328 relations: A Bar at the Folies-Bergère, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acoustic mirror, Adaptive optics, Al-Andalus, Albrecht Dürer, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Alloy, Amalgam (chemistry), Amorphous metal, Amorphous solid, Amplifier, Amusement park, Anamorphosis, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Angle, Angle of incidence (optics), Anish Kapoor, Anjou, Quebec, Aranmula kannadi, Archimedes, Arnolfini Portrait, Artifact (error), Astronomy, Atomic mirror, Atomic radius, Édouard Manet, Bandwidth (signal processing), Beam divergence, Beam splitter, Bimetallic strip, Bohemia, Bondo, Switzerland, Bonobo, Bottlenose dolphin, Breakfast of Champions, Bronze mirror, Candle, Candyman (film), Catalysis, Chimpanzee, Chinese culture, Chinese magic mirror, Chirality (mathematics), Christian biblical canons, Christmas ornament, Classical antiquity, ..., Coating, Coherence (physics), Cold mirror, Collimated light, Color rendering index, Concentrated solar power, Corner reflector, Corrosion, Curved mirror, Cutting board, Cylinder, Dallas, David Brewster, Deformable mirror, Deposition (aerosol physics), Diego Velázquez, Dielectric, Dielectric mirror, Diffraction-limited system, Digital Light Processing, Digital micromirror device, Diocles (mathematician), Diogenes, Disco ball, Discovery Channel, Disk laser, Distorting mirror, Dungeons & Dragons, Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Electromagnetic radiation, Electroplating, Elephant, Engineering tolerance, Eurasian magpie, Evaporation (deposition), Fabry–Pérot interferometer, Fairy tale, Feng shui, Fern, Field of view, Filippo Brunelleschi, First surface mirror, Flatness (manufacturing), Flatness (mathematics), Float glass, Focus (optics), Fresnel equations, Frida Kahlo, Glass, Gold leaf, Gorilla, Great Ape Project, Greek mythology, H. P. Lovecraft, Han dynasty, Hand with Reflecting Sphere, Heliotrope (instrument), High-definition television, Hollow-Face illusion, Holography, Hominidae, Honeycomb mirror, Hot mirror, House of mirrors, How It's Made, Human, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Sahl (mathematician), Illusion, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Industrial Revolution, Infinite regress, Infinity mirror, Infrared, Inorganic compound, Interferometry, Interior design, István Orosz, Jaguar Cars, Jan van Eyck, Jeppe Hein, John Hancock Tower, Jonathan Miller, Jonty Hurwitz, Jorge Luis Borges, Journal of Physics B, Justus von Liebig, Kaleidoscope, Killer whale, Know thyself, Koko (gorilla), Kurt Vonnegut, Lantern, Las Meninas, Laser, Lead glass, Lekythos, Leonardo da Vinci, Lewis Carroll, Light, Limestone, Liquid crystal, Liquid crystal on silicon, Liquid-crystal display, List of art media, List of Picasso artworks 1931–40, List of telescope parts and construction, M. C. Escher, Magic (illusion), Magic Mirror (Snow White), Magical objects in Harry Potter, Magnification, Mammal, Manganese, Mangin mirror, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Matter wave, Maze, McGraw-Hill Education, Mechanic, Mesopotamia, Micrometre, Microwave, Military, Miniseries, Mirror armour, Mirror image, Mirror Mirror: A History of the Human Love Affair With Reflection, Mirror stage, Mirror test, Mirror writing, Mirrors (film), Mirrors in Mesoamerican culture, Modern architecture, Mouth mirror, Murano, MythBusters, Nanometre, Narcissus (mythology), NASA, National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Natural History (Pliny), New Kingdom of Egypt, Non-reversing mirror, Obsidian, Optical aberration, Optical cavity, Optical flat, Optical isolator, Optics, Orangutan, Oscar Wilde, Output coupler, Pablo Picasso, Paint, Paolo Veronese, Parabolic reflector, Parabolic trough, Parallel (geometry), Parking lot, Passivity (engineering), Pepper's ghost, Perfect mirror, Periscope, Personal grooming, Photography, Pier glass, Pixel, Plane mirror, Plane wave, Plasma (physics), Plate glass, Pliny the Elder, Poltergeist III, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Portrait, Postmodern architecture, Potash, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Psychoanalysis, Ptolemy, Public art, Qijia culture, Radar, Radiant energy, Radio telescope, Rafael Viñoly, Ray (optics), Rear-view mirror, Red-figure pottery, Redox, Reflectance, Reflection (physics), Refraction, Refractive index, Rembrandt, Renaissance, Review of Scientific Instruments, Rhodium, Rjukan, Road junction, Saint-Gobain, Sapphire, Schott AG, Scotland, Screen printing, Search and rescue, Second law of thermodynamics, Self-portrait, Selfie, Semiconductor, Seth Wulsin, Shopping cart, Sidon, Silicon dioxide, Silicone, Silver nitrate, Silvering, Sky Mirror, Snell's law, Snow White, Socrates, Sodium carbonate, Solar power, Solar power tower, Solar sail, Sound, Space heater, Special relativity, Spectrophobia, Spectrophotometry, Specular holography, Specular reflection, Speculum metal, Sphere, Spherical aberration, Spherical geometry, Sputtering, Stained glass, Stephen King, Surface roughness, Survival kit, Telescope, Texas Instruments, The 10th Kingdom, The Lady of Shalott, The Picture of Dorian Gray, The Reaper's Image, Thermal expansion, Thermal shock, Through the Looking-Glass, Tin, Tin(II) chloride, Titian, Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius, TLV mirror, Toxicity, Transmittance, Tunable laser, Vacuum deposition, Vdara, Vehicle blind spot, Venice, Venus effect, Video camera, Video projector, Viganella, Vincent van Gogh, Virtual image, Visible spectrum, Volcanic glass, Wavelength, X-ray, X-ray laser, X-ray optics, Zinc selenide, 1 Corinthians 13, 20 Fenchurch Street. 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A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Un bar aux Folies Bergère), painted and exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1882, is considered the last major work of French painter Édouard Manet.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
An acoustic mirror is a passive device used to reflect and focus (concentrate) sound waves.
Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes.
Anamorphosis is a distorted projection or perspective requiring the viewer to use special devices or occupy a specific vantage point (or both) to reconstitute the image.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal.
Sir Anish Mikhail Kapoor, (born 12 March 1954) is a British sculptor.
Anjou is a borough (arrondissement) of the city of Montreal.
Aranmula kannadi (ആറന്മുളക്കണ്ണാടി, meaning the Aranmula mirror) is a handmade metal-alloy mirror, made in Aranmula, a small town in the state of Kerala, India.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
The Arnolfini Portrait (or The Arnolfini Wedding, The Arnolfini Marriage, the Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife, or other titles) is a 1434 oil painting on oak panel by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck.
In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any error in the perception or representation of any information, introduced by the involved equipment or technique(s).
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
In physics, an atomic mirror is a device which reflects neutral atoms in the similar way as a conventional mirror reflects visible light.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.
The beam divergence of an electromagnetic beam is an angular measure of the increase in beam diameter or radius with distance from the optical aperture or antenna aperture from which the electromagnetic beam emerges.
A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two.
A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bondo (Buond) is a village and a former municipality in the district of Maloja in the Swiss canton of Grisons.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Breakfast of Champions, or Goodbye Blue Monday, published in 1973, is the seventh novel by the American author Kurt Vonnegut.
Bronze mirrors preceded the glass mirrors of today.
A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance.
Candyman is a 1992 American supernatural slasher film written and directed by Bernard Rose.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
The Chinese magic mirror is an ancient art that can be traced back to the Chinese Han dynasty (206 BC – 24 AD).
In geometry, a figure is chiral (and said to have chirality) if it is not identical to its mirror image, or, more precisely, if it cannot be mapped to its mirror image by rotations and translations alone.
A Christian biblical canon is the set of books that a particular Christian denomination or denominational family regards as being divinely inspired and thus constituting an authorised Christian Bible.
Christmas ornaments, baubles or "christmas balls" are decorations (usually made of glass, metal, wood, or ceramics) that are used to festoon a Christmas tree.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
A cold mirror is a specialized dielectric mirror, a dichroic filter, that reflects the entire visible light spectrum while very efficiently transmitting infrared wavelengths.
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
A color rendering index (CRI) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source.
Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area.
A corner reflector is a retroreflector consisting of three mutually perpendicular, intersecting flat surfaces, which reflects waves back directly towards the source, but translated.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A curved mirror is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface.
A cutting board is a durable board on which to place material for cutting.
A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
Sir David Brewster KH PRSE FRS FSA(Scot) FSSA MICE (11 December 178110 February 1868) was a British scientist, inventor, author, and academic administrator.
Deformable mirrors (DM) are mirrors whose surface can be deformed, in order to achieve wavefront control and correction of optical aberrations.
In aerosol physics, deposition is the process by which aerosol particles collect or deposit themselves on solid surfaces, decreasing the concentration of the particles in the air.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
A dielectric mirror, also known as a Bragg mirror, is a type of mirror composed of multiple thin layers of dielectric material, typically deposited on a substrate of glass or some other optical material.
The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.
Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a display device based on optical micro-electro-mechanical technology that uses a digital micromirror device.
The digital micromirror device, or DMD, is a micro-opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) that is the core of the trademarked DLP projection technology from Texas Instruments (TI).
Diocles (Διοκλῆς; c. 240 BC – c. 180 BC) was a Greek mathematician and geometer.
Diogenes (Διογένης, Diogenēs), also known as Diogenes the Cynic (Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Diogenēs ho Kunikos), was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy.
A disco ball (also known as a mirror ball or glitter ball) is a roughly spherical object that reflects light directed at it in many directions, producing a complex display.
Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.
A disk laser or active mirror (Fig.1) is a type of diode pumped solid-state laser characterized by a heat sink and laser output that are realized on opposite sides of a thin layer of active gain medium.
A distorting mirror, funhouse mirror or carnival mirror is a popular attraction at carnivals and fairs.
Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&DMead, Malcomson; ''Dungeons & Dragons'' FAQ or DnD) is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game (RPG) originally designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson.
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in.
The Eurasian magpie or common magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout northern part of Eurasian continent.
Evaporation is a common method of thin-film deposition.
In optics, a Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) or etalon is typically made of a transparent plate with two reflecting surfaces, or two parallel highly reflecting mirrors.
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is folklore genre that takes the form of a short story that typically features entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
The field of view is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment.
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.
A first surface mirror or front surface mirror (also commonly abbreviated FS mirror or FSM) is a mirror with the reflective surface being above a backing, as opposed to the conventional, second surface mirror with the reflective surface behind a transparent substrate such as glass or acrylic.
In manufacturing and mechanical engineering, flatness is an important geometric condition for workpieces and tools.
In mathematics, the flatness (symbol: ⏥) of a surface is the degree to which it approximates a mathematical plane.
Float glass is a sheet of glass made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten metal, typically tin, although lead and various low melting point alloys were used in the past.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel coefficients) describe the reflection and transmission of light (or electromagnetic radiation in general) when incident on an interface between different optical media.
Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón; July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits, and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Great Ape Project (GAP), founded in 1993, is an international organization of primatologists, anthropologists, ethicists, and others who advocate a United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Great Apes that would confer basic legal rights on non-human great apes: chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American writer who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hand with Reflecting Sphere also known as Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror is a lithograph print by Dutch artist M. C. Escher, first printed in January 1935.
The heliotrope is an instrument that uses a mirror to reflect sunlight over great distances to mark the positions of participants in a land survey.
High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.
The Hollow-Face illusion (also known as Hollow-Mask illusion) is an optical illusion in which the perception of a concave mask of a face appears as a normal convex face.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
A honeycomb mirror is a large mirror usually used as the primary mirror in astronomical reflecting telescopes whose face is supported by a ribbed structure that resembles a honeycomb.
A hot mirror is a specialized dielectric mirror, a dichroic filter, often employed to protect optical systems by reflecting infrared light back into a light source, while allowing visible light to pass.
A house of mirrors or hall of mirrors is a traditional attraction at funfairs (carnivals) and amusement parks.
How It's Made (Comment c'est fait in Quebec) is a documentary television series that premiered on January 6, 2001, on the Discovery Channel in Canada, and Science in the United States.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ibn Sahl (full name Abū Saʿd al-ʿAlāʾ ibn Sahl أبو سعد العلاء ابن سهل; c. 940–1000) was a Muslim Persian mathematician and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age, associated with the Buwayhid court of Baghdad.
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of proposition P3,...
An infinity mirror is a pair of parallel mirrors, which create a series of smaller and smaller reflections that appear to recede to infinity.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.
István Orosz (born 24 October 1951 in Kecskemét) is a Hungarian painter, printmaker, graphic designer and animated film director.
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England and owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.
Jan van Eyck (before c. 1390 – 9 July 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges.
Jeppe Hein (born 1974, Copenhagen, Denmark) is an artist based in Berlin and Copenhagen.
200 Clarendon Street, previously John Hancock Tower and colloquially known as The Hancock, is a 60-story, skyscraper in Boston.
Sir Jonathan Wolfe Miller, CBE (born 21 July 1934) is an English theatre and opera director, actor, author, television presenter, humourist, and medical doctor.
Jonty Hurwitz (born 2 September 1969 in Johannesburg) is an artist, engineer and entrepreneur.
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.
The Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published biweekly by IOP Publishing.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
A kaleidoscope is an optical instrument with two or more reflecting surfaces tilted to each other in an angle, so that one or more (parts of) objects on one end of the mirrors are seen as a regular symmetrical pattern when viewed from the other end, due to repeated reflection.
The Ancient Greek aphorism "know thyself" (Greek: γνῶθι σεαυτόν, transliterated: gnōthi seauton; also... … sauton with the ε contracted), is one of the Delphic maxims and was inscribed in the pronaos (forecourt) of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi according to the Greek writer Pausanias (10.24.1).
Hanabiko "Koko" (July 4, 1971 – June 19, 2018) was a female western lowland gorilla who was known for having learned a large number of hand signs from a modified version of American Sign Language (ASL).
Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.
Today, English-speakers use the term lantern to describe many types of portable lighting, but lanterns originated as a protective enclosure for a light source—usually a candle or a wick in oil—to make it easier to carry and hang up, and more reliable outdoors or in drafty interiors.
Las Meninas (Spanish for The Ladies-in-waiting) is a 1656 painting in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, by Diego Velázquez, the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
A lekythos (plural lekythoi) is a type of Ancient Greek vessel used for storing oil (Greek λήκυθος), especially olive oil.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.
Liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS or LCOS) is a miniaturized reflective active-matrix liquid-crystal display or "microdisplay" using a liquid crystal layer on top of a silicon backplane.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
Art media is the material used by an artist, composer or designer to create a work of art.
Artworks by Pablo Picasso from 1931 to 1940.
Maurits Cornelis Escher (17 June 1898 – 27 March 1972) was a Dutch graphic artist who made mathematically-inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints.
Magic, along with its subgenres of, and sometimes referred to as illusion, stage magic or street magic is a performing art in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible feats using natural means.
The Magic Mirror is a mystical object that is featured in the story of Snow White.
The following is a list of magical objects used in the Harry Potter series.
Magnification is the process of enlarging the appearance, not physical size, of something.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
In optics, a Mangin mirror is a negative meniscus lens with the reflective surface on the rear side of the glass forming a curved mirror that reflects light without spherical aberration.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
A maze is a path or collection of paths, typically from an entrance to a goal.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A mechanic is a tradesman, craftsman, or technician who uses tools to build or repair machinery.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A miniseries (or mini-series, also known as a serial in the UK) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes.
Mirror armour (Russian: зерцало / zertsalo meaning "mirror"; Chinese: 护心镜 / hùxīnjìng, meaning "protect-heart mirror"), sometimes referred to as disc armour or as chahār-āyneh / char-aina (Persian: چهاﺮآﻳنه meaning "four mirrors"; hence Kazakh: шар-айна / şar-ayna), was a type of cuirass used mainly in Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe including Indian, Persia, Tibet, Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
A mirror image (in a plane mirror) is a reflected duplication of an object that appears almost identical, but is reversed in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface.
Mirror Mirror: A History of the Human Love Affair With Reflection is a 2003 nonfiction book written by American investigative journalist Mark Pendergrast.
The mirror stage (stade du miroir) is a concept in the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan.
The mirror test, sometimes called the mark test, mirror self-recognition test (MSR), red spot technique or rouge test is a behavioural technique developed in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. as an attempt to determine whether a non-human animal possesses the ability of visual self-recognition.
Mirror writing is formed by writing in the direction that is the reverse of the natural way for a given language, such that the result is the mirror image of normal writing: it appears normal when it is reflected in a mirror.
Mirrors is a 2008 supernatural horror film directed by Alexandre Aja, starring Kiefer Sutherland, Paula Patton, and Amy Smart.
The use of mirrors in Mesoamerican culture was associated with the idea that they served as portals to a realm that could be seen but not interacted with.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
A mouth mirror or dentist's mirror is an instrument used in dentistry.
Murano is a series of islands linked by bridges in the Venetian Lagoon, northern Italy.
MythBusters is an Australian-American science entertainment television program created by Peter Rees and produced by Australia's Beyond Television Productions.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
In Greek mythology, Narcissus (Νάρκισσος, Nárkissos) was a hunter from Thespiae in Boeotia who was known for his beauty.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Archaeological Museum (Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο) in Athens houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
A non-reversing mirror (sometimes referred to as a flip mirror) is a mirror that presents its subject as it would be seen from the mirror.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.
An optical cavity, resonating cavity or optical resonator is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave cavity resonator for light waves.
An optical flat is an optical-grade piece of glass lapped and polished to be extremely flat on one or both sides, usually within a few tens of nanometres (billionths of a meter).
An optical isolator, or optical diode, is an optical component which allows the transmission of light in only one direction.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
An output coupler (OC) is the component of an optical resonator that allows the extraction of a portion of the light from the laser's intracavity beam.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.
A parabolic trough is a type of solar thermal collector that is straight in one dimension and curved as a parabola in the other two, lined with a polished metal mirror.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
A parking lot (American English) or car park (British English), also known as a car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles.
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.
Pepper's ghost is an illusion technique used in the theatre, amusement parks, museums, television, and concerts.
A perfect mirror is a mirror that reflects light (and electromagnetic radiation in general) perfectly, and does not transmit or absorb it.
A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position.
Personal grooming (also called preening) is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
A pier glass or trumeau mirror is a mirror which is placed on a pier, i.e. a wall between two windows supporting an upper structure.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
A plane mirror is a mirror with a flat (planar) reflective surface.
In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave (also spelled planewave) is a wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plate glass, flat glass or sheet glass is a type of glass, initially produced in plane form, commonly used for windows, glass doors, transparent walls, and windscreens.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Poltergeist III is a 1988 American supernatural horror film and is the third and final entry in the original ''Poltergeist'' film series.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.
Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all.
The Qijia culture (2200 BC – 1600 BC) was an early Bronze Age culture distributed around the upper Yellow River region of Gansu (centered in Lanzhou) and eastern Qinghai, China.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Rafael Viñoly Beceiro (born 1944) is an Uruguayan architect.
In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.
A rear-view mirror (or rearview mirror) is a mirror in automobiles and other vehicles, designed to allow the driver to see rearward through the vehicle's rear window (rear windshield).
Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Review of Scientific Instruments is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Rjukan is a town and the administrative centre of Tinn municipality in Telemark, Norway.
A junction is where two or more roads meet.
Saint-Gobain S.A. is a French multinational corporation, founded in 1665 in Paris and headquartered on the outskirts of Paris, at La Défense and in Courbevoie.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Schott AG is an international manufacturing group of glass and glass-ceramics.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil.
Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
A self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist.
A selfie is a self-portrait photograph, typically taken with a smartphone which may be held in the hand or supported by a selfie stick.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Seth Wulsin (born in Spring Valley, NY) is an artist working primarily with space and light through large-scale, site-specific, ephemeral sculpture and drawing.
A shopping cart (American English) or trolley (British English), also known by a variety of other names, is a cart supplied by a shop, especially supermarkets, for use by customers inside the shop for transport of merchandise to the checkout counter during shopping.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.
Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance.
Sky Mirror is a public sculpture by artist Anish Kapoor.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
"Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale which is today known widely across the Western world.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
The solar power tower, also known as 'central tower' power plants or 'heliostat' power plants or power towers, is a type of solar furnace using a tower to receive the focused sunlight.
Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
A space heater is a device used to heat a single, small area.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
Spectrophobia (from Latin: spectrum, n. specio, an appearance, form, image of a thing; an apparition, spectre) or catoptrophobia (from Greek κάτοπτρον kátoptron, "mirror") is a kind of specific phobia involving a morbid fear of mirrors.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
Specular holography is a technique for making three dimensional imagery by controlling the motion of specular glints on a two-dimensional surface.
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
Speculum metal is a mixture of around two-thirds copper and one-third tin making a white brittle alloy that can be polished to make a highly reflective surface.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.
Spherical geometry is the geometry of the two-dimensional surface of a sphere.
Sputtering is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles, particularly gas ions in a laboratory.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, science fiction, and fantasy.
Surface roughness often shortened to roughness, is a component of surface texture.
A survival kit is a package of basic tools and supplies prepared in advance as an aid to survival in an emergency.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The 10th Kingdom is an American fairytale fantasy miniseries written by Simon Moore and produced by Britain's Carnival Films, Germany's Babelsberg Film und Fernsehen, and the USA's Hallmark Entertainment.
"The Lady of Shalott" is a ballad by the English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892), recounting The Lady's imprisonment in a tower, her escape and her eventual death.
The Picture of Dorian Gray is a philosophical novel by Oscar Wilde, first published complete in the July 1890 issue of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine.
"The Reaper's Image" is a horror story by American writer Stephen King, first published in Startling Mystery Stories in 1969 and collected in Skeleton Crew in 1985.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermal shock occurs when a thermal gradient causes different parts of an object to expand by different amounts.
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a novel by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865).
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tin(II) chloride, also known as stannous chloride, is a white crystalline solid with the formula 2.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
"Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius" is a short story by the 20th-century Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.
A TLV mirror is a type of bronze mirror that was popular during the Han Dynasty in China.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner.
Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule on a solid surface.
Vdara Hotel & Spa is a condo-hotel and spa located within the CityCenter complex across from Aria Resort & Casino on the Las Vegas Strip.
A blind spot in a vehicle is an area around the vehicle that cannot be directly observed by the driver while at the controls, under existing circumstances.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Venus effect is a phenomenon in the psychology of perception, named after various paintings of Venus gazing into a mirror, such as Diego Velázquez's Rokeby Venus, Titian's Venus with a Mirror, and Veronese's Venus with a mirror.
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.
A video projector is an image projector that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system.
Viganella is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about northwest of Verbania.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
In optics, a virtual image is an image formed when the outgoing rays from a point on an object always diverge.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Volcanic glass is the amorphous (uncrystallized) product of rapidly cooling magma.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
An X-ray laser is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.
X-ray optics is the branch of optics that manipulates X-rays instead of visible light.
Zinc selenide (ZnSe) is a light-yellow, solid compound comprising zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se).
1 Corinthians 13 is the thirteenth chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
20 Fenchurch Street is a commercial skyscraper in London that takes its name from its address on Fenchurch Street, in the historic City of London financial district.