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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. [1]

291 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Active transport, Adenine nucleotide translocator, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Alanine, Albert Claude, Alphaproteobacteria, Alzheimer's disease, Ammonia, Anaplerotic reactions, Angstrom, Anti-mitochondrial antibody, Antiporter, Apoptosis, Archamoebae, Arginine, Atomic mass unit, Atovaquone, ATP synthase, ATP–ADP translocase, Autism, Autotransplantation, Azide, Bacteria, Barth syndrome, Base pair, Beta oxidation, Biodegradation, Bioenergetics, Biological membrane, Biophysical Journal, Bipolar disorder, Brown adipose tissue, Calcium in biology, Cancer, Carboxylation, Cardiolipin, Cardiovascular disease, Cattle, Cell (biology), Cell Calcium, Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell fractionation, Cell growth, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Cellular differentiation, Cellular noise, ..., Cellular respiration, Chemical energy, Chemiosmosis, Chloroplast, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, Citric acid cycle, Claudius Regaud, Coenzyme A, Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase, Coenzyme Q10, Concentration, CoRR hypothesis, Crista, Cryptosporidium, Cyanide, Cytochrome, Cytochrome c, Cytochrome c oxidase, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, David Keilin, Dementia, Diabetes mellitus, Dictyostelium, Diffusion, DNA, Dominance (genetics), Egg cell, Electrochemical gradient, Electron, Electron transport chain, Embryo, Endocrinology, Endocytosis, Endosymbiont, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Epilepsy, Epinephrine, Eukaryote, Evolutionary biology, F-ATPase, Facilitated diffusion, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Fission (biology), Flagellum, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Fluorescence microscope, Friedreich's ataxia, Fritz Albert Lipmann, Fungus, Gene, Genetic code, Genetic recombination, Genome, Giardia lamblia, Glucagon, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glycerol phosphate shuttle, Glycolysis, Greek language, Guanosine triphosphate, Hans Adolf Krebs, Haplotype, Heart, Heinrich Otto Wieland, HeLa, Heme, Hepatocyte, Hereditary spastic paraplegia, Homeostasis, Hormone, Human evolutionary genetics, Human mitochondrial genetics, Hydrogen ion, Hydrogenosome, Hydroxylation, Inhibitor protein, Inner mitochondrial membrane, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Integral membrane protein, Intermembrane space, Intron, Invertebrate, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Janus Green B, John E. Walker, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Kearns–Sayre syndrome, Kynurenine, Lactic acid, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, Leonor Michaelis, Ligase, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Liver, Long branch attraction, Lynn Margulis, Malate-aspartate shuttle, Mammal, MELAS syndrome, Membrane potential, Membrane transport protein, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, Metabolite, Metamonad, Micrograph, Micrometre, Microsporidia, Mitochondrial disease, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrial Eve, Mitochondrial fission, Mitochondrial fusion, Mitochondrial matrix, Mitochondrial membrane transport protein, Mitochondrial permeability transition pore, Mitoplast, Mitosome, Molecular clock, Monoamine oxidase, MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Murinae, Muscle, Myofibril, Myopathy, Mytilidae, N-terminus, NADH:ubiquinone reductase (H+-translocating), Natural selection, Nature (journal), Neanderthal, Nebenkern, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrite, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Non-Mendelian inheritance, Nuclear DNA, Nucleotide, Oncocyte, Oncocytoma, Online Etymology Dictionary, Oregon State University, Organelle, Organism, Otto Heinrich Warburg, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Parkinson's disease, Paternal mtDNA transmission, Paul D. Boyer, Pearson syndrome, Pediculus humanus, Pelagibacterales, Peptide, Pesticide, Peter D. Mitchell, Phylogenetic tree, Pine, Pinophyta, Plastid, Point mutation, Polyadenylation, Population genetics, Porin (protein), Porphyrin, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein precursor, Protein subunit, Proteome, Protist, Pyruvate carboxylase, Pyruvic acid, Reactive oxygen species, Recent African origin of modern humans, Red blood cell, Redox, Reducing equivalent, Retinitis pigmentosa, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Richard Altmann, Rickettsia, RNA, RNA editing, Rotenone, San Diego State University, Schizophrenia, Scientific American, Second messenger system, SERCA, Signal transduction, Spatiotemporal pattern, Sperm, Steroid, Striated muscle tissue, Stroke, Submitochondrial particle, Succinate dehydrogenase, Superoxide, Supravital staining, Symbiogenesis, Synaptic vesicle, Taxus, Tether (cell biology), The Neuroscientist, Thermogenin, TIM/TOM complex, Tissue (biology), TMEM143, Transcription (genetics), Transfer RNA, Translocase, Translocase of the inner membrane, Transmission electron microscopy, Tryptophan, Ubiquitin, Uncoupling protein, Uniparental inheritance, Uniporter, University of Alabama, University of Hawaii at Manoa, University of Mainz, University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Very low-density lipoprotein, Vimentin, Wilson's disease, Y chromosome, Yeast, Zygote. Expand index (241 more) »

Acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions.

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Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor (often a concentration gradient).

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Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and imports ADP into the matrix.

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Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

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Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A) is a non-polar α-amino acid, with the formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH.

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Albert Claude (24 August 1899 – 22 May 1983) was a Belgian medical doctor and cell biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade.

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Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy).

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Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer's, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anaplerotic reactions (from the Greek.

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The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or.

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Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria, primarily the mitochondria in cells of the liver.

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. An antiporter (also called exchanger or counter-transporter) is a cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions (i.e., solutes) across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.

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The Archamoebae are a group of Amoebozoa distinguished by the absence of mitochondria.

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Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R) is an α-amino acid.

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The unified atomic mass unit (symbol: u) or dalton (symbol: Da) is the standard unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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Atovaquone (alternative spelling: atavaquone) is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of naphthoquinones.

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ATP synthase is an important enzyme that provides energy for the cell to use through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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ATP–ADP translocase is a transporter protein that enables ATP and ADP to traverse the inner mitochondrial membrane.

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for explicitly cited references.

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Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto-.

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Azide is the anion with the formula N3 −. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Barth syndrome (BTHS), also known as 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type II, is an X-linked genetic disorder.

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Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA.

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In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.

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Biodegradation is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry that concerns energy flow through living systems.

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A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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The Biophysical Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cell Press on behalf of the Biophysical Society.

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Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder and manic-depressive illness, is a mental disorder characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression.

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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of two types of fat or adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue, or white fat) found in mammals.

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Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carboxylation in chemistry is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is introduced in a substrate.

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Cardiolipin (IUPAC name "1,3-bis(sn-3’-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol") is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition.

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell Calcium is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier that covers the field of cell biology and focuses mainly on calcium signalling and metabolism in living organisms.

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The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells.

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Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets from a larger population of cells.

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The term cell growth is used in the contexts of cell development and cell division (reproduction).

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In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions.

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In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is Most commonly this is a less specialized type becoming a more specialized type, such as during cell growth.

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Cellular noise is random variability in quantities arising in cellular biology.

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Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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In chemistry, Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

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Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex medical condition, characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms.

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Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), also known as progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), is a type of eye disorder characterized by slowly progressive inability to move the eyes and eyebrows.

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The citric acid cycle – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Claudius Regaud (born 30 January 1870 in Lyons, France; died 29 December 1940 in Couzon-au-Mont-d'Or, France) was a French doctor and biologist, one of the pioneers in radiotherapy at the Curie Institute.

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Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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The coenzyme Q: cytochrome c — oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is the third complex in the electron transport chain, playing a critical role in biochemical generation of ATP (oxidative phosphorylation).

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Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10 is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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The CoRR hypothesis states that the location of genetic information in cytoplasmic organelles permits regulation of its expression by the reduction-oxidation ("redox") state of its gene products.

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A crista (pl. cristæ and cristae) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.

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Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan protozoans that can cause gastrointestinal illness with diarrhoea in humans.

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A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains monovalent combining group CN.

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Cytochromes are hemeproteins containing heme groups and are primarily responsible for the generation of ATP via electron transport.

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The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

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The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria and the mitochondrion of eukaryotes.

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The cytoplasm comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures.

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In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of rapid assembly or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements.

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The cytosol or intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells.

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David Keilin FRS (21 March 1887 – 27 February 1963) was an entomologist, among other things.

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Dementia, also known as senility, is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dictyostelium is a genus of single- and multi-celled eukaryotic, phagotrophic bacterivores.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.

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The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of fertilization through sexual reproduction until birth, hatching, or germination.

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Endocrinology (from Greek ἔνδον, endon, "within"; κρίνω, krīnō, "to separate"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

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An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. forming an endosymbiosis (Greek: ἔνδον endon "within", σύν syn "together" and βίωσις biosis "living").

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Epilepsy (from to seize, possess, or afflict) is a group of neurological diseases characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a medication, hormone and neurotransmitter.

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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth.

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F-ATPase, also known as F-Type ATPase (also called ATP synthase), is an ATPase found in bacterial plasma membranes, in mitochondrial inner membranes (in oxidative phosphorylation, where it is known as Complex V), and in chloroplast thylakoid membranes.

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Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.

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In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol.

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In biology, fission is the division of a cell (or body, population, or species) into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate cells (bodies, populations, or species).

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism.

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A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.

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Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system.

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Fritz Albert Lipmann, (June 12, 1899 – July 24, 1986) was a German-American biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A. For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 (shared with Hans Adolf Krebs).

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.

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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.

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The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells.

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Genetic recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.

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Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas, that raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream.

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.

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Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a mechanism that regenerates NAD+ from NADH, a by-product of glycolysis.

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Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.

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Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (25 August 1900 – 22 November 1981) was a German-born British physician and biochemist.

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A haplotype is, in the simplest terms, a specific group of genes that a progeny inherits from one parent.

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The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heinrich Otto Wieland (4 June 1877 – 5 August 1957) was a German chemist.

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A HeLa cell, also Hela or hela cell, is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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Heme (American English) or haem (British English) is a cofactor consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous) ion contained in the centre of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin, made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges.

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A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.

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Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as hereditary spastic paraparesis, familial spastic paraplegias, French settlement disease, or Strumpell-Lorrain disease, is a group of inherited diseases whose main feature is progressive stiffness and contraction (spasticity) in the lower limbs, as a result of damage to or dysfunction of the nerves.

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Homeostasis or homoeostasis (''homeo-'' + ''-stasis'') is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant.

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A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from another human genome, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects.

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Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of human mitochondrial DNA (the DNA contained in human mitochondria).

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Hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all ions of hydrogen and its isotopes.

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A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals.

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Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia.

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The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is the mitochondrial membrane which separates the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space.

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Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).

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An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

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The intermembrane space (IMS) is the region between the inner membrane and the outer membrane of a mitochondrion or a chloroplast.

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An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebrae (vertebral column), derived from the notochord.

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Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, producing alpha-ketoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) and CO2.

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Janus Green B is a basic dye and vital stain used in histology.

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Sir John Ernest Walker (born 7 January 1941) is an English chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1997.

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The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.

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Kearns–Sayre syndrome (abbreviated KSS), also known as oculocraniosomatic disorder or oculocraniosomatic neuromuscular disorder with ragged red fibers, is a mitochondrial myopathy with a typical onset before 20 years of age.

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L-Kynurenine is a metabolite of the amino acid L-tryptophan used in the production of niacin.

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Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H.

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Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) or Leber optic atrophy is a mitochondrially inherited (transmitted from mother to offspring) degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that leads to an acute or subacute loss of central vision; this affects predominantly young adult males.

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Leonor Michaelis (January 16, 1875 – October 8, 1949) was a German biochemist, physical chemist, and physician, known primarily for his work with Maud Menten on enzyme kinetics and Michaelis–Menten kinetics in 1913.

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In biochemistry, ligase (from the Latin verb ligāre — "to bind" or "to glue together") is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.

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Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.

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The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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In phylogenetics, long branch attraction (LBA) is a form of systematic error whereby distantly related lineages are incorrectly inferred to be closely related.

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Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist, taxonomist, bacteriologist, protistologist, and botanist, with advanced degrees in zoology and genetics.

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The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes – abbreviated to MELAS – is one of the family of mitochondrial cytopathies, which also include MERRF, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

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Membrane potential (also transmembrane potential or membrane voltage) is the difference in electric potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell.

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A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.

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Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism.

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The metamonads are a large group of flagellate amitochondriate protozoa.

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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: µm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 1×10−6 of a metre (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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The microsporidia constitute a phylum (Microspora) of spore-forming unicellular parasites.

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Mitochondrial disease is a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.

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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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In human genetics, Mitochondrial Eve is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA), in a direct, unbroken, maternal line, of all currently living humans, who is estimated to have lived approximately 100,000–200,000 years ago.

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Although commonly depicted as bean-like structures mitochondria form a highly dynamic network within most cells where they constantly undergo fission and fusion.

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Mitochondrial fusion is a process mediated by several large GTPases whose combined effects lead to the dynamic mitochondrial networks seen in many cell types.

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In the mitochondrion, the matrix contains soluble enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of pyruvate and other small organic molecules.

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Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria and which serve to transport molecules and other factors such as ions into or out of the organelles.

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The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition, or MPT, is defined as an increase in the permeability of the mitochondrial membranes to molecules of less than 1500 Daltons in molecular weight.

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A mitoplast is a mitochondrion that has been stripped of its outer membrane leaving the inner membrane intact.

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A mitosome is an organelle found in some unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

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The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in molecular evolution that uses fossil constraints and rates of molecular change to deduce the time in geologic history when two species or other taxa diverged.

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L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.

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The MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit (formerly the MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit) is an institution of the Medical Research Council based at the Addenbrooke’s Hospital / Cambridge Biomedical Campus site in Cambridge, England.

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The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily Murinae in the family Muridae, comprise at least 519 species.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.

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Myopathy is a muscular disease in which the muscle fibers do not function for any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness.

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The Mytilidae are a family of small to large saltwater mussels, marine bivalve mollusks in the order Mytiloida.

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The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) refers to the start of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group (-NH2).

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Complex I (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or, especially in the context of the human protein, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone)) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.

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Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype; it is a key mechanism of evolution.

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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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The Neanderthals or Neandertals, us also -, --, -, -) (named after the Neandertal area) were a species of human in the genus Homo that became extinct between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago. They were closely related to modern humans, differing in DNA by just 0.12%. Remains left by Neanderthals include bone and stone tools, which are found in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia and the Middle East. Neanderthals are generally classified by biologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, but a minority considers them to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 300,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar. Neanderthals were large compared to Homo sapiens because they inhabited higher latitudes, in conformance with Bergmann's rule, and their larger stature explains their larger brain size because brain size generally increases with body size. With an average cranial capacity of 1600 cm3, the cranial capacity of Neanderthals is notably larger than the 1400 cm3 average for modern humans, indicating that their brain size was larger. Males stood and females tall. A 2008 study by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig suggested Neanderthals probably did not interbreed with anatomically modern humans, while the Neanderthal genome project published in 2010 and 2014 suggests that Neanderthals did contribute to the DNA of modern humans, including most non-Africans as well as a few African populations, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. In December 2013, researchers reported evidence that Neanderthals practiced burial behavior and intentionally buried their dead. In addition, scientists reported having sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave.

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The Nebenkern is a mitochondrial formation in the sperm of insects such as Drosophila.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula NO2−, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths and an O–N–O bond angle of approximately 120°.

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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Non-Mendelian inheritance is a general term that refers to any pattern of inheritance in which traits do not segregate in accordance with Mendel’s laws.

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Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is DNA contained within a nucleus of eukaryotic organisms.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA.

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An oncocyte is an epithelial cell characterized by an excessive amount of mitochondria, resulting in an abundant acidophilic, granular cytoplasm.

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An oncocytoma is a tumor made up of oncocytes, epithelial cells characterized by an excessive amount of mitochondria, resulting in an abundant acidophilic, granular cytoplasm.

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The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Oregon State University (OSU) is a coeducational, public research university in Corvallis, Oregon, United States.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function.

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In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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Otto Heinrich Warburg (October 8, 1883 – August 1, 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate.

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Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP.

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Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Parkinson's disease (PD, also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome (HRS), or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system.

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In genetics, paternal mtDNA transmission and paternal mtDNA inheritance refer to the incidence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) being passed from a father to his offspring.

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Paul Delos Boyer (born July 31, 1918) is an American biochemist, analytical chemist, and a professor of chemistry at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Pearson syndrome is a mitochondrial disease characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction.

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Pediculus humanus is a species of louse that infects humans.

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The Pelagibacterales is an order in the Alphaproteobacteria composed of free-living bacteria that make up roughly one in three cells at the ocean's surface.

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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Pesticides are substances meant for attracting, seducing, and then destroying, or mitigating any pest.

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Peter Dennis Mitchell, FRS (29 September 1920 – 10 April 1992) was a British biochemist who was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of the chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis.

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A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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Pines are conifer trees in the genus Pinus, in the family Pinaceae.

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The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 12 extant division-level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae (Viridiplantae) and 10 within the extant land plants.

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The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a major double-membrane organelle found, among others, in the cells of plants and algae.

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A point mutation, or single base modification, is a type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base change, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA.

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Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA The poly(A) tail consists of multiple adenosine monophosphates; in other words, it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases.

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Population genetics is the study of the distribution and change in frequency of alleles within populations, and as such it sits firmly within the field of evolutionary biology.

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Porins are beta barrel proteins that cross a cellular membrane and act as a pore through which molecules can diffuse.

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Porphyrins are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein biosynthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by posttranslational modification.

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In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.

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The proteome is the entire set of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue or organism at a certain time.

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In all biological taxonomy schemes, protists were a large group of diverse eukaryotic microorganisms, mainly unicellular animals and plants, that do not form tissues.

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Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an enzyme of the ligase class that catalyzes the (depending on the species) irreversible carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate (OAA).

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Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen.

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In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, or the "out of Africa" theory (OOA), is the most widely accepted model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans.

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Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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In biochemistry, the term reducing equivalent refers to any number of chemical species which transfer the equivalent of one electron in redox reactions.

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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, degenerative eye disease that causes severe vision impairment due to the progressive degeneration of the rod photoreceptor cells in the retina.

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In molecular biology, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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The ribosome is a large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Richard Altmann (12 March 1852 – 8 December 1900) was a German pathologist and histologist from Deutsch Eylau in the Province of Prussia.

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Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA editing is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within a RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase.

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Rotenone is an odorless, colorless, crystalline ketonic chemical compound used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.

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San Diego State University (SDSU, State) is a public research university in San Diego, and is the largest and oldest higher education institution in San Diego County.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real.

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Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell to trigger physiological changes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, and apoptosis.

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SERCA, or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase.

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Signal transduction occurs when an extracellular signaling molecule activates a specific receptor located on the cell surface or inside the cell.

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Spatialtemporal patterns are patterns that occur in a wide range of natural phenoma and are characterized by a spatial and a temporal patterning.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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A steroid is a type of organic compound that contains four cycloalkane rings arranged in a characteristic configuration.

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Striated muscle tissue is muscle tissue that has repeating sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue.

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Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or brain attack, is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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A submitochondrial particle is a compartmentalized membranous product of exposing mitochondria to ultrasound.

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Succinate dehydrogenase or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane of mammalian mitochondria and many bacterial cells.

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A superoxide, also known by the obsolete name hyperoxide, is a compound that contains the superoxide anion with the chemical formula.

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Supravital staining is a method of staining used in microscopy to examine living cells that have been removed from an organism.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes.

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In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.

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Taxus is a genus of small coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.

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Biological cells which form bonds with a substrate and are at the same time subject to a flow can form long thin membrane cylinders called tethers, which connect the adherent area to the main body of the cell.

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The Neuroscientist is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Neurology.

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Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT).

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The TIM/TOM complex is a process in cellular biochemistry which describes the translocation of proteins produced from nuclear DNA through the mitochondrial membrane for use in oxidative phosphorylation.

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In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.

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TMEM143 (Transmembrane protein 143) is a protein that in humans is encoded by TMEM143 gene.

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Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and archaically referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Translocase is a general term for a protein that assists in moving another molecule, usually across a membrane.

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The translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) is a complex of proteins found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the mitochondria.

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Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through.

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Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan) is one of the 22 standard amino acids and an essential amino acid in the human diet.

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Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein that has been found in almost all tissues (''ubiquitously'') of eukaryotic organisms.

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An uncoupling protein is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that can dissipate the proton gradient before it can be used to provide the energy for oxidative phosphorylation.

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Uniparental inheritance is a non-mendelian form of inheritance that consists of the transmission of genotypes from one parental type to all progeny.

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A uniporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in facilitated diffusion.

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The University of Alabama (Alabama or UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System.

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The University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa (also known as UH Mānoa, the University of Hawaiʻi, or simply UH) is a public co-educational research university, and is the flagship campus of the greater University of Hawaiʻi system.

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The Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) is a university in Mainz, Rhineland Palatinate, Germany, named after the printer Johannes Gutenberg.

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The University of Michigan (U-M, UM, UMich, or U of M), frequently referred to simply as Michigan, is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

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The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, "UW", or regionally as, UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university located in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.

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Vimentin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VIM gene.

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Wilson's disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in tissues; this manifests as neurological or psychiatric symptoms and liver disease.

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The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom with 1,500 species currently identified and are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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Amitochondriate, Cell powerhouse, Chondrosome, Chromosome mitochondria (human), Mitochondria, Mitochondrial, Mitochondrial decay, Mitochondrial membrane, Mitochondrial proteins, Mitochondrian, Mitochondrium, Mitochrondria, Mitochrondrion, Mitocondria, Mitrocondria, Oocyte mitochondry, Outer mitochondrial membrane.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion

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