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Index Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. [1]

324 relations: A Wind in the Door, Academy, Acetyl-CoA, Active transport, Adenine nucleotide translocator, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, ADP/ATP translocase, Adrenaline, Alanine, Albert Claude, Albert L. Lehninger, Alphaproteobacteria, Alzheimer's disease, Ammonia, Anaplerotic reactions, Anti-mitochondrial antibody, Antiporter, Apoptosis, Archamoebae, Arginine, Atovaquone, ATP synthase, Autism, Autotransplantation, Azide, Ångström, Bacteria, Barth syndrome, Base pair, Beta oxidation, Biodegradation, Bioenergetics, Biological membrane, Bipolar disorder, Brainwashing, Brown adipose tissue, Calcium in biology, Cancer, Carboxylation, Cardiolipin, Cardiovascular disease, Cattle, Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell fractionation, Cell growth, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Cellular differentiation, ..., Cellular noise, Cellular respiration, Charles Wallace Murry, Chemical energy, Chemiosmosis, Chloroplast, Chondriome, Chromosome, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, Citric acid cycle, Claudius Regaud, Coenzyme A, Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase, Coenzyme Q10, Concentration, Consciousness, CoRR hypothesis, Crista, Cryptosporidium, Cyanide, Cytochrome, Cytochrome c, Cytochrome c oxidase, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, David Keilin, Dementia, Diabetes mellitus, Dictyostelium, Diffusion, Diplomonad, DNA, Dominance (genetics), Egg cell, Electrochemical gradient, Electron, Electron cryotomography, Electron transport chain, Embryo, Endocrinology, Endocytosis, Endosymbiont, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Epilepsy, Eugene P. Kennedy, Eukaryote, Evolutionary biology, F-ATPase, Facilitated diffusion, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Fission (biology), Flagellum, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Fluorescence microscope, Friedreich's ataxia, Fritz Albert Lipmann, Fungus, Gene, Genetic code, Genetic recombination, Genome, George Lucas, Giardia lamblia, Glucagon, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glycerol phosphate shuttle, Glycolysis, Greek language, Guanosine triphosphate, Hans Adolf Krebs, Haplotype, Heart, Heinrich Otto Wieland, HeLa, Heme, Hepatocyte, Hereditary spastic paraplegia, Heteroplasmy, Hideaki Sena, Homeostasis, Hormone, Horror fiction, Human evolutionary genetics, Human mitochondrial genetics, Hydrogen ion, Hydrogenosome, Hydroxylation, Inhibitor protein, Inner mitochondrial membrane, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Integral membrane protein, Intermembrane space, Internet meme, Intron, Invertebrate, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Janus Green B, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, John E. Walker, Kearns–Sayre syndrome, Kynurenine, Lactic acid, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, Leonor Michaelis, Life skills, Ligase, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Liver, Long branch attraction, Lynn Margulis, Madeleine L'Engle, Malate-aspartate shuttle, Mammal, MELAS syndrome, Membrane potential, Membrane transport protein, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, Metabolite, Metamonad, Micrograph, Micrometre, Microorganism, Microsporidia, Midichloria, Mitochondrial biogenesis, Mitochondrial calcium uniporter, Mitochondrial disease, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrial Eve, Mitochondrial fission, Mitochondrial fusion, Mitochondrial matrix, Mitochondrial membrane transport protein, Mitochondrial permeability transition pore, Mitoplast, Mitosome, Molecular clock, Monoamine oxidase, Monocercomonoides, MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Muller's ratchet, Multicellular organism, Murinae, Muscle, Myofibril, Myopathy, Mytilidae, N-terminus, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating), Natural selection, Neanderthal, Nebenkern, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrite, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Non-Mendelian inheritance, Nuclear DNA, Nucleotide, Nymphaea alba, Oncocyte, Oncocytoma, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organelle, Organism, Otto Heinrich Warburg, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Oxymonad, Parabasalid, Parasite Eve, Parasite Eve (film), Parasite Eve (video game), Parasite Eve II, Parkinson's disease, Paternal mtDNA transmission, Paul D. Boyer, Pearson syndrome, Pediculus humanus, Pelagibacterales, Peptide, Pesticide, Peter D. Mitchell, Philip Siekevitz, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenomics, Pine, Pinophyta, Plastid, Point mutation, Polyadenylation, Population genetics, Porin (protein), Porphyrin, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein precursor, Protein subunit, Proteobacteria, Proteome, Protist, Pyruvate carboxylase, Pyruvic acid, Reactive oxygen species, Recent African origin of modern humans, Red blood cell, Redox, Reducing equivalent, Retinitis pigmentosa, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Richard Altmann, Rickettsia, RNA, RNA editing, Rotenone, San Diego State University, Schizophrenia, Science education, Science fantasy, Scientific American, Second messenger system, Secondary education, SERCA, Signal transduction, Spatiotemporal pattern, Sperm, Staining, Star Wars, Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Steroid, Striated muscle tissue, Stroke, Submitochondrial particle, Succinate dehydrogenase, Superoxide, Supravital staining, Symbiogenesis, Synaptic vesicle, Taxus, Tether (cell biology), The Force, Thermogenin, TIM/TOM complex, Time (magazine), Tissue (biology), TMEM143, Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Translocase, Translocase of the inner membrane, Transmission electron microscopy, Tryptophan, Ubiquitin, Uncoupling protein, Unified atomic mass unit, Uniparental inheritance, University of Alabama, University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Very low-density lipoprotein, Vimentin, Wilson's disease, Y chromosome, Yeast, Zygote. Expand index (274 more) »

A Wind in the Door

A Wind in the Door is a young adult science fantasy novel by Madeleine L'Engle.

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An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Active transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.

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Adenine nucleotide translocator

Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exhanges free ATP with free ADP across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

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Adenosine diphosphate

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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ADP/ATP translocase

ADP/ATP translocases, also known as adenine nucleotide translocases (ANT) and ADP/ATP carrier proteins (AAC), are transporter proteins that enable the exchange of cytosolic adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free ADP is transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, while ATP produced from oxidative phosphorylation is transported from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytoplasm, thus providing the cells with its main energy currency. ADP/ATP translocases are exclusive to eukaryotes and are thought to have evolved during eukaryogenesis. Human cells express four ADP/ATP translocases: SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6 and SLC25A31, which constitute more than 10% of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. These proteins are classified under the mitochondrial carrier superfamily.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Albert Claude

Albert Claude (24 August 1899 – 22 May 1983) was a Belgian medical doctor and cell biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade.

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Albert L. Lehninger

Albert Lester Lehninger (February 17, 1917 – March 4, 1986) was an American biochemist in the field of bioenergetics.

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Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy).

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anaplerotic reactions

Anaplerotic reactions (from the Greek.

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Anti-mitochondrial antibody

Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria, primarily the mitochondria in cells of the liver.

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An antiporter (also called exchanger or counter-transporter) is a cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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The Archamoebae are a group of protists originally thought to have evolved before the acquisition of mitochondria by eukaryotes.

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Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Atovaquone (alternative spelling: atavaquone) is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of naphthoquinones.

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ATP synthase

ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.

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Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto- meaning "self" in Greek).

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Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Barth syndrome

Barth syndrome (BTHS), also known as 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type II, is an X-linked genetic disorder.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Beta oxidation

In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.

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Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques.

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Brown adipose tissue

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).

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Calcium in biology

Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide.

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Cardiolipin (IUPAC name "1,3-bis(sn-3’-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol") is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell fractionation

Cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions of each component.

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Cell growth

The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Cellular noise

Cellular noise is random variability in quantities arising in cellular biology.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Charles Wallace Murry

Charles Wallace Murry is a fictional character in the first three books in Madeleine L'Engle's Time Quintet of science fantasy novels.

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Chemical energy

In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

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Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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The chondriome is the whole set of intracellular organelles constituted by chondriosomes, contained in the cytosol, and bounded by the envelope that constitutes the plasma membrane.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chronic fatigue syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.

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Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), also known as progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), is a type of eye disorder characterized by slowly progressive inability to move the eyes and eyebrows.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Claudius Regaud

Claudius Regaud (born 30 January 1870 in Lyons, France; died 29 December 1940 in Couzon-au-Mont-d'Or, France) was a French doctor and biologist, one of the pioneers in radiotherapy at the Curie Institute.

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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase

The coenzyme Q: cytochrome c – oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is the third complex in the electron transport chain, playing a critical role in biochemical generation of ATP (oxidative phosphorylation).

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Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone).

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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CoRR hypothesis

The CoRR hypothesis states that the location of genetic information in cytoplasmic organelles permits regulation of its expression by the reduction-oxidation ("redox") state of its gene products.

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A crista (plural cristae) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.

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Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.

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A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.

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Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.

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Cytochrome c

The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

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Cytochrome c oxidase

The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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David Keilin

David Keilin FRS (21 March 1887 – 27 February 1963) was an entomologist, among other things.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dictyostelium is a genus of single- and multi-celled eukaryotic, phagotrophic bacterivores.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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The diplomonads (Greek for "two units") are a group of flagellates, most of which are parasitic.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dominance (genetics)

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Electrochemical gradient

An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron cryotomography

Electron cryotomography (CryoET) is an imaging technique used to produce high-resolution (~4 nm) three-dimensional views of samples, typically biological macromolecules and cells.

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

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An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Eugene P. Kennedy

Eugene Patrick Kennedy (1919–2011) was an American biochemist known for his work on lipid metabolism and membrane function.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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F-ATPase, also known as F-Type ATPase (also called ATP synthase), is an ATPase found in bacterial plasma membranes, in mitochondrial inner membranes (in oxidative phosphorylation, where it is known as Complex V), and in chloroplast thylakoid membranes.

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Facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fission (biology)

Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Flavin adenine dinucleotide

In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.

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Fluorescence microscope

A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.

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Friedreich's ataxia

Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system.

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Fritz Albert Lipmann

Fritz Albert Lipmann (June 12, 1899 – July 24, 1986) was a German-American biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A. For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 (shared with Hans Adolf Krebs).

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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George Lucas

George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur.

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Giardia lamblia

Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.

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Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycerol phosphate shuttle

The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a mechanism that regenerates NAD+ from NADH, a by-product of glycolysis.

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Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guanosine triphosphate

Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.

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Hans Adolf Krebs

Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (25 August 1900 – 22 November 1981) was a German-born British physician and biochemist.

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A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heinrich Otto Wieland

Heinrich Otto Wieland (4 June 1877 – 5 August 1957) was a German chemist.

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HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.

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A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.

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Hereditary spastic paraplegia

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of inherited diseases whose main feature is a progressive gait disorder.

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Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of organellar genome (mitochondrial DNA or plastid DNA) within a cell or individual.

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Hideaki Sena

is a Japanese pharmacologist and novelist.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Horror fiction

Horror is a genre of speculative fiction which is intended to, or has the capacity to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle its readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror.

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Human evolutionary genetics

Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from another human genome, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects.

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Human mitochondrial genetics

Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of human mitochondrial DNA (the DNA contained in human mitochondria).

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Hydrogen ion

A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.

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A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals.

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Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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Inhibitor protein

The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia.

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Inner mitochondrial membrane

The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is the mitochondrial membrane which separates the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space.

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Inositol trisphosphate receptor

Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).

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Integral membrane protein

An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

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Intermembrane space

The intermembrane space (IMS) is the region between the inner membrane and the outer membrane of a mitochondrion or a chloroplast.

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Internet meme

An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.

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An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, producing alpha-ketoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) and CO2.

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Janus Green B

Janus Green B is a basic dye and vital stain used in histology.

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Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

The Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) is a public research university in Mainz, Rhineland Palatinate, Germany, named after the printer Johannes Gutenberg.

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John E. Walker

Sir John Ernest Walker One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: (born 7 January 1941) is a British chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1997.

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Kearns–Sayre syndrome

Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a mitochondrial myopathy with a typical onset before 20 years of age.

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L-Kynurenine is a metabolite of the amino acid L-tryptophan used in the production of niacin.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) or Leber hereditary optic atrophy is a mitochondrially inherited (transmitted from mother to offspring) degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that leads to an acute or subacute loss of central vision; this affects predominantly young adult males.

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Leonor Michaelis

Leonor Michaelis (January 16, 1875 – October 8, 1949) was a German biochemist, physical chemist, and physician, known primarily for his work with Maud Menten on enzyme kinetics and Michaelis–Menten kinetics in 1913.

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Life skills

Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable humans to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of life.

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In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Long branch attraction

In phylogenetics, long branch attraction (LBA) is a form of systematic error whereby distantly related lineages are incorrectly inferred to be closely related.

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Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution.

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Madeleine L'Engle

Madeleine L'Engle Camp (November 29, 1918 – September 6, 2007) was an American writer who wrote young adult fiction, including A Wrinkle in Time and its sequels: A Wind in the Door, A Swiftly Tilting Planet, Many Waters, and An Acceptable Time.

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Malate-aspartate shuttle

The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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MELAS syndrome

Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is one of the family of mitochondrial cytopathies, which also include MERRF, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Membrane transport protein

A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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The metamonads are a large group of flagellate amitochondriate excavates.

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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.

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Midichloria is a genus of Gram-negative, non spore-forming bacteria, with bacillus shape around 0.45 µm in diameter and 1.2 µm in length.

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Mitochondrial biogenesis

Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase the production of ATP as a response to greater energy expenditure.

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Mitochondrial calcium uniporter

The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a transmembrane protein that allows the passage of calcium ions from a cell's cytosol into mitochondria.

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Mitochondrial disease

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Mitochondrial Eve

In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.

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Mitochondrial fission

Although commonly depicted singular oval-shaped structures, mitochondria form a highly dynamic network within most cells where they constantly undergo fission and fusion.

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Mitochondrial fusion

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with the ability to fuse (fusion) and divide (fission), forming constantly changing tubular networks in most eukaryotic cells.

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Mitochondrial matrix

In the mitochondrion, the matrix is the space within the inner membrane.

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Mitochondrial membrane transport protein

Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria and which serve to transport molecules and other factors such as ions into or out of the organelles.

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Mitochondrial permeability transition pore

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP or MPTP; also referred to as PTP, mTP or MTP) is a protein that is formed in the inner membrane of the mitochondria under certain pathological conditions such as traumatic brain injury and stroke.

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A mitoplast is a mitochondrion that has been stripped of its outer membrane leaving the inner membrane intact.

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A mitosome is an organelle found in some unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Monoamine oxidase

L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.

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Monocercomonoides is a genus of flagellate Excavata belonging to the order Oxymonadida.

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MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit

The MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit (formerly the MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit) is a department of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of Cambridge, funded through a strategic partnership between the Medical Research Council and the University.

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Muller's ratchet

In evolutionary genetics, Muller's ratchet (named after Hermann Joseph Muller, by analogy with a ratchet effect) is a process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily Murinae in the family Muridae, comprise at least 519 species.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.

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Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.

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The Mytilidae are a family of small to large saltwater mussels, marine bivalve mollusks in the order Mytiloida.

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The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.

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NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating)

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also referred to as Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial Complex I especially in humans) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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The Nebenkern is a mitochondrial formation in the sperm of insects such as Drosophila.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Non-Mendelian inheritance

Non-Mendelian inheritance is a general term that refers to any pattern of inheritance in which traits do not segregate in accordance with Mendel's laws.

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Nuclear DNA

Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Nymphaea alba

Nymphaea alba, also known as the European white water lily, white water rose or white nenuphar, is an aquatic flowering plant of the family Nymphaeaceae.

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An oncocyte is an epithelial cell characterized by an excessive number of mitochondria, resulting in an abundant acidophilic, granular cytoplasm.

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An oncocytoma is a tumor made up of oncocytes, epithelial cells characterized by an excessive amount of mitochondria, resulting in an abundant acidophilic, granular cytoplasm.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Otto Heinrich Warburg

Otto Heinrich Warburg (8 October 1883 – 1 August 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor, and Nobel laureate.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects.

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The parabasalids are a group of flagellated protists within the supergroup Excavata.

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Parasite Eve

is a Japanese science fiction horror novel by Hideaki Sena, first published by Kadokawa in 1995.

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Parasite Eve (film)

is a 1997 Japanese science fiction film directed by Masayuki Ochiai.

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Parasite Eve (video game)

Parasite Eve is a 1998 action role-playing video game developed and published by Square.

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Parasite Eve II

is an action role-playing survival horror video game released for the PlayStation.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Paternal mtDNA transmission

In genetics, paternal mtDNA transmission and paternal mtDNA inheritance refer to the incidence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) being passed from a father to his offspring.

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Paul D. Boyer

Paul Delos Boyer (July 31, 1918 – June 2, 2018) was an American biochemist, analytical chemist, and a professor of chemistry at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Pearson syndrome

Pearson syndrome is a mitochondrial disease characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction.

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Pediculus humanus

Pediculus humanus is a species of louse that infects humans.

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The Pelagibacterales is an order in the Alphaproteobacteria composed of free-living bacteria that make up roughly one in three cells at the ocean's surface.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Peter D. Mitchell

Peter Dennis Mitchell, FRS (29 September 1920 – 10 April 1992) was a British biochemist who was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of the chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis.

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Philip Siekevitz

Philip Siekevitz (1918-2009) was an American cell biologist who spent most of his career at Rockefeller University.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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Phylogenomics is the intersection of the fields of evolution and genomics.

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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

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Point mutation

A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.

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Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Porin (protein)

Porins are beta barrel proteins that cross a cellular membrane and act as a pore, through which molecules can diffuse.

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Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein biosynthesis

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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Protein precursor

A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification, such as breaking off a piece of the molecule or adding on another molecule.

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Protein subunit

In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.

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Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.

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The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Pyruvate carboxylase

Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) encoded by the gene PC is an enzyme of the ligase class that catalyzes (depending on the species) the physiologically irreversible carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate (OAA).

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Recent African origin of modern humans

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reducing equivalent

In biochemistry, the term reducing equivalent refers to any of a number of chemical species which transfer the equivalent of one electron in redox reactions.

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Retinitis pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Richard Altmann

Richard Altmann (12 March 1852 – 8 December 1900) was a German pathologist and histologist from Deutsch Eylau in the Province of Prussia.

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Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA editing

RNA editing is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase.

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Rotenone is an odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.

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San Diego State University

San Diego State University (SDSU) is a public research university in San Diego, California, and is the largest and oldest higher education institution in San Diego County.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Science education

Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community.

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Science fantasy

Science fantasy is a mixed genre within the umbrella of speculative fiction which simultaneously draws upon and/or combines tropes and elements from both science fiction and fantasy.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Second messenger system

Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.

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Secondary education

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.

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SERCA, or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Spatiotemporal pattern

Spatialtemporal patterns are patterns that occur in a wide range of natural phenoma and are characterized by a spatial and a temporal patterning.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.

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Star Wars

Star Wars is an American epic space opera media franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas.

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Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace

Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace is a 1999 American epic space opera written and directed by George Lucas, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century Fox.

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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Striated muscle tissue

Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Submitochondrial particle

A submitochondrial particle is a compartmentalized membranous product of exposing mitochondria to ultrasound.

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Succinate dehydrogenase

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.

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A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.

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Supravital staining

Supravital staining is a method of staining used in microscopy to examine living cells that have been removed from an organism.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Synaptic vesicle

In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.

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Taxus is a small genus of coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.

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Tether (cell biology)

Biological cells which form bonds with a substrate and are at the same time subject to a flow can form long thin membrane cylinders called tethers, which connect the adherent area to the main body of the cell.

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The Force

The Force is a metaphysical and ubiquitous power in the Star Wars fictional universe.

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Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT).

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TIM/TOM complex

The TIM/TOM complex is a protein complex in cellular biochemistry which translocates proteins produced from nuclear DNA through the mitochondrial membrane for use in oxidative phosphorylation.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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TMEM143 (Transmembrane protein 143) is a protein that in humans is encoded by TMEM143 gene.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Translocase is a general term for a protein that assists in moving another molecule, usually across a membrane.

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Translocase of the inner membrane

The translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) is a complex of proteins found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the mitochondria.

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Transmission electron microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.

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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.

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Uncoupling protein

An uncoupling protein (UCP) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is a regulated proton channel or transporter.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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Uniparental inheritance

Uniparental inheritance is a non-mendelian form of inheritance that consists of the transmission of genotypes from one parental type to all progeny.

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University of Alabama

The University of Alabama (Alabama or UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Very low-density lipoprotein

Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.

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Vimentin is a structural protein that in humans is encoded by the VIM gene.

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Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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Amitochondriate, Cell powerhouse, Chondrosome, Chromosome mitochondria (human), Mitochondria, Mitochondrial, Mitochondrial decay, Mitochondrial membrane, Mitochondrial proteins, Mitochondrian, Mitochondrium, Mitochrondria, Mitochrondrion, Mitocondria, Mitrocondria, Oocyte mitochondry, Outer mitochondrial membrane.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion

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