584 relations: Abstract art, Abstract expressionism, Abstraction, Academic art, Ad Reinhardt, Adolf Loos, Adolf Wölfli, Adolph Gottlieb, Age of Enlightenment, Agnes Martin, Al Held, Albert Gleizes, Albert Lebourg, Albert Vrana, Alberto Giacometti, Alberto Savinio, Albright–Knox Art Gallery, Aleksandr Deyneka, Aleksandr Gerasimov (painter), Alexander Archipenko, Alexander Calder, Alexander Rodchenko, Alexandr Zhdanov, Alfred Sisley, Alighiero Boetti, Alison Knowles, Allan Kaprow, Alphonse Mucha, American Abstract Artists, American Figurative Expressionism, American modernism, Amsterdam, André Breton, André Derain, André Masson, Andy Warhol, Anselm Kiefer, Anthony Caro, Anti-art, Antoni Gaudí, Antoni Tàpies, Antonio Berni, Antonio Saura, Architecture, Aristide Maillol, Arman, Armand Guillaumin, Armory Show, Arshile Gorky, Art Institute of Chicago, ..., Art manifesto, Art movement, Art Nouveau, Art periods, Arte Povera, Arthur Dove, Asger Jorn, Asia Museum of Modern Art, Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, Atlanta, Aubrey Beardsley, Audrey Flack, August Natterer, Auguste Rodin, Axel Törneman, Édouard Manet, Édouard Vuillard, Barcelona, Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, Barnett Newman, Bauhaus, Belgrade, Berlin, Bernard Buffet, Berthe Morisot, Bilbao, Bill Viola, Bob Justin, Bob Thompson (painter), Bogotá, Boston, Bracha L. Ettinger, Bridget Riley, Bruce Nauman, Bucharest, Buffalo, New York, Burgoyne Diller, Camille Pissarro, Carlo Carrà, Carolee Schneemann, Chaim Gross, Chana Orloff, Charles Demuth, Charles Jencks, Charles Sheeler, Charlotte Moorman, Chicago, Chris Ofili, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Chuck Close, Claes Oldenburg, Claude Gauvreau, Claude Monet, Claude-Max Lochu, Clement Greenberg, Clyfford Still, COBRA (avant-garde movement), Collage, Cologne, Color Field, Conceptual art, Cone, Constantin Brâncuși, Constructivism (art), Contemporary art, Cube, Cubism, Dada, Dan Christensen, Dan Flavin, Dance (Matisse), Daniel du Janerand, Daniel Spoerri, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Dau al Set, David Hockney, David Smith (sculptor), Décollage, De Stijl, Der Blaue Reiter, Design, Dick Higgins, Die Brücke, Diego Rivera, Dieter Roth, Divisionism, Documenta, Doha, Donald Judd, Douglas Crimp, Duane Hanson, Dublin, Earle M. Pilgrim, Edgar Degas, Edvard Munch, Edward Kienholz, Edward Ruscha, Egon Schiele, El Lissitzky, Elaine de Kooning, Elie Nadelman, Ellsworth Kelly, Emil Nolde, EMMA – Espoo Museum of Modern Art, En plein air, Enzo Cucchi, Ernst Fuchs (artist), Ernst Gombrich, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Espoo, Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art, Eugène Delacroix, Eva Hesse, Expressionism, Fauvism, Félix Vallotton, Ferdinand Cheval, Fernand Léger, Fernand Leduc, Fernando Botero, Figuration Libre, Figurative art, Florence, Fluxus, Francesco Clemente, Francis Bacon (artist), Francis Cadell (artist), Francis Picabia, Francisco Goya, Frank Auerbach, Frank Stella, František Kupka, Franz Kline, Franz Marc, Frédéric Bazille, French Revolution, Futurism, Gaetano Previati, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Gaston Lachaise, Geometric abstraction, Georg Baselitz, George Grosz, George Maciunas, George McNeil (artist), George Rickey, Georges Braque, Georges Seurat, Georgia O'Keeffe, Gerhard Richter, Getulio Alviani, Ghent, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, Giorgio de Chirico, Giorgio Morandi, Giovanni Fattori, Giovanni Segantini, Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo, Grace Hartigan, Grandma Moses, Grant Wood, Guayaquil, Guillaume Apollinaire, Gustav Klimt, Gustav Klutsis, Gustave Caillebotte, Gustave Courbet, Gustave Miklos, Gustave Moreau, H. Harvard Arnason, Hans Hartung, Hans Hofmann, Happening, Hard-edge painting, Hedonism, Helen Frankenthaler, Helsinki, Henie Onstad Kunstsenter, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Laurens, Henri Le Fauconnier, Henri Matisse, Henri Rousseau, Henri-Edmond Cross, Henri-Jean Guillaume Martin, Henry Moore, Hermitage Museum, Hervé Di Rosa, High Museum of Art, Hiroshige, History of painting, Houston, Howard Finster, Hugh Lane Gallery, Ibram Lassaw, Idealism, Ilya Bolotowsky, Ilya Kabakov, Immanuel Kant, Impressionism, Installation art, Institut Valencià d'Art Modern, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Isaac Witkin, Isamu Noguchi, Ivan Meštrović Gallery, J. M. W. Turner, Jackson Pollock, Jacob Epstein, Jacques Lipchitz, Jacques Villon, Jacques-Louis David, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, James Ensor, Jan Müller (artist), Jannis Kounellis, Japonism, Jasper Johns, Jörg Immendorff, Jean Arp, Jean Carzou, Jean Dubuffet, Jean Metzinger, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Jean-François Millet, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Jean-Paul Mousseau, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Jeffrey Steele (artist), Jim Dine, Joan Brossa, Joan Miró, Joan Mitchell, John Chamberlain (sculptor), John Duncan Fergusson, John Everett Millais, John McLaughlin (artist), Josef Albers, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Beuys, Joseph Csaky, Juan Gris, Jules Olitski, Julio González (sculptor), Karel Appel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Kassel, Kazimir Malevich, Kees van Dongen, Keisai Eisen, Kenneth Noland, Kiasma, Kinetic art, Koloman Moser, Komar and Melamid, Kurt Schwitters, La Capilla del Hombre, Land art, Larry Poons, Larry Rivers, Larry Zox, Las Vegas, László Moholy-Nagy, Léopold Survage, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe, Lee Bontecou, Lee Krasner, Leonid Sokov, Les Automatistes, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Les Nabis, Leslie Hunter, Lester Johnson (artist), Lille Métropole Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art, List of 20th-century women artists, List of modern artists, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Louise Nevelson, Luc Tuymans, Lucian Freud, Luciano Fabro, Lucio Fontana, Ludwig Merwart, Lynda Benglis, Lyrical abstraction, Macchiaioli, Madge Gill, Madrid, Malcolm Morley, Manlio Rho, Marc Chagall, Marcel Duchamp, Marcelle Ferron, Marino Marini (sculptor), Mario Merz, Mario Radice, Mark Rothko, Marlene Dumas, Marsden Hartley, Mary Cassatt, Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art, Maurice Boitel, Maurice de Vlaminck, Maurice Denis, Max Beckmann, Max Ernst, Max Pechstein, Maximilien Luce, McNay Art Museum, Menil Collection, Metaphysical art, Mexico City, Michaël Borremans, Michael Bowen (artist), Michael Heizer, Mikhail Larionov, Mimmo Paladino, Mimmo Rotella, Minimalism (visual arts), Minneapolis, Mino Argento, Modern architecture, Modern art (disambiguation), Modern Gallery, Zagreb, Moderna Museet, Modernism, Modernisme, Morgan Russell, Morris Louis, Moscow, Munich, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Musée d'art moderne de Troyes, Musée d'Orsay, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Musée Picasso, Musée Rodin, Museo Antropologico y de Arte Contemporaneo, Museo de Arte Moderno, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Museum Ludwig, Museum of Contemporary Art, Belgrade, Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Modern Art, Nadir Afonso, Nam June Paik, Naples Museum of Art, Naples, Florida, Narrative, Natalia Goncharova, National Gallery of Modern Art, National Museum of Contemporary Art (Romania), Natvar Bhavsar, Naum Gabo, Neo Rauch, Neo-Dada, Neo-expressionism, Neo-figurative art, New European Painting, New media art, New Objectivity, New York City, Nouveau réalisme, Oath of the Horatii, Odilon Redon, Op art, Orphism (art), Oskar Kokoschka, Oslo, Ossip Zadkine, Otto Dix, Otto Wagner, Outsider art, Pablo Picasso, Pablo Serrano, Painting, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Palazzo Pitti, Papier collé, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Paul Klee, Paul Laffoley, Paul Salvator Goldengreen, Paul Sérusier, Paul Signac, Performance art, Philosophy, Photography, Photorealism, Pictorialism, Piero Manzoni, Pierre Alechinsky, Pierre Bonnard, Pierre Gauvreau, Pierre Restany, Pierre Soulages, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Piet Mondrian, Pinakothek der Moderne, Pointillism, Pop art, Post-Impressionism, Post-war, Postminimalism, Postmodern art, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Precisionism, Proto-Cubism, Pushkin Museum, Quito, Raoul Dufy, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Realism (art movement), Realism (arts), Red Grooms, René Iché, René Magritte, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Richard Estes, Richard Hamilton (artist), Richard Long (artist), Richard Serra, Rio de Janeiro, Robert Antoine Pinchon, Robert Beauchamp, Robert Combas, Robert De Niro Sr., Robert Delaunay, Robert Indiana, Robert Mangold, Robert Motherwell, Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Smithson, Robert Whitman, Romanticism, Ronald Davis, Ronnie Landfield, Rosa Bonheur, Roy Lichtenstein, Saatchi Gallery, Saint Petersburg, Salon d'Automne, Salon des Refusés, Salvador Dalí, Salvador, Bahia, Sam Francis, Sam Gilliam, Sam Hunter, Samuel Peploe, San Antonio, San Francisco, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Sandro Chia, São Paulo, São Paulo Museum of Art, São Paulo Museum of Modern Art, Scottish Colourists, Sculpture, Shaped canvas, Silvestro Lega, Social realism, Société des Artistes Indépendants, Sol LeWitt, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Sonia Delaunay, Soviet art, Spatialism, Sphere, Split, Croatia, Stanton Macdonald-Wright, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Stockholm, Straight photography, Strasbourg, Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Streamline Moderne, Stuart Davis (painter), Suprematism, Surrealism, Symbolism (arts), Synchromism, Tachisme, Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate Modern, Tate St Ives, Tehran, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Telemaco Signorini, The First Moderns, The Painter's Studio, The Song of Love, Theo van Doesburg, Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Tony Smith (sculptor), Traditional African masks, Transavantgarde, Tretyakov Gallery, Tribal art, Umberto Boccioni, University of Chicago Press, Vadym Meller, Valencia, Van Gogh Museum, Venice, Venice Biennale, Victor Vasarely, Video art, Vienna Secession, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, Vincent van Gogh, Visionary art, Vladimir Tatlin, Vorticism, Walker Art Center, Walker Evans, Wassily Kandinsky, Western painting, Whitney Museum of American Art, Wiener Werkstätte, Willem de Kooning, William Everdell, William Holman Hunt, Wolf Vostell, Wyndham Lewis, Yoko Ono, Yves Klein, 20th-century art, 20th-century Western painting. 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Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.
Adolph Frederick "Ad" Reinhardt (December 24, 1913 – August 30, 1967) was an abstract painter active in New York beginning in the 1930s and continuing through the 1960s.
Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian and Czech architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture.
Adolf Wölfli (February 29, 1864 – November 6, 1930) (occasionally spelled Adolf Woelfli or Adolf Wolfli) was a Swiss artist who was one of the first artists to be associated with the Art Brut or outsider art label.
Adolph Gottlieb (March 14, 1903 – March 4, 1974) was an American abstract expressionist painter, sculptor and printmaker.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agnes Bernice Martin (March 22, 1912 – December 16, 2004), born in Canada, was an American abstract painter.
Al Held (October 12, 1928 – July 27, 2005) was an American Abstract expressionist painter.
Albert Gleizes (8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris.
Albert Lebourg (1 February 1849, Montfort-sur-Risle – 6 January 1928, Rouen), birth name Albert-Marie Lebourg, also called Albert-Charles Lebourg and Charles Albert Lebourg, was a French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist landscape painter of the Rouen School (l'École de Rouen).
Albert Vrana (1921–1994) was an American sculptor who is best known for his mid-twentieth century monumental architectural sculptures done in the Modernist style, using novel materials, such as ferrocement, and new techniques, such as sand casting using plastic Styrofoam molds to shape sculptural concrete panels and metal sculptures.
Alberto Giacometti (10 October 1901 – 11 January 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman and printmaker.
Alberto Savinio, real name Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico (25 August 1891 – 5 May 1952) was an Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer and composer.
The Albright–Knox Art Gallery is an art museum located at 1285 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, New York, in Delaware Park.
Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Deyneka (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Дейне́ка; May 20, 1899 – June 12, 1969) was a Soviet Russian painter, graphic artist and sculptor, regarded as one of the most important Russian modernist figurative painters of the first half of the 20th century.
Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Gerasimov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Гера́симов; 12 August 1881 – 23 July 1963) was a leading proponent of Socialist Realism in the visual arts, and painted Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders.
Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; May 30, 1887February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian-born American avant-garde artist, sculptor, and graphic artist.
Alexander Calder (July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) is widely considered to be one of the most important American sculptors of the 20th century.
Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; – December 3, 1956) was a Russian artist, sculptor, photographer and graphic designer.
Alexandr Pavlovich Zhdanov (Александр Павлович Жданов; January 11, 1938 - July 18, 2006) was a Russian avant-garde painter.
Alfred Sisley (30 October 1839 – 29 January 1899) was an Impressionist landscape painter who was born and spent most of his life in France, but retained British citizenship.
Alighiero Fabrizio Boetti known as Alighiero e Boetti (16 December 1940 – 24 February 1994) was an Italian conceptual artist, considered to be a member of the art movement Arte Povera.
Alison Knowles (born 1933) is an American visual artist known for her installations, performances, soundworks, and publications.
Allan Kaprow (August 23, 1927 – April 5, 2006) was an American painter, assemblagist and a pioneer in establishing the concepts of performance art.
Alfons Maria Mucha (24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist, known best for his distinct style.
American Abstract Artists (AAA) was formed in 1936 in New York City, to promote and foster public understanding of abstract art.
According to Marilyn Stokstad, the art historian.
American modernism, much like the modernism movement in general, is a trend of philosophical thought arising from the widespread changes in culture and society in the age of modernity.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
André Breton (18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer, poet, and anti-fascist.
André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.
André-Aimé-René Masson (4 January 1896 – 28 October 1987) was a French artist.
Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art.
Anselm Kiefer (born 8 March 1945) is a German painter and sculptor.
Sir Anthony Alfred Caro (8 March 192423 October 2013) was an English abstract sculptor whose work is characterised by assemblages of metal using 'found' industrial objects. His style was of the modernist school, having worked with Henry Moore early in his career. He was lauded as the greatest British sculptor of his generation.
Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general.
Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Spanish architect from Catalonia.
Antoni Tàpies i Puig, 1st Marquess of Tàpies (13 December 1923 – 6 February 2012) was a Spanish painter, sculptor and art theorist, who became one of the most famous European artists of his generation.
Delesio Antonio Berni (Rosario, 14 May 1905 - Buenos Aires, 13 October 1981) was an Argentine figurative artist.
Antonio Saura (September 22, 1930 – July 22, 1998) was a Spanish artist and writer, one of the major post-war painters to emerge in Spain in the fifties whose work has marked several generations of artists and whose critical voice is often remembered.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol (December 8, 1861 – September 27, 1944) was a French sculptor, painter, and printmaker.
Arman (November 17, 1928 – October 22, 2005) was a French-born American artist.
Armand Guillaumin (February 16, 1841 – June 26, 1927) was a French impressionist painter and lithographer.
The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913.
Arshile Gorky (born Vostanik Manoug Adoian, Ոստանիկ Մանուկ Ատոյեան; April 15, 1904 – July 21, 1948) was an Armenian-American painter, who had a seminal influence on Abstract Expressionism.
The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicago's Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States.
An art manifesto is a public declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of an artist or artistic movement.
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement.
Arte Povera (literally poor art) is a contemporary art movement.
Arthur Garfield Dove (August 2, 1880 – November 23, 1946) was an American artist.
Asger Oluf Jorn (3 March 1914 – 1 May 1973) was a Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, and author.
The Asia Museum of Modern Art is a museum in Wufeng District, Taichung, Taiwan.
The Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art is a privately owned contemporary art gallery in Oslo in Norway.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author.
Audrey L. Flack (born May 30, 1931 in New York City, New York) is an American artist.
August Natterer (1868–1933), also known as Neter, was a German outsider artist with schizophrenia.
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.
Johan Axel Gustaf Törneman (28 October 1880 – 26 December 1925) was one of Sweden's earliest modernist painters.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
Jean-Édouard Vuillard (11 November 186821 June 1940) was a French painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art (Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona,; abbreviated as MACBA) is situated in the Plaça dels Àngels, in El Raval, Ciutat Vella, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist.
Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bernard Buffet (10 July 1928 – 4 October 1999) was a French painter of Expressionism and a member of the anti-abstract art group L'homme Témoin (the Witness-Man).
Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists.
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
Bill Viola (born 1951) is a contemporary video artist whose artistic expression depends upon electronic, sound, and image technology in New Media.
Bob Justin (born 1941) is an American outsider artist from New Jersey.
Bob Thompson (June 26, 1937 – May 30, 1966) was an African-American figurative painter known for his bold and colorful canvases, whose compositions were appropriated from the Old Masters.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger (ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is an Israeli-born painter.
Bridget Louise Riley (born 24 April 1931) is an English painter who is one of the foremost exponents of Op art.
Bruce Nauman (born December 6, 1941) is an American artist.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
Burgoyne A. Diller (January 13, 1906 – January 30, 1965) was an American abstract painter.
Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies).
Carlo Carrà (February 11, 1881 – April 13, 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading figure of the Futurist movement that flourished in Italy during the beginning of the 20th century.
Carolee Schneemann (born October 12, 1939) is an American visual artist, known for her discourses on the body, sexuality and gender.
Chaim Gross (March 17, 1904 – May 5, 1991) was an American sculptor and educator.
Chana Orloff (12 July 1888 – 16 December 1968) was an Israeli Art deco and figurative art sculptor.
Charles Henry Buckius Demuth (November 8, 1883 – October 23, 1935) was an American watercolorist who turned to oils late in his career, developing a style of painting known as Precisionism.
Charles Alexander Jencks (born June 21, 1939) is a cultural theorist, landscape designer, architectural historian, and co-founder of the Maggie’s Cancer Care Centres.
Charles Sheeler (July 16, 1883 – May 7, 1965) was an American painter and commercial photographer.
Madeline Charlotte Moorman (November 18, 1933 – November 8, 1991) was an American cellist, performance artist, and advocate for avant-garde music.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Christopher Ofili, CBE (born 10 October 1968) is a British Turner Prize-winning painter who is best known for his paintings incorporating elephant dung.
Christo Vladimirov Javacheff and Jeanne-Claude are a married couple who created environmental works of art.
Charles Thomas "Chuck" Close (born July 5, 1940) is an American painter, artist and photographer who achieved fame as a photorealist, through his massive-scale portraits.
Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is an American sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring large replicas of everyday objects.
Claude Gauvreau (August 19, 1925 – July 7, 1971 in Montreal, Quebec) was a Canadian playwright, poet, sound poet and polemicist.
Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.
French artist, painter and designer, Claude-Max Lochu was born in 1951 in Delle in Territoire de Belfort, Franche-Comté and completed his degree at the École des Beaux-Arts of Besançon.
Clement Greenberg, occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994), was an American essayist known mainly as an influential visual art critic closely associated with American Modern art of the mid-20th century.
Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American painter, and one of the leading figures in the first generation of Abstract Expressionists, who developed a new, powerful approach to painting in the years immediately following World War II.
COBRA (or CoBrA) was a European avant-garde movement active from 1948 to 1951.
Collage (from the coller., "to glue") is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Color Field painting is a style of abstract painting that emerged in New York City during the 1940s and 1950s.
Conceptual art, sometimes simply called conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic, technical, and material concerns.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
Constantin Brâncuși (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957) was a Romanian sculptor, painter and photographer who made his career in France.
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin.
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.
Dan Christensen, (October 6, 1942 – January 20, 2007) was an American abstract painter He is best known for paintings that relate to Lyrical Abstraction, Color field painting and Abstract expressionism.
Dan Flavin (April 1, 1933 – November 29, 1996) was an American minimalist artist famous for creating sculptural objects and installations from commercially available fluorescent light fixtures.
Dance (La Danse) refers to either of two related paintings made by Henri Matisse between 1909 and 1910.
Daniel du Janerand (1919–1990) was a French painter, muralist, and book illustrator.
Daniel Spoerri (born 27 March 1930 in Galați) is a Swiss artist and writer born in Romania.
Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and a member of the Rossetti family.
Dau al Set, the first post-World War II artistic movement in Catalonia, was founded in Barcelona in September 1948 by poet Joan Brossa.
David Hockney, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draftsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer.
Roland David Smith (March 9, 1906 – May 23, 1965) was an American abstract expressionist sculptor and painter, best known for creating large steel abstract geometric sculptures.
Décollage, in art, is the opposite of collage; instead of an image being built up of all or parts of existing images, it is created by cutting, tearing away or otherwise removing, pieces of an original image.
De Stijl, Dutch for "The Style", also known as Neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917 in Leiden.
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists united in rejection of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
Dick Higgins (March 15, 1938 – October 25, 1998) was a British composer, poet, printmaker, and early Fluxus artist.
Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905, after which the Brücke Museum in Berlin was named.
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.
Dieter Roth (April 21, 1930 – June 5, 1998) was a Swiss artist best known for his artist's books, editioned prints, sculptures, and works made of found materials, including rotting food stuffs.
Divisionism (also called chromoluminarism) was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically.
documenta is an exhibition of contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany.
Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
Donald Judd (June 3, 1928February 12, 1994) was an American artist associated with minimalism (a term he nonetheless stridently disavowed).
Douglas Crimp (born 1944) is an American writer, curator, and art historian.
Duane Hanson (January 17, 1925 – January 6, 1996) was an American artist and sculptor from Minnesota.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Earle Montrose Pilgrim (1923–1976) was an American artist whose work is within the stylistic milieu of Abstract Expressionism and Figurative Expressionism.
Edgar Degas (or; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas,; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.
Edvard Munch (12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century.
Edward Kienholz (October 23, 1927 – June 10, 1994) was an American installation artist and assemblage sculptor whose work was highly critical of aspects of modern life.
Edward Joseph Ruscha IV (roo-SHAY; born December 16, 1937) is an American artist associated with the pop art movement.
Egon Schiele (12 June 1890 – 31 October 1918) was an Austrian painter.
Lazar Markovich Lissitzky (Ла́зарь Ма́ркович Лиси́цкий,; – December 30, 1941), known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лиси́цкий, על ליסיצקי), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect.
Elaine de Kooning (March 12, 1918 – February 1, 1989) was an Abstract Expressionist and Figurative Expressionist painter in the post-World War II era.
Elie Nadelman (born Eliasz Nadelman; February 20, 1882 – December 28, 1946) was a Polish-American sculptor, draughtsman and collector of folk art.
Ellsworth Kelly (May 31, 1923 – December 27, 2015) was an American painter, sculptor, and printmaker associated with hard-edge painting, Color Field painting and minimalism.
Emil Nolde (born Emil Hansen; 7 August 1867 – 13 April 1956) was a German-Danish painter and printmaker.
The EMMA – Espoo Museum of Modern Art (EMMA - Espoon modernin taiteen museo, EMMA - Esbo moderna konstmuseum), is a major art museum in Espoo in southern Finland.
En plein air (French for outdoors, or plein air painting) is the act of painting outdoors.
Enzo Cucchi (born 14 November 1949) is an Italian painter.
Ernst Fuchs (13 February 19309 November 2015) was an Austrian painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, architect, stage designer, composer, poet, singer and one of the founders of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism.
Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6 May 1880 – 15 June 1938) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art.
Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.
The Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art is a museum in Canonbury Square in the district of Islington on the northern fringes of central London.
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
Eva Hesse (January 11, 1936 – May 29, 1970), was a German-born American sculptor, known for her pioneering work in materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.
Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865December 29, 1925) was a Swiss/French painter and printmaker associated with the collective known as.
Ferdinand Cheval (19 April 1836 – 19 August 1924) was a French postman who spent thirty-three years of his life building Le Palais idéal (the "Ideal Palace") in Hauterives.
Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painter, sculptor, and filmmaker.
Fernand Leduc (4 June 1916 – 28 January 2014) was a Canadian abstract expressionist painter and a major figure in the Quebec contemporary art scene in the 1940s and 1950s.
Fernando Botero Angulo (born 19 April 1932) is a Colombian figurative artist and sculptor.
Figuration Libre ("Free Figuration") is a French art movement of the 1980s.
Figurative art, sometimes written as figurativism, describes artwork (particularly paintings and sculptures) that is clearly derived from real object sources and so is, by definition, representational.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Fluxus is an international and interdisciplinary group of artists, composers, designers and poets that took shape in the 1960s and 1970s.
Francesco Clemente (born 23 March 1952) is an Italian contemporary artist.
Francis Bacon (28 October 1909 – 28 April 1992) was an Irish-British figurative painter known for his bold, grotesque, emotionally charged, raw imagery.
Francis Campbell Boileau Cadell RSA (12 April 1883 – 6 December 1937) was a Scottish Colourist painter, renowned for his depictions of the elegant New Town interiors of his native Edinburgh, and for his work on Iona.
Francis Picabia (born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia, 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
Frank Helmut Auerbach (born 29 April 1931) is a German-British painter.
Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter, sculptor and printmaker, noted for his work in the areas of minimalism and post-painterly abstraction.
František Kupka (23 September 1871 – 24 June 1957), also known as Frank Kupka or François Kupka, was a Czech painter and graphic artist.
Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 – May 13, 1962) was an American painter.
Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement.
Jean Frédéric Bazille (December 6, 1841 – November 28, 1870) was a French Impressionist painter.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
Gaetano Previati (1852 – 1920) was an Italian Symbolist painter in the Divisionist style.
The Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna (GNAM), or National Gallery of Modern Art, is an art gallery in Rome, Italy, founded in 1883 and dedicated to modern and contemporary art; the full name is Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea.
Gaston Lachaise (March 19, 1882 – October 18, 1935) was an American sculptor of French birth, active in the early 20th century.
Geometric abstraction is a form of abstract art based on the use of geometric forms sometimes, though not always, placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective (non-representational) compositions.
Georg Baselitz (born 23 January 1938, as Hans-Georg Kern, in Deutschbaselitz, Germany) is a German painter, sculptor and graphic artist.
George Grosz (born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin life in the 1920s.
George Maciunas (Jurgis Mačiūnas; November 8, 1931 – May 9, 1978) was a Lithuanian American artist.
George McNeil (February 22, 1908 – January 11, 1995) was an American abstract expressionist painter.
George Warren Rickey (June 6, 1907 – July 17, 2002) was an American kinetic sculptor.
Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.
Georges-Pierre Seurat (2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist painter and draftsman.
Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15, 1887 – March 6, 1986) was an American artist.
Gerhard Richter (born 9 February 1932) is a German visual artist.
Getulio Alviani (5 September 1939 in Udine – 24 February 2018 in Milan) was an Italian painter based in Milan.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism.
Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement.
Giorgio de Chirico (10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978) was an Italian artist and writer.
Giorgio Morandi (July 20, 1890 – June 18, 1964) was an Italian painter and printmaker who specialized in still life.
Giovanni Fattori (September 6, 1825August 30, 1908) was an Italian artist, one of the leaders of the group known as the Macchiaioli.
Giovanni Segantini (15 January 1858 – 28 September 1899) was an Italian painter known for his large pastoral landscapes of the Alps.
Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (July 28, 1868 – June 14, 1907) was an Italian divisionist painter.
Grace Hartigan (March 28, 1922 – November 15, 2008) was a second-generation American Abstract Expressionist painter and a member of the New York School.
Anna Mary Robertson Moses (September 7, 1860 – December 13, 1961), known by her nickname Grandma Moses, was an American folk artist.
Grant DeVolson Wood (February 13, 1891 – February 12, 1942) was an American painter best known for his paintings depicting the rural American Midwest, particularly American Gothic, which has become an iconic painting of the 20th century.
Guayaquil, officially Santiago de Guayaquil (St.), is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2 million people in the metropolitan area, as well as the nation's main port.
Guillaume Apollinaire (26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish descent.
Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.
Gustav Klutsis (Gustavs Klucis, Густав Густавович Клуцис) (January 4, 1895 – February 26, 1938) was a pioneering Latvian photographer and major member of the Constructivist avant-garde in the early 20th century.
Gustave Caillebotte (19 August 1848 – 21 February 1894) was a French painter, member and patron of the artists known as Impressionists, although he painted in a much more realistic manner than many others in the group.
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.
Gustave Miklos, also written Gusztáv Miklós and Miklós Gusztáv (Budapest, 30 June 1888 – Oyonnax, 5 March 1967) was a sculptor, painter, illustrator and designer of Hungarian origin.
Gustave Moreau (6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a major figure in French Symbolist painting whose main emphasis was the illustration of biblical and mythological figures.
Hjorvardur Harvard Arnason (1909 – 1986) was an American academic, administrator, author and art historian focusing on modern art.
Hans Hartung (21 September 1904 – 7 December 1989) was a German-French painter, known for his gestural abstract style.
Hans Hofmann (March 21, 1880 – February 17, 1966) was a German-born American painter, renowned as an artist and teacher in a career that spanned two generations and two continents, and is considered to have both preceded and influenced Abstract Expressionism.
A happening is a performance, event, or situation meant to be considered art, usually as performance art.
Hard-edge painting is painting in which abrupt transitions are found between color areas.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Helen Frankenthaler (December 12, 1928 – December 27, 2011) was an American abstract expressionist painter.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
The Henie Onstad Kunstsenter is an art museum located at Høvikodden in Bærum municipality, Norway.
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901), also known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist, and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing, elegant, and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, affairs of those times.
Henri Laurens (February 18, 1885 – May 5, 1954) was a French sculptor and illustrator.
Henri Victor Gabriel Le Fauconnier (July 5, 1881 – December 25, 1946) was a French Cubist painter born in Hesdin.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (May 21, 1844 – September 2, 1910) at the Guggenheim was a French post-impressionist painter in the Naïve or Primitive manner.
Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, (20 May 1856 – 16 May 1910) was a French painter and printmaker.
Henri-Jean Guillaume Martin (5 August 1860 – 12 November 1943) was a renowned French impressionist painter.
Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English artist.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Hervé Di Rosa (born 1959 in Sète, Hérault) is a French painter.
The High Museum of Art (colloquially the High), located in Atlanta, is a leading art museum in the Southeastern United States.
Utagawa Hiroshige (歌川 広重), also Andō Hiroshige (安藤 広重; 1797 – 12 October 1858), was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition.
The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Howard Finster (December 2, 1916 – October 22, 2001) was an American artist and Baptist minister from Georgia.
The Hugh Lane Gallery, officially Dublin City Gallery The Hugh Lane and originally the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, is an art gallery operated by Dublin City Council and its subsidiary the Hugh Lane Gallery Trust.
Ibram Lassaw (1913–2003) was a Russian-American sculptor, known for nonobjective construction in brazed metals.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Ilya Bolotowsky (July 1, 1907 – November 22, 1981) was a leading early 20th-century painter in abstract styles in New York City.
Ilya Kabakov (Russian: Илья́ Ио́сифович Кабако́в; born September 30, 1933), is a Russian - American conceptual artist, born in Dnipropetrovsk in what was then the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Installation art is an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that often are site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space.
The Institut Valencià d'Art Modern (Instituto Valenciano de Arte Moderno; English: "Valencian Institute of Modern Art"), also known by the acronym IVAM, was the first center of modern art created in Spain, opening in 1989 in the city of Valencia.
The Irish Museum of Modern Art (Áras Nua-Ealaíne na hÉireann) also known as IMMA, is Ireland's leading national institution for the collection and presentation of modern and contemporary art.
Isaac Witkin, internationally renowned modern sculptor, was born in Johannesburg, South Africa on 10 May 1936, and he died 23 April 2006.
was a Japanese American artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades, from the 1920s onward.
Ivan Meštrović Gallery (Galerija Meštrović), is an art museum in Split, Croatia dedicated to the work of the 20th-century sculptor, Ivan Meštrović.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956) was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement.
Sir Jacob Epstein (10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-British sculptor who helped pioneer modern sculpture.
Jacques Lipchitz (16 May 1973) was a Cubist sculptor, from late 1914.
Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist and abstract painter and printmaker.
Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 10, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom.
James Sidney Edouard, Baron Ensor (13 April 1860 – 19 November 1949) was a Belgian painter and printmaker, an important influence on expressionism and surrealism who lived in Ostend for almost his entire life.
Jan Müller (December 27, 1922 – January 29, 1958) was a New York-based figurative expressionist artist of the 1950s.
Jannis Kounellis (Γιάννης Κουνέλλης; 23 March 1936 – 16 February 2017) was a Greek Italian contemporary artist based in Rome.
First described by French art critic and collector Philippe Burty in 1872, Japonism, from the French Japonisme, is the study of Japanese art and artistic talent.
Jasper Johns (born May 15, 1930) is an American painter, sculptor and printmaker whose work is associated with abstract expressionism, Neo-Dada, and pop art.
Jörg Immendorff (June 14, 1945 – May 28, 2007) was a contemporary German painter, sculptor, stage designer and art professor.
Jean Arp or Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper.
Jean Carzou (Ժան Գառզու, 1 January 1907 – 12 August 2000) was a French–Armenian artist, painter, and illustrator, whose work illustrated the novels of Ernest Hemingway and Albert Camus.
Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (31 July 1901 – 12 May 1985) was a French painter and sculptor.
Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with Albert Gleizes wrote the first theoretical work on Cubism.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching.
Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.
Jean-Michel Basquiat (December 22, 1960 – August 12, 1988) was an American artist.
Jean-Paul Mousseau (January 1, 1927 – February 7, 1991) was a Quebec artist.
Jean-Paul Riopelle, (7 October 1923 – 12 March 2002) was a painter and sculptor from Quebec, Canada.
Jeffrey Steele (born 3 July 1931) is an abstract painter.
Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist.
Joan Brossa (1919–1998) was a Spanish poet, playwright, graphic designer and visual artist.
Joan Miró i Ferrà (20 April 1893 – 25 December 1983) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona.
Joan Mitchell (February 12, 1925 – October 30, 1992) was an American "second generation" abstract expressionist painter and printmaker.
John Angus Chamberlain (April 16, 1927 – December 21, 2011) was an American sculptor.
For the Chairman of Corrections Corporation of America, see John D. Ferguson. John Duncan Fergusson (9 March 1874 – 30 January 1961) was a Scottish artist and sculptor, regarded as one of the major artists of the Scottish Colourists school of painting.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
John Dwyer McLaughlin (May 21, 1898 – March 22, 1976) was an American abstract painter.
Josef Albers (March 19, 1888March 25, 1976) was a German-born American artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of modern art education programs of the twentieth century.
Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer of consumer goods who co-established Wiener Werkstätte.
Joseph Beuys (12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening, and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist, and pedagogue.
Joseph Csaky (also written Josef Csàky, Csáky József, József Csáky and Joseph Alexandre Czaky) (18 March 1888 – 1 May 1971) was a Hungarian avant-garde artist, sculptor, and graphic artist, best known for his early participation as a sculptor in the Cubist movement.
José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (March 23, 1887 – May 11, 1927), better known as Juan Gris, was a Spanish painter and sculptor born in Madrid who lived and worked in France most of his life.
Jevel Demikovski (March 27, 1922 – February 4, 2007), known professionally as Jules Olitski, was an American painter, printmaker, and sculptor.
Julio González i Pellicer (21 September 1876 - 27 March 1942) was a Spanish sculptor and painter who developed the expressive use of iron as a medium for modern sculpture.
Christiaan Karel Appel (25 April 1921 – 3 May 2006) was a Dutch painter, sculptor, and poet.
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (Karl Schmidt until 1905; 1 December 1884 –10 August 1976) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker; he was one of the four founders of the artist group Die Brücke.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (// ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.–May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century.
Cornelis Theodorus Maria 'Kees' van Dongen (26 January 1877 – 28 May 1968) was a Dutch-French painter who was one of the leading Fauves.
Keisai Eisen (渓斎 英泉, 1790–1848) was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist who specialised in bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women).
Kenneth Noland (April 10, 1924 – January 5, 2010) was an American painter.
Kiasma is a contemporary art museum located on Mannerheimintie in Helsinki, Finland.
Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect.
Koloman Moser (30 March 1868 – 18 October 1918) was an Austrian artist who exerted considerable influence on twentieth-century graphic art and one of the foremost artists of the Vienna Secession movement and a co-founder of Wiener Werkstätte.
Komar and Melamid is a tandem team of Russian-born American conceptualist artists Vitaly Komar (born 1943) and Alexander Melamid (born 1945).
Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover, Germany.
The painter Oswaldo Guayasamín´s La Capilla del Hombre ("The Chapel of Man") occupies a site in Bellavista overlooking the city of Quito, Ecuador.
Land art, variously known as Earth art, environmental art, and Earthworks, is an art movement that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, largely associated with Great Britain and the United States,Art in the modern era: A guide to styles, schools, & movements.
Lawrence Poons (born October 1, 1937), better known as Larry Poons, is an abstract painter who was born in Tokyo, Japan.
Larry Rivers (born Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg, August 17, 1923 – August 14, 2002) was an American artist, musician, filmmaker and occasional actor.
Lawrence "Larry" Zox (May 31, 1937 – December 16, 2006) was an American painter and printmaker who is classified as an Abstract expressionist, Color Field painter and a Lyrical Abstractionist, although he did not readily use those categories for his work.
Las Vegas (Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County.
László Moholy-Nagy (born László Weisz; July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as a professor in the Bauhaus school.
Léopold Frédéric Léopoldowitsch Survage (31 July 1879 – 31 October 1968; variant names Léopold Sturzwage, Leopold Sturwage, Leopoldij Sturzwasgh, Leopoldij Lvovich Sturzwage) was a French painter of Russian-Danish-Finnish descent born in Lappeenranta, Finland (with selected references indicating a birthplace of Moscow, Russia).
Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (English: The Luncheon on the Grass) – originally titled Le Bain (The Bath) – is a large oil on canvas painting by Édouard Manet created in 1862 and 1863.
Lee Bontecou (born January 15, 1931 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American sculptor and printmaker and a pioneer figure in the New York art world.
Lenore "Lee" Krasner (October 27, 1908 – June 19, 1984) was an American abstract expressionist painter in the second half of the 20th century.
Leonid Sokov (Леони́д Петро́вич Со́ков, October 11, 1941, Tver region – April 4, 2018 in Copake, New York, United States) is a Russian nonconformist artist and sculptor.
Les Automatistes were a group of Québécois artistic dissidents from Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon, and originally titled The Brothel of Avignon) is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) and now on exhibit in New York's Museum of Modern Art.
Les Nabis were a group of Post-Impressionist avant-garde artists who set the pace for fine arts and graphic arts in France in the 1890s.
George Leslie Hunter (7 August 1877 – 7 December 1931), was christened simply George Hunter, but he adopted the name Leslie in San Francisco, and Leslie Hunter, became his professional name.
Lester Johnson (January 27, 1919 – May 30, 2010) was an American artist.
The Lille Métropole Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art (LaM), formerly known as Villeneuve d'Ascq Museum of Modern Art, is an art museum in Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
This is a partial list of 20th-century women artists, sorted alphabetically by decades and year of birth.
This is a list of modern artists: important artists who have played a role in the history of modern art, dating from the late 19th century until (approximately) the 1970s.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles.
Louise Nevelson (September 23, 1899 – April 17, 1988) was an American sculptor known for her monumental, monochromatic, wooden wall pieces and outdoor sculptures.
Luc Tuymans (born 1958) is a Belgian artist who lives and works in Antwerp.
Lucian Michael Freud (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists.
Luciano Fabro (November 20, 1936 – June 22, 2007) was an Italian sculptor, conceptual artist and writer associated with the Arte Povera movement.
Lucio Fontana (19 February 1899 – 7 September 1968) was an Italian painter, sculptor and theorist of Argentine birth.
Ludwig Merwart (1 September 1913 – 13 July 1979) was an influential Austrian painter and graphic artist.
Lynda Benglis (born October 25, 1941) is an American sculptor and visual artist known especially for her wax paintings and poured latex sculptures.
Lyrical abstraction is either of two related but distinct trends in Post-war Modernist painting: European Abstraction Lyrique born in Paris, the French art critic Jean José Marchand being credited with coining its name in 1947, considered as a component of (Tachisme) when the name of this movement was coined in 1951 by Pierre Guéguen and Charles Estienne the author of L'Art à Paris 1945–1966, and American Lyrical Abstraction a movement described by Larry Aldrich (the founder of the Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield Connecticut) in 1969.
The Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, who, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light, shade, and colour.
Madge Gill (1882–1961), born Maude Ethel Eades, was an English outsider and visionary artist.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Malcolm Morley (June 7, 1931 – June 1, 2018) was a British-American artist and painter.
Manlio Rho (1901 – 1957) was a painter born in Como, Italy.
Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.
Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, conceptual art, and Dada, although he was careful about his use of the term Dada and was not directly associated with Dada groups.
Marcelle Ferron, (January 29, 1924 – November 19, 2001), a Québécoise painter and stained glass artist, was a major figure in the Quebec contemporary art scene, associated with the Automatistes.
Marino Marini (27 February 1901 – 6 August 1980) was an Italian sculptor.
Mario Merz (1 January 1925 – 9 November 2003) was an Italian artist, and husband of Marisa Merz.
Mario Radice (10 August 1898 – 26 July 1987) was an Italian painter born in Como.
Mark Rothko, born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz (Ма́ркус Я́ковлевич Ротко́вич, Markuss Rotkovičs; September 25, 1903 – February 25, 1970), was an American painter of Russian Jewish descent.
Marlene Dumas (born 1953) is a South African artist and painter.
Marsden Hartley (January 4, 1877 – September 2, 1943) was an American Modernist painter, poet, and essayist.
Mary Stevenson Cassatt (May 22, 1844June 14, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker.
The Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art (متحف: المتحف العربي للفن الحديث) in Doha offers an Arab perspective on modern and contemporary art and supports creativity, promotes dialogue and inspires new ideas.
Maurice Boitel (July 31, 1919 – August 11, 2007) was a French painter.
Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French painter.
Maurice Denis (25 November 1870 – 13 November 1943) was a French painter, decorative artist and writer, who was an important figure in the transitional period between impressionism and modern art.
Max Beckmann (February 12, 1884 – December 27, 1950) was a German painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, and writer.
Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.
Hermann Max Pechstein (December 31, 1881 – June 29, 1955) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker, and a member of the Die Brücke group.
Maximilien Luce (13 March 1858 – 6 February 1941) was a prolific French Neo-impressionist artist, known for his paintings, illustrations, engravings, and graphic art, and also for his anarchist activism.
The McNay Art Museum, founded in 1954 in San Antonio, is the first modern art museum in the U.S. State of Texas.
The Menil Collection, located in Houston, Texas, USA, refers either to a museum that houses the private art collection of founders John de Menil and Dominique de Menil, or to the collection itself of approximately 17,000 paintings, sculptures, prints, drawings, photographs and rare books.
Metaphysical art (Pittura metafisica) was a style of painting developed by the Italian artists Giorgio de Chirico and Carlo Carrà.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Michaël Borremans (born 1963) is a Belgian painter and filmmaker who lives and works in Ghent.
Michael Bowen (December 8, 1937 – March 7, 2009) was an American fine artist known as one of the co-founders of the late 20th and 21st century Visionary art movements. His works include paintings on canvas and paper, 92 intaglio etchings based on Jungian psychology, assemblage, bronze sculpture, collage, and handmade art books. An icon of the American Beat Generation and the 1960s counterculture, Bowen is also known for his role in inspiring and organizing the first Human Be-In in San Francisco. Chronicled in books and periodicals reflecting on the turbulent 1960s, Bowen's historical impact on both the literary and visual art worlds is well documented. He remains influential among avant-garde art circles around the world.
Michael Heizer (born 1944) is a contemporary artist specializing in large-scale and site-specific sculptures.
Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov (Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Ларио́нов; June 3, 1881 – May 10, 1964) was an avant-garde Russian painter.
Mimmo Paladino is an Italian sculptor, painter and printmaker.
Domenico "Mimmo" Rotella, (Catanzaro, 7 October 1918 – Milan, 8 January 2006), was an Italian artist considered an important figure in post-war European art.
Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Mino Argento (born January 5, 1927) is an Italian painter, mainly depicting abstract themes on canvas and paper.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modern art is a developed from the mid-19th century to the 20th century.
Modern Gallery (Moderna galerija) is a museum in Zagreb, Croatia that holds the most important and comprehensive collection of paintings, sculptures and drawings by 19th and 20th century Croatian artists.
Moderna Museet ("the Museum of Modern Art"), Stockholm, Sweden, is a state museum for modern and contemporary art located on the island of Skeppsholmen in central Stockholm, opened in 1958.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Modernisme (Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predominant cultures within Spain.
Morgan Russell (January 25, 1886 – May 29, 1953) was a modern American artist.
Morris Louis Bernstein (November 28, 1912 – September 7, 1962), known professionally as Morris Louis, was an American painter.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (City of Paris' Museum of Modern Art) or MAMVP, is a major municipal museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art of the 20th and 21st centuries.
The Musée d'art moderne de Troyes is one of the two main museums in the French city of Troyes - the other is the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Troyes.
The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine.
The Musée National d'Art Moderne (National Museum of Modern Art) is the national museum for modern art of France.
The Musée Picasso is an art gallery located in the Hôtel Salé in rue de Thorigny, in the Marais district of Paris, France, dedicated to the work of the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973).
The Musée Rodin in Paris, France, is a museum that was opened in 1919, dedicated to the works of the French sculptor Auguste Rodin.
Museo Antropologico y de Arte Contemporaneo (English: "Anthropology and Contemporary Art Museum"), or MAAC is a state-of-the-art museum in Guayaquil, Ecuador celebrating Ecuadorian, Latin American and Pre-Columbian art and culture.
The Museo de Arte Moderno or Museum of Modern Art is located in Chapultepec Park, Mexico City, Mexico.
The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS, also called the Museo Reina Sofía, Queen Sofía Museum, El Reina Sofía, or simply El Reina) is Spain's national museum of 20th-century art.
Museum Ludwig, located in Cologne, Germany, houses a collection of modern art.
Museum of Contemporary Art (Музеј савремене уметности / Muzej savremene umetnosti) is an art museum in Belgrade, Serbia that collects and displays art produced since 1900 in Serbia and former Yugoslavia.
The Museum of Contemporary Art (Muzej suvremene umjetnosti, often abbreviated to MSU) is a contemporary art museum located on Dubrovnik Avenue in Zagreb, Croatia.
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States.
The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.
Nadir Afonso, GOSE (4 December 1920 – 11 December 2013) was a Portuguese geometric abstractionist painter.
Nam June Paik (July 20, 1932 – January 29, 2006) was a Korean American artist.
The Baker Museum (formerly named the Naples Museum of Art) is part of the Artis—Naples campus located at 5833 Pelican Bay Boulevard, Naples, Florida.
Naples is a city in Collier County, Florida, United States.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova (p; July 3, 1881 – October 17, 1962) was a Russian avant-garde artist, painter, costume designer, writer, illustrator, and set designer.
The National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) is the premier art gallery under Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
The National Museum of Contemporary Art (Muzeul Național de Artă Contemporană, or MNAC, in Romanian) is a contemporary art museum in Bucharest, Romania.
Natvar Bhavsar (born 1934) is an Indian - American artist, based in Soho, New York City for nearly 50 years, noted as an abstract expressionist and color field artist.
Naum Gabo, born Naum Neemia Pevsner (23 August 1977) (Hebrew: נחום נחמיה פבזנר), was an influential sculptor, theorist, and key figure in Russia's post-Revolution avant-garde and the subsequent development of twentieth-century sculpture.
Neo Rauch (born 18 April 1960, in Leipzig, East Germany) is a German artist whose paintings mine the intersection of his personal history with the politics of industrial alienation.
Neo-Dada was a movement with audio, visual and literary manifestations that had similarities in method or intent with earlier Dada artwork.
Neo-expressionism is a style of late modernist or early-postmodern painting and sculpture that emerged in the late 1970s.
Neo-figurative art describes an expressionist revival in modern form of figurative art.
New European Painting emerged in the 1980s and reached a critical point of major distinction and influence in the 1990s with painters like Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer and Bracha Ettinger whose paintings have established and continue to create a new dialogue between the historical archive, American Abstraction and figuration.
New media art refers to artworks created with new media technologies, including digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, virtual art, Internet art, interactive art, video games, computer robotics, 3D printing, cyborg art and art as biotechnology.
The New Objectivity (in Neue Sachlichkeit) was a movement in German art that arose during the 1920s as a reaction against expressionism.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nouveau réalisme (new realism) refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and the painter Yves Klein during the first collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan.
Oath of the Horatii (Le Serment des Horaces), is a large painting by the French artist Jacques-Louis David painted in 1784 and now on display in the Louvre in Paris.
Odilon Redon (born Bertrand-Jean Redon;; April 20, 1840July 6, 1916) was a French symbolist painter, printmaker, draughtsman and pastellist.
Op art, short for optical art, is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions.
Orphism or Orphic Cubism, a term coined by the French poet Guillaume Apollinaire in 1912, was an offshoot of Cubism that focused on pure abstraction and bright colors, influenced by Fauvism, the theoretical writings of Paul Signac, Charles Henry and the dye chemist Eugène Chevreul.
Oskar Kokoschka (1 March 188622 February 1980) was an Austrian artist, poet and playwright best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Ossip Zadkine (Осип Цадкин; 28 January 1888 – 25 November 1967) was a Russian-born artist who lived in France.
Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (2 December 1891 – 25 July 1969) was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war.
Otto Koloman Wagner (13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.
Outsider art is art by self-taught or naïve art makers.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Pablo Serrano Aguilar, (8 March 1908, Crivillén, Teruel Province - 26 November 1985, Madrid) was a Spanish abstract sculptor.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
The Palazzo delle Esposizioni is a neoclassical exhibition hall, cultural center and museum on Via Nazionale in Rome, Italy.
The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy.
Papier collé (French: pasted paper or paper cut outs) is a type of collage and collaging technique in which paper is adhered to a flat mount.
Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist.
Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss German artist.
Paul Laffoley (August 14, 1935 – November 16, 2015) was an American visionary artist and architect from Boston, Massachusetts, represented by Kent Fine Art in New York.
Paul Salvator Goldengreen (August 27, 1960 Warburg) is an artist whose work originates in Art Brut / Outsider Art.
Paul Sérusier (9 November 1864 – 7 October 1927) was a French painter who was a pioneer of abstract art and an inspiration for the avant-garde Nabis movement, Synthetism and Cloisonnism.
Paul Victor Jules Signac (11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style.
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting, drawing and other graphic media, in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible in another medium.
Pictorialism is the name given to an international style and aesthetic movement that dominated photography during the later 19th and early 20th centuries.
Meroni Manzoni di Chiosca e Poggiolo, better known as Piero Manzoni (July 13, 1933 – February 6, 1963) was an Italian artist best known for his ironic approach to avant-garde art.
Pierre Alechinsky (born 19 October 1927) is a Belgian artist.
Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947) was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis.
Pierre Gauvreau (23 August 19227 April 2011) was a Québécois painter who has also worked in film and television productions.
Pierre Restany (24 June 1930 – 29 May 2003), was an internationally known French art critic and cultural philosopher.
Pierre Soulages (born 24 December 1919) is a French painter, engraver, and sculptor.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.
Pieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaan, after 1906 Mondrian (later; 7 March 1872 – 1 February 1944), was a Dutch painter and theoretician who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the 20th century.
The Pinakothek der Moderne (Pinakothek of the Modern) is a modern art museum, situated in central Munich's Kunstareal.
Pointillism is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of color are applied in patterns to form an image.
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s.
Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postimpressionism) is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism.
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the end of a war.
Postminimalism is an art term coined (as post-minimalism) by Robert Pincus-Witten in 1971Chilvers, Ian and Glaves-Smith, John, A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art, second edition (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 569.
Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
Precisionism was the first indigenous modern art movement in the United States and an early American contribution to the rise of Modernism.
Proto-Cubism (also referred to as Protocubism, Pre-Cubism or Early Cubism) is an intermediary transition phase in the history of art chronologically extending from 1906 to 1910.
The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts (Музей изобразительных искусств им., also known as ГМИИ) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
Raoul Dufy (3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy.
Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a French sculptor.
Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Red Grooms (born Charles Rogers Grooms on June 7, 1937) is an American multimedia artist best known for his colorful pop-art constructions depicting frenetic scenes of modern urban life.
René Iché (21 January 1897 – 23 December 1954) was a 20th-century French sculptor.
René François Ghislain Magritte (21 November 1898 – 15 August 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist.
Richard Anuszkiewicz (born May 23, 1930) is an American painter, printmaker, and sculptor.
Richard Estes (born May 14, 1932 in Kewanee, Illinois) is an American artist, best known for his photorealist paintings.
Richard William Hamilton CH (24 February 1922 – 13 September 2011) was an English painter and collage artist.
Sir Richard Julian Long, (born 2 June 1945) is an English sculptor and one of the best known British land artists.
Richard Serra (born November 2, 1938) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large-scale assemblies of sheet metal.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Robert Antoine Pinchon (July 1, 1886 in Rouen – January 9, 1943 in Bois-Guillaume) was a French Post-Impressionist landscape painter of the Rouen School (l'École de Rouen) who was born and spent most of his life in France.
Robert Beauchamp (1923 – March 1995) was an American figurative painter and arts educator.
Robert Combas is a French painter and sculptor, born May 25, 1957 in Lyon, France and now living and working in Paris.
Robert Henry De Niro (May 3, 1922 – May 3, 1993), better known as Robert De Niro Sr.,According to the Social Security Death Index.
Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes.
Robert Indiana (born Robert Clark; September 13, 1928 – May 19, 2018) was an American artist associated with the pop art movement.
Robert Mangold (born October 12, 1937) is an American minimalist artist.
Robert Motherwell (January 24, 1915 – July 16, 1991) was an American painter, printmaker, and editor.
Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the pop art movement.
Robert Smithson (January 2, 1938 – July 20, 1973) was an American artist who used photography in relation to sculpture and land art.
Robert Whitman (born 1935 in New York City) is an American artist best known for his seminal theater pieces of the early 1960s combining visual and sound images, actors, film, slides, and evocative props in environments of his own making.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Ronald "Ron" Davis (born 1937), is an American painter whose work is associated with Geometric abstraction, Abstract Illusionism, Lyrical Abstraction, Hard-edge painting, Shaped canvas painting, Color field painting, and 3D Computer Graphics.
Ronnie Landfield (born January 9, 1947) is an American abstract painter.
Rosa Bonheur, born Marie-Rosalie Bonheur, (16 March 1822 – 25 May 1899) was a French artist, an animalière (painter of animals) and sculptor, known for her artistic realism. Her most well-known paintings are Ploughing in the Nivernais, first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1848, and now at Musée d’Orsay in Paris, and The Horse Fair (in French: Le marché aux chevaux), which was exhibited at the Salon of 1853 (finished in 1855) and is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City. Bonheur was widely considered to be the most famous female painter during the nineteenth century.
Roy Fox Lichtenstein (October 27, 1923 – September 29, 1997) was an American pop artist.
The Saatchi Gallery is a London gallery for contemporary art, opened by Charles Saatchi in 1985 in order to exhibit his collection to the public.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Salon d'Automne (Autumn Salon), or Société du Salon d'automne, is an annual art exhibition held in Paris, France since 1903; it is currently held on the Champs-Élysées, between the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, in mid October.
The Salon des Refusés, French for "exhibition of rejects", is generally an exhibition of works rejected by the jury of the official Paris Salon, but the term is most famously used to refer to the Salon des Refusés of 1863.
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.
Samuel Lewis Francis (June 25, 1923 – November 4, 1994) was an American painter and printmaker.
Sam Gilliam (born November 30, 1933) is a color field painter and lyrical abstractionist artist.
Sam Hunter (January 5, 1923 – July 27, 2014) was an American historian of modern art.
Samuel John Peploe (pronounced PEP-low; 27 January 1871 – 11 October 1935) was a Scottish Post-Impressionist painter, noted for his still life works and for being one of the group of four painters that became known as the Scottish Colourists.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) is a modern art museum located in San Francisco, California.
Sandro Chia (born 20 April 1946) is an Italian painter and sculptor.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
The São Paulo Museum of Art (Museu de Arte de São Paulo, or MASP) is an art museum located on Paulista Avenue in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
The São Paulo Museum of Modern Art, (Portuguese: Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, or MAM), is located in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo.
The Scottish Colourists were a group of four painters, three from Edinburgh, whose post-impressionist work, though not universally recognized initially, came to have a formative influence on contemporary Scottish art and culture.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Shaped canvases are paintings that depart from the normal flat, rectangular configuration.
Silvestro Lega (8 December 1826 – 21 September 1895) was an Italian realist painter.
Social realism is the term used for work produced by painters, printmakers, photographers, writers and filmmakers that aims to draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working class and to voice the authors' critique of the social structures behind these conditions.
The Société des Artistes Indépendants (Society of Independent Artists), Salon des Indépendants was formed in Paris on 29 July 1884.
Solomon "Sol" LeWitt (September 9, 1928 – April 8, 2007) was an American artist linked to various movements, including Conceptual art and Minimalism.
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, often referred to as The Guggenheim, is an art museum located at 1071 Fifth Avenue on the corner of East 89th Street in the Upper East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.
Sonia Delaunay (November 14, 1885 – December 5, 1979) was a Ukrainian-born French artist, who spent most of her working life in Paris and, with her husband Robert Delaunay and others, cofounded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colors and geometric shapes.
Soviet art is the visual art that was produced in the Soviet Union.
Spatialism (Spazialismo) is an art movement founded by Italian artist Lucio Fontana in Milan in 1947 in which he grandiosely intended to synthesize colour, sound, space, movement, and time into a new type of art.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Stanton MacDonald-Wright (July 8, 1890 – August 22, 1973), was a modern American artist.
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam (Municipal Museum Amsterdam), colloquially known as the Stedelijk, is a museum for modern art, contemporary art, and design located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst (commonly abbreviated as S.M.A.K., translated as City Museum for Contemporary Art) is a relatively new museum located in Ghent, Belgium, and is renowned both for its permanent collection (Karel Appel, Francis Bacon, Panamarenko, Andy Warhol, etc.) and for its provocative exhibitions.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Pure photography or straight photography refers to photography that attempts to depict a scene or subject in sharp focus and detail, in accordance with the qualities that distinguish photography from other visual media, particularly painting.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Musée d'Art Moderne et Contemporain de Strasbourg (MAMCS, Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art) is an art museum in Strasbourg, France, which was founded in 1973 and opened in its own building in November 1998.
Streamline Moderne, sometimes termed Art Moderne, is a late type of the Art Deco architecture and graphic design/style that emerged in the 1930s.
Stuart Davis (December 7, 1892 – June 24, 1964), was an early American modernist painter.
Suprematism (Супремати́зм) is an art movement, focused on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Synchromism was an art movement founded in 1912 by American artists Stanton MacDonald-Wright (1890-1973) and Morgan Russell (1886-1953).
Tachisme (alternative spelling: Tachism, derived from the French word tache, stain) is a French style of abstract painting popular in the 1940s and 1950s.
Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London.
Tate Liverpool is an art gallery and museum in Liverpool, Merseyside, England, and part of Tate, along with Tate St Ives, Cornwall, Tate Britain, London, and Tate Modern, London.
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London.
Tate St Ives is an art gallery in St Ives, Cornwall, England, exhibiting work by modern British artists with links to the St Ives area.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, (Persian: موزه هنرهای معاصر تهران), also known as TMoCA, is among the largest art museums in Iran.
Telemaco Signorini (August 18, 1835 – February 1, 1901) was an Italian artist who belonged to the group known as the Macchiaioli.
The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought is a book on Modernism by historian William Everdell, published in 1997 by the University of Chicago Press.
The Painter's Studio: A real allegory summing up seven years of my artistic and moral life (L'Atelier du peintre) is an 1855 oil on canvas painting by Gustave Courbet.
The Song of Love (also known as Le chant d'amour or Love Song; 1914) is a painting by the Italian metaphysical painter Giorgio de Chirico.
Theo van Doesburg (30 August 1883 – 7 March 1931) was a Dutch artist, who practiced painting, writing, poetry and architecture.
The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum (in Spanish, the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, named after its founder), or simply the Thyssen, is an art museum in Madrid, Spain, located near the Prado Museum on one of city's main boulevards.
Anthony Peter Smith (September 23, 1912 – December 26, 1980) was an American sculptor, visual artist, architectural designer, and a noted theorist on art.
Ritual and ceremonial masks are an essential feature of the traditional culture of the peoples of a part of Sub-Saharan Africa, e.g. roughly between the Sahara and the Kalahari Desert.
Transavantgarde or Transavanguardia is the Italian version of Neo-expressionism, an art movement that swept through Italy, and the rest of Western Europe, in the late 1970s and 1980s.
The State Tretyakov Gallery (Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya; abbreviated ГТГ, GTG) is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world.
Tribal art is the visual arts and material culture of indigenous peoples.
Umberto Boccioni (19 October 1882 – 17 August 1916) was an influential Italian painter and sculptor.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Vadym Meller or Vadim Meller, (Вадим Георгиевич Меллер;Вадим Георгійович Меллер, 1884–1962) was a Ukrainian-Russian Soviet painter, avant-garde Cubist, Constructivist and Expressionist artist, theatrical designer, book illustrator, and architect.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The Van Gogh Museum is an art museum dedicated to the works of Vincent van Gogh and his contemporaries in Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Venice Biennale (La Biennale di Venezia; in English also called the "Venice Biennial") refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization organizes.
Victor Vasarely (born Győző Vásárhelyi,; –), was a Hungarian-French artist, who is widely accepted as a "grandfather" and leaderThe New York Times obituary https://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/18/arts/victor-vasarely-op-art-patriarch-dies-at-90.html of the op art movement.
Video art is an art form which relies on using video technology as a visual and audio medium.
The Vienna Secession (Wiener Secession; also known as the Union of Austrian Artists, or Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs) was an art movement formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus.
Villeneuve-d'Ascq is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
Visionary art is art that purports to transcend the physical world and portray a wider vision of awareness including spiritual or mystical themes, or is based in such experiences.
Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; – 31 May 1953) was a Soviet painter and architect.
Vorticism was a short-lived modernist movement in British art and poetry of the early 20th century,West, Shearer (general editor), The Bullfinch Guide to Art History, page 883, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, United Kingdom, 1996.
The Walker Art Center is a multidisciplinary contemporary art center in the Lowry Hill neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.
Walker Evans (November 3, 1903 – April 10, 1975) was an American photographer and photojournalist best known for his work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) documenting the effects of the Great Depression.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from antiquity until the present time.
The Whitney Museum of American Art – known informally as the "Whitney" – is an art museum located in Manhattan.
The Wiener Werkstätte (engl.: Vienna Workshop), established in 1903 by Koloman Moser and Josef Hoffmann, was a production community of visual artists in Vienna, Austria bringing together architects, artists and designers working in ceramics, fashion, silver, furniture and the graphic arts.
Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was a Dutch abstract expressionist artist.
William Romeyn Everdell is an American teacher and author.
William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
Wolf Vostell (14 October 1932 – 3 April 1998) was a German painter and sculptor, considered one of the early adopters of video art and installation art and pioneer of Happening and Fluxus.
Percy Wyndham Lewis (18 November 1882 – 7 March 1957) was an English writer, painter and critic (he dropped the name "Percy", which he disliked).
Yoko Ono (小野 洋子, born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese multimedia artist, singer, songwriter, and peace activist who is also known for her work in performance art and filmmaking.
Yves Klein (28 April 1928 – 6 June 1962) was a French artist considered an important figure in post-war European art.
20th-century art—and what it became as modern art—began with modernism in the late 19th century.
20th-century Western painting begins with the heritage of late-19th-century painters Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and others who were essential for the development of modern art.