaf; born May 29, 1957) is an Iranian film director, writer, film editor, and producer.
Mohsen Rafighdoost (also Rafiqdoost, محسن رفیقدوست) is an Iranian Revolutionary Guards military officer and politician.
Mojtaba Samareh Hashemi is an Iranian politician.
Mostafa Chamran Save'ei (مصطفی چمران ساوهای) (8 March 1932 – 21 June 1981, Tehran, Iran) was an Iranian physicist, politician, commander and guerrilla who served as the first defense minister of post-revolutionary Iran and as member of parliament, as well as the commander of paramilitary volunteers in Iran–Iraq War, known as "Irregular Warfare Headquarters".
The Mostazafan Foundation of Islamic Revolution (بنیاد مستضعفان انقلاب اسلامی) formerly Bonyad-e Mostazafan va Janbazan (Foundation of the Oppressed and Disabled or "MFJ") is a charitable bonyad, or foundation, in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the second-largest commercial enterprise in Iran behind the state-owned National Iranian Oil Company Originally printed in Forbes, Retrieved 15 May 2009 and biggest holding company in the Middle East.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The Movement of Militant Muslims (جنبش مسلمانان مبارز) is an Iranian Islamic socialist political group led by Habibollah Payman.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
The Excellent Order of Independence (نشان عالی استقلال) is an Iranian state order to recognize "taking important offices and playing a key role in achieving high goals of the Islamic Republic of Iran with all–lateral effort in enlightening positions, distinguished innovations to reach self–sufficiency and independence in different aspects, saving the government from potential threats, helping global proliferation of Islamic revolution principles and other valuable services in critical and decisive periods of time".
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Sadegh Mahsouli (صادق محصولی, born 9 March 1959) is an Iranian politician who was Minister of Interior from 2008 to 2009 and Minister of Welfare and Social Security from 2009 to 2011.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Shahid Beheshti University is one of the most prestigious universities in Iran.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Sohrab Aarabi (also spelled Arabi) (rtl Sohrāb A'rābī; 23 February 1990 – 15 June 2009) was a 19-year-old Iranian pro-democracy student whose death became a symbol of protests during 2009 post election unrests in Iran.
Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution (SCRC; شورای عالی انقلاب فرهنگی, also translated the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council) is a conservative-dominated body based in Qom, was set up at the time of Ayatollah Khomeini.
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Taraneh Mousavi (1981–2009) (Persian: ترانه موسوی) is said to be a young Iranian woman who reportedly died after being sexually abused while in custody after being arrested for protesting the 2009 election results.
Tarbiat Modares University (دانشگاه تربیت مدرس Dāneshgāh-e Tarbiyat Modares, lit. "Professor Training University") is an exclusively graduate university with its main campus in Tehran, Iran.
Tasnim News Agency is a private news agency in Iran launched in 2012.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tehran Bureau is an online news magazine covering politics, foreign affairs, culture and society in Iran and the Iranian Diaspora.
The Green Path of Hope (شورای هماهنگی راه سبز امید) is an Iranian association established by Iranian presidential campaign candidate, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, on August 15, 2009, as the organizational body of Green Movement.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
A voucher is a bond of the redeemable transaction type which is worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods.
In the Annals of history dating back to the great Achaemenid Empire (2000 – 550 BCE), women in Iran have, for the most part, been subordinate to men.
Yadollah Sahabi (25 February 1905 – 12 April 2002) was a prominent Iranian scholar, writer, reformist and politician.
Zahra Rahnavard (زهرا رهنورد; born Zohreh Kazemi; 19 August 1945) is an Iranian academic, artist and politician.
Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.
Hossein Ismail Mousavi, Hossein Mousavi, Massavi, Mir Hosein Mousavi, Mir Hossein Mousavi, Mir Hossein Moussavi, Mir Hussein Mousavi, Mir Hussein Moussavi, Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh, Mir-Hossein Moussavi, Mir-Hussein Mussavi, Mir-hossein Mousavi, Mirhossein Mousavi, Mirhossein Moussavi, Mousavi, Moussavi, Mousvai, میرحسین موسوی خامنه.