165 relations: Adad-nirari I, Adad-nirari II, Ahlamu, Akhenaten, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Alalakh, Aleppo, Amarna letters, Amenhotep I, Amenhotep II, Amenhotep III, Amorites, Amurru kingdom, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, Apina, Aram-Naharaim, Aramaic language, Arameans, Armenian Highlands, Arrapha, Artashumara, Artatama I, Artatama II, Arzawa, Ashur, Ashur-nirari III, Ashur-uballit I, Ashvins, Assur, Assyria, Aziru, Ḫattušili III, Étienne Drioton, Šuppiluliuma I, Babylon, Babylonia, Balikh River, Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC), Boğazkale, Canaan, Carchemish, Chariot, Chronology of the ancient Near East, Crown prince, Cuneiform script, Ebla, Egyptians, ..., Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Emar, Ephraim Avigdor Speiser, Erbil, Eriba-Adad I, Euphrates, First Babylonian dynasty, German language, Gilukhipa, Hadad, Hama, Hattusa, Hittite cuneiform, Hittites, Hurrian language, Hurrians, Hurro-Urartian languages, Idrimi, Ilī-padâ, Inanna, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan migration, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indo-Iranians, Indra, Iron Age, Irridu, Isuwa, Kadesh (Syria), Kassites, Khabur (Euphrates), Khashshum, Kikkuli, Kirkuk, Kirta, Kizzuwatna, Late Bronze Age collapse, Levant, List of cities of the ancient Near East, Mari, Syria, Mesopotamia, Middle Assyrian Empire, Mitanni-Aryan, Mitra, Mount Lebanon, Muršili II, Mursili I, Mursili III, Naharin, Nahur, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Nineveh, Niya Kingdom, Nur-ili, Nuzi, Onomastics, Orontes River, Parshatatar, Pharaoh, Phoenicia, Phrygians, Piyassili, Puzur-Ashur III, Qatna, River source, Robert Drews, Salting the earth, Sanskrit, Seal (emblem), Shalmaneser I, Shalmaneser III, Shattiwaza, Shattuara, Shattuara II, Shaushtatar, Short chronology, Shupria, Shuru, Fars, Shuttarna I, Shuttarna II, Shuttarna III, Sin (mythology), Solstice, Syria (region), Tadukhipa, Taite, Taurus Mountains, Tel Megiddo, Tell Barri, Tell Brak, Tell Sabi Abyad, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Thutmose IV, Tigris, Tigris–Euphrates river system, Trade route, Trevor R. Bryce, Tudhaliya, Tukulti-Ninurta I, Tushratta, Tvastar, Ugarit, Urartian language, Urartu, Urshu, Utu, Varuna, Wasashatta, Washukanni, Winged sun, Yamhad, 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
Adad-nārārī I, rendered in all but two inscriptions ideographically as mdadad-ZAB+DAḪ, meaning “Adad (is) my helper,” (1307–1275 BC or 1295–1263 BC short chronology) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire.
Adad-nirari II (reigned from 911 to 891 BC) is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period.
Ahlamu or Aḫlamū (literally "Companions" or "Confederate"), were Semitic semi-nomads.
Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alalakh (Hittite: Alalaḫ) was an ancient city-state, a late Bronze Age capital in the Amuq River valley of Turkey's Hatay Province.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
Amenhotep I from Ancient Egyptian "jmn-ḥtp" or "yamānuḥātap" meaning "Amun is satisfied" or Amenophis I,, from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις,Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.126 additionally King Zeserkere (transliteration: Ḏśr-k-R), was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Amenhotep II (sometimes called Amenophis II and meaning Amun is Satisfied) was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Amurru was an Amorite kingdom established c. 2000 BC, in a region spanning present-day western and north-western Syria and northern Lebanon The first documented leader of Amurru was Abdi-Ashirta, under whose leadership Amurru was part of the Egyptian empire.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, known in Sumerian as Kur and in Akkadian as Irkalla, was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth".
Apina is a genus of moths of the Noctuidae family.
Aram-Naharaim (’Ǎram Nahărayim; Aramaic: ארם נהריים) is a region that is mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
Arrapha or Arrapkha (Akkadian: Arrapḫa, Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, أررابخا,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk.
Artashumara (Sanskrit Ṛta-smara, "he remembers Ṛta") was a pretender to the throne of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC.
Artatama I (Sanskrit: Ṛta-dhaman, "his abode is Ṛta") was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the late fifteenth century BC.
Artatama II (Sanskrit: Ṛta-dhaman, "his abode is Ṛta") was a usurper to the throne of king Tushratta of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC.
Arzawa in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC (roughly from late 15th century BC until the beginning of the 12th century BC) was the name of a region and a political entity (a "kingdom" or a federation of local powers) in Western Anatolia.
Ashur (אַשּׁוּר) was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah.
Aššur-nerari III, inscribed maš-šur-ERIM.GABA, “Aššur is my help,” was king of Assyria (1203–1198 BC or 1193–1187 BC).
Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), who reigned between 1365 and 1330 BC, was the first king of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC).
Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the 14th century BC.
Hattusili III (Hittite: "from Hattusa") was king of the Hittite empire (New Kingdom) c. 1267–1237 BC (short chronology timeline).
Étienne Marie Felix Drioton (21 November 1889 – 17 January 1961) was a French Egyptologist, archaeologist, and Catholic canon.
Suppiluliuma I or Suppiluliumas I was king of the Hittites (r. c. 1344–1322 BC (short chronology)).
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Balikh River (نهر البليخ) is a perennial river that originates in the spring of 'Ayn al-'Arus in Syria.
The Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC) was fought between Egyptian forces under the command of Pharaoh Thutmose III and a large rebellious coalition of Canaanite vassal states led by the king of Kadesh.
Boğazkale ("Gorge Fortress") is a district of Çorum Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, located from the city of Çorum.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Carchemish, also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš; Turkish: Karkamış; Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
The chronology of the ancient Near East provides a framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC.
Emar (modern Tell Meskene) is an archaeological site in Aleppo Governorate, northern Syria.
Ephraim Avigdor Speiser (January 24, 1902 – June 15, 1965) was a Jewish Polish-born American Assyriologist.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Eriba-Adad, inscribed mSU-dIM or mSU-d10 (" Adad has replaced"), was king of Assyria from 1392 BC to 1366 BC.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia (also First Babylonian Empire) is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gilukhipa, or more probable Kilu-Hepa in Hurrian language, in the Egyptian language Kirgipa (fl. early 14th c. BCE), was the daughter of Shuttarna II, king of Mitanni.
Hadad (𐎅𐎄), Adad, Haddad (Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age.
Hittite cuneiform is the implementation of cuneiform script used in writing the Hittite language.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, comprising only two known languages: Hurrian and Urartian, both of which were spoken in the Taurus mountains area.
Idrimi was the king of Alalakh in the 15th century BC (c. 1460–1400 BC).
Ilī-padâ or Ili-iḫaddâ, the reading of the name (m)DINGIR.PA.DA being uncertain, was a member of a side-branch of the Assyrian royal family who served as grand vizier, or sukkallu rabi’u, of Assyria, and also as king, or šar, of the dependent state of Ḫanigalbat around 1200 BC.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were an ethno-linguistic group who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irridu (Irrite) was a city in northwestern Mesopotamia, likely located between Harran and Carchemish.
Isuwa (transcribed Išuwa and sometimes rendered Ishuwa) was the ancient Hittite name for one of its neighboring Anatolian kingdoms to the east, in an area which later became the Luwian Neo-Hittite state of Kammanu.
Kadesh (also Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on or near the headwaters or a ford of the Orontes River.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory.
Khashshum, (also given as Ḫaššum, Hassu, Hassuwa or Hazuwan) was a Hurrian city-state, located in southern Turkey most probably on the Euphrates river north of Carchemish.
Kikkuli was the Hurrian "master horse trainer" (assussanni, virtually Sanskrit) of the land Mitanni" (LÚA-AŠ-ŠU-UŠ-ŠA-AN-NI ŠA KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI) and author of a chariot horse training text written in the Hittite language, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BCE).
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kirta is a legendary Amorite king.
Kizzuwatna (or Kizzuwadna; in Ancient Egyptian Kode or Qode), is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the 2nd millennium BC.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The earliest cities in history appear in the ancient Near East.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
*Mitra is the reconstructed Proto-Indo-Iranian name of an Indo-Iranian divinity from which the names and some characteristics of Rigvedic Mitrá and Avestan Mithra derive.
Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
Mursili II (also spelled Mursilis II) was a king of the Hittite Empire (New kingdom) c. 1321–1295 BC (short chronology).
Mursili I (sometimes transcribed as Murshili) was a king of the Hittites c. 1556–1526 BC (short chronology), and was likely a grandson of his predecessor, Hattusili I. His sister was Ḫarapšili and his wife was queen Kali.
Mursili III, also known as Urhi-Teshub, was a king of the Hittites who assumed the throne of the Hittite empire (New Kingdom) at Tarhuntassa upon his father's death around 1272 BC.
Naharin, MdC transliteration nhrn, was the Ancient Egyptian term for the kingdom of Mitanni during the New Kingdom period of the 18th Dynasty.
Nahur is a North Eastern suburb of Mumbai and it lies between Mulund and Bhandup.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Niya, Niye, and also Niy of Thutmose I's Ancient Egypt, also Nii of the Amarna letters, and Nihe, etc.
Nur-ili was the king of Assyria from 1466 BC to 1454 BC.
Nuzi (or Nuzu; Akkadian Gasur; modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq) was an ancient Assyrian Mesopotamian city southwest of the major Assyrian city of Arrapha (Karka modern Kirkuk in modern Al Ta'amim Governorate of Iraq), located near the Tigris river.
Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the origin, history, and use of proper names.
The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.
Parshatatar, Paršatar, Barattarna, or Parattarna was the name of a Hurrian king of Mitanni in the fifteenth century BC.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Piyassili (also transliterated as Piyaššili; died ca. 1315 BC), also known as Sarri-Kusuh (or Šarri-Kušuḫ), was a Hittite prince and a middle son of King Šuppiluliuma I—younger than the heir Arnuwanda II, but older than the eventual successor Muršili II and probably older than the ill-fated Zannanza too.
Puzur-Ashur III was the king of Assyria from 1503 BC to 1479 BC.
Qatna (modern: تل المشرفة, Tell al-Mishrifeh) is an ancient city located in Homs Governorate, Syria.
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.
Robert Drews (born March 26, 1936) is an American historian who is Professor of Classical Studies Emeritus at Vanderbilt University.
Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, is the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Shalmaneser I (Shulmanu-asharedu; 1274 BC – 1245 BC or 1265 BC – 1235 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365 - 1050 BC).
Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašurēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent" Sulmanu being an asuredu or divinity) was king of Assyria (859–824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II.
Shattiwaza (or Šattiwaza), alternatively referred to as Kurtiwaza or Mattiwaza, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC.
Shattuara, also spelled Šattuara, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mittani in the thirteenth century BC.
Shattuara II, also spelled Šattuara II, was the last known king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (Hanigalbat) in the thirteenth century BC, before the Assyrian conquest.
Shaushtatar (also spelled Šauštatar) was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fifteenth century BC.
The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.
Shupria (Shubria) or Arme-Shupria (Շուպրիա; Akkadian: Armani-Subartu from the 3rd millennium BC) was a Hurrian kingdom, known from Assyrian sources beginning in the 13th century BC, located in what is now known as the Armenian Highlands, to the southwest of Lake Van, bordering on Ararat proper.
Shuru (شورو, also Romanized as Shūrū) is a village in Horgan Rural District, in the Central District of Neyriz County, Fars Province, Iran.
Shuttarna I was an early king of the Mitanni.
Shuttarna II (or Šuttarna) was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the early 14th century BC.
Shuttarna III was a Mitanni king who reigned for a short period in the 14th century BC.
Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Tadukhipa, in the Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. 1382 BC–1342 BC) and his queen Juni, and niece of Artashumara.
Taite (called Taidu in Assyrian sources) was one of the capitals of the Mitanni Empire.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
Tel Megiddo (מגידו; مجیدو, Tell al-Mutesellim, "The Tell of the Governor") is an ancient city whose remains form a tell (archaeological mound), situated in northern Israel near Kibbutz Megiddo, about 30 km south-east of Haifa.
Tell Barri (ancient Kahat) is a tell, or archaeological settlement mound, in north-eastern Syria in the Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Tell Brak (Nagar, Nawar) was an ancient city in Syria; its remains constitute a tell located in the Upper Khabur region, near the modern village of Tell Brak, 50 kilometers north-east of Al-Hasaka city, Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Tell Sabi Abyad (تل صبي أبيض) is an archaeological site in the Balikh River valley in northern Syria.
Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
Trevor Robert Bryce (born 1940) is an Australian Hittitologist specializing in ancient and classical Near-eastern history.
Tudhaliya is the name of several Hittite kings.
Tukulti-Ninurta I (meaning: "my trust is in Ninurta"; reigned 1243–1207 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366 - 1050 BC).
Tushratta (Sanskrit Tvesa-ratha, "his chariot charges") was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten—approximately the late 14th century BC.
In the historical Vedic religion, (त्वष्टृ) is the artisan god or fashioner.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
The Urartian or Vannic language was spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in the region of Lake Van, with its capital near the site of the modern town of Van, in the Armenian Highland, modern-day Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
Urshu, Warsuwa or Urshum was a Hurrian-Amorite city-state in southern Turkey, probably located on the west bank of the Euphrates, and north of Carchemish.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
Varuna (IAST: वरुण, Malay: Baruna) is a Vedic deity associated first with sky, later with waters as well as with Ṛta (justice) and Satya (truth).
Wasashatta, also spelled Wasašatta, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mittani ca.
Washukanni (or Waššukanni) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni, from around 1500 BCE to the 13th century BCE.
The winged sun is a symbol associated with divinity, royalty and power in the Ancient Near East (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Persia).
Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria.
1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed is a nonfiction ancient history book written by Eric H. Cline and published in 2014 by Princeton University Press.
Hanigalbat, Hanilgabat, Hanilgalbat, Kingdom of Mitanni, Kingdom of Mitannia, Mitanni people, Mitannia, Mitannian, Mitannian Empire, Mitannians, Mitannis, Mittani, Mittanian, Mittanian empire, Mittanni.