49 relations: Administrative divisions of Mexico, California, Catholic Church, Codex Bodley, Codex Zouche-Nuttall, Coixtlahuaca District, Cuicatec language, Cuilapan de Guerrero, Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, Guerrero, Huamelulpan (archaeological site), Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Juxtlahuaca, La Mixteca, Mesoamerica, Metal, Mexico, Mexico–United States border, Mitla, Mixtec language, Mixtec transnational migration, Mixtecan languages, Monte Albán, Nahuatl, Ndaxagua, New Philology, New York City, Oaxaca, Oaxaca Valley, Oto-Manguean languages, Pedro de Alvarado, Pre-Columbian era, Puebla, Rock (geology), San Diego, San Juan Achiutla, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish language, Tijuana, Tilantongo, Tlaxiaco, Trique language, Trique people, Tucson, Arizona, Tututepec, United States, Wood, Zapotec civilization, Zapotec peoples.
The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic composed of 32 federal entities: 31 states and one "federal district" (Mexico City).
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Codex Bodley is an important pictographic manuscript and example of Mixtec historiography.
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The Codex Zouche-Nuttall or Codex Tonindeye is an accordion-folded pre-Columbian document of Mixtec pictography, now in the collections of the British Museum.
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Coixtlahuaca District is located in the northeast of the Mixteca Region of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico.
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The Cuicatecs are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Oaxaca, closely related to the Mixtecs.
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Cuilapan de Guerrero is a town and municipality located in the central valley region of Oaxaca in southern Mexico.
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Eight Deer Jaguar Claw (Iya Nacuaa Teyusi Ñaña) was a powerful Mixtec ruler in 11th century Oaxaca referred to in the 15th century deerskin manuscript Codex Zouche-Nuttall, and other Mixtec manuscripts.
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Guerrero, officially Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Huamelulpan is an archaeological site of the Mixtec culture, located in the town of San Martín Huamelulpan at an elevation of, about north-west of the city of Oaxaca, the capital of Oaxaca state.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, whereas "Amerindian" is used in Quebec and The Guianas but not commonly in other countries. Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Asia (in particular North Asia) to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The majority of experts agree that the earliest migration via Beringia took place at least 13,500 years ago, with disputed evidence that people had migrated into the Americas much earlier, up to 40,000 years ago. These early Paleo-Indians spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of creation myths. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies. The Americas came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean sea. This led to the names "Indies" and "Indian", which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. This unifying concept, codified in law, religion, and politics, was not originally accepted by indigenous peoples but has been embraced by many over the last two centuries. Even though the term "Indian" often does not include the Aleuts, Inuit, or Yupik peoples, these groups are considered indigenous peoples of the Americas. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in Amazonia, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous Americans; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as Quechua, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many Indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western society, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Juxtlahuaca is a cave and archaeological site in the Mexican state of Guerrero containing murals linked to the Olmec motifs and iconography.
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La Mixteca is a region in Western Oaxaca and neighboring portions of Puebla, Guerrero in south-central Mexico which refers to the home of the Mixtec people.
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Mesoamerica is a region and cultural area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
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The Mexico–United States border is an international boundary running from Tijuana, Baja California, and Imperial Beach, California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east.
Mitla is the second most important archeological site in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, and the most important of the Zapotec culture.
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The Mixtec languages belong to the Otomanguean language family of Mexico, and are closely related to the Trique and Cuicatec languages.
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Mixtec transnational migration, mainly to the United States has continued for over three generations.
The Mixtecan languages constitute a branch of the Otomanguean language family of Mexico.
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Monte Albán is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán Municipality in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca (17.043° N, 96.767°W).
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Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known informally as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by an estimated Nahua people, most of whom live in Central Mexico. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica. Nahuatl has been spoken in Central Mexico since at least the 7th century AD. It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history. During the centuries preceding the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the Aztec Empire had expanded to incorporate a large part of central Mexico, and its influence caused the variety of Nahuatl spoken by the residents of Tenochtitlan to become a prestige language in Mesoamerica. At the conquest, with the introduction of the Latin alphabet, Nahuatl also became a literary language, and many chronicles, grammars, works of poetry, administrative documents and codices were written in it during the 16th and 17th centuries. This early literary language based on the Tenochtitlan variety has been labeled Classical Nahuatl and is among the most studied and best-documented languages of the Americas. Today Nahuatl varietiesSee Mesoamerican languages#Language vs. Dialect for a discussion on the difference between "languages" and "dialects" in Mesoamerica. are spoken in scattered communities, mostly in rural areas throughout central Mexico and along the coastline. There are considerable differences among varieties, and some are mutually unintelligible. Huasteca Nahuatl, with over 1 million speakers, is the most-spoken variety. They have all been subject to varying degrees of influence from Spanish. No modern Nahuatl languages are identical to Classical Nahuatl, but those spoken in and around the Valley of Mexico are generally more closely related to it than those on the periphery. Under Mexico's Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas ("General Law on the Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples") promulgated in 2003, Nahuatl and the other 63 indigenous languages of Mexico are recognized as lenguas nacionales ("national languages") in the regions where they are spoken, enjoying the same status as Spanish within their region.By the provisions of Article IV: Las lenguas indígenas...y el español son lenguas nacionales...y tienen la misma validez en su territorio, localización y contexto en que se hablen. ("The indigenous languages...and Spanish are national languages...and have the same validity in their territory, location and context in which they are spoken.") Nahuatl languages exhibit a complex morphology characterized by polysynthesis and agglutination. Through centuries of coexistence with the other indigenous Mesoamerican languages, Nahuatl has absorbed many influences, coming to form part of the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area. Many words from Nahuatl have been borrowed into Spanish, and since diffused into hundreds of other languages. Most of these loanwords denote things indigenous to central Mexico which the Spanish heard mentioned for the first time by their Nahuatl names. English words of Nahuatl origin include "avocado", "chayote", "chili", "chocolate", "atlatl", "coyote", "peyote", "axolotl" and "tomato".
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Ndaxagua (also Ndaxagua cave, Ndaxagua natural tunnel), locally known in Spanish as El Puente Colosal ("Colossal Bridge") is a natural cave with double entrance and archaeological site, located in the extreme northern end of the Coixtlahuaca Basin, central-southern Mexico.
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New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view.
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New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.
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Oaxaca (from Huaxyacac), officially Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
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The Oaxaca Valley is a geographic region located within the modern-day State of Oaxaca in southern Mexico.
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Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several families of Native American languages.
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Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.
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The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
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Puebla, officially Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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In geology, rock is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
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San Diego is a major city in California, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico.
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San Juan Achiutla is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico.
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The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, as well as world history.
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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Tijuana is the largest city in Baja California and on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area.
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Tilantongo was a Mixtec citystate in the Mixteca Alta region of the modern-day state of Oaxaca which is now visible as an archeological site and a modern town of Santiago Tilantongo.
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Tlaxiaco is a city, and its surrounding municipality of the same name, in the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
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The Triqui, or Trique, languages are Oto-Manguean languages of Mexico spoken by the Trique people of the state of Oaxaca and elsewhere (due to recent population movements).
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The Trique or Triqui are an indigenous people of the western part of the Mexican state of Oaxaca, centred in the municipalities of Juxtlahuaca, Tlaxiaco and Putla.
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Tucson (or occasionally locally) is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2013 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area (MSA) was 996,544. The Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area (CSA), with a total population of 980,263 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, which both anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor. The city is located southeast of Phoenix and north of the U.S.-Mexico border. Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 59th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Roughly 150 Tucson companies are involved in the design and manufacture of optics and optoelectronics systems, earning Tucson the nickname Optics Valley. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson (some within or overlapping the city limits) include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde, Tortolita, and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast, Catalina and Oracle to the north, and Green Valley to the south. The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón, derived from the O'odham, meaning "(at the) base of the black ", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as "A" Mountain. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo".
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Tututepec is a Mesoamerican archaeological site.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
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The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
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The Zapotecs (Zoogocho Zapotec: Didxažoŋ) are an indigenous people of Mexico.
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