377 relations: Aalborg University, Abdi Farah Shirdon, Abdiaziz District, Abdirahman Duale Beyle, Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, Abdullahi Issa, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, Abdullahi Yusuf Airport, Adal Sultanate, Addis Ababa, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, Aden Adde International Airport, Administrative divisions of Somalia, African Express Airways, African Union Mission to Somalia, Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, Ahmed Yusuf (Gobroon), Ajuran (clan), Ajuran Sultanate, Al-Shabaab (militant group), Alexander Yusuf, Ali Mahdi Muhammad, Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, Almaty, Amharic, Ankara, Ansaloti Market, Arab League, Arab world, Arabic, Arba'a Rukun Mosque, Asia, Association football, Auto rickshaw, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Ayub Daud, Azzan bin Qais, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, Baggage handling system, Baidoa, Bakaara Market, Bakool, Banaadir, Banadir Stadium, Banana, Barawa, Barkhad Abdi, Battle axe, Battle of Benadir, ..., Battle of Mogadishu (1993), Battle of Ras Kamboni, Bay, Somalia, Beden, Benadir University, Benadiri people, Berbera, Berbera Airport, Berbers, Bondhere District, Bow and arrow, British Somaliland, Cannon, Capital city, Cefalù, Cefalù Cathedral, Central Bank of Somalia, Central Intelligence Agency, Check-in, China, City University of Mogadishu, Coca-Cola, Commerce, Conglomerate (company), Constitution, Constitution of Somalia, Cotton, Coup d'état, Cristina Ali Farah, Cushitic languages, Daallo Airlines, Dagger, Daynile District, Dean (education), Deed, Denmark, Derg, Desert climate, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Dharkenley District, Dictionary.com, Diriye Osman, Djibouti, Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport, Dry cleaning, Duarte Barbosa, East Africa Time, Egypt, Elisa Kadigia Bove, Equator, Ethiopia, Ethiopian National Defense Force, Eunuch, Europe, European Union, Executive (government), Facade, Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Faisal Jeylani Aweys, Fakr ad-Din Mosque, Fatima Siad, Federal Government of Somalia, Federal Parliament of 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Trans-National Industrial Electricity and Gas Company, Transitional federal government, Republic of Somalia, Trust Territory of Somaliland, Turkey, Turkish Airlines, Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency, Turkish Red Crescent, Uganda, UNESCO, Unified Task Force, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Operation in Somalia I, United Nations Operation in Somalia II, United Nations peacekeeping, United Nations Security Council Resolution 733, United Nations Security Council Resolution 746, United Nations Security Council Resolution 794, United States, University of California, University of Djibouti, Variety store, Vasco da Gama, Villa Somalia, Vizier, Waayaha Cusub, Waberi District, Wadajir District, Warta Nabada District, Washington, D.C., Wax, World War I, World War II, Yaqshid District, Yaqut al-Hamawi, Yasmin Warsame, Yasmine Allas, Yemen, Zahra Bani, Zeila, 1969 Somali coup d'état. 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Aalborg University (AAU) is a Danish public university with campuses in Aalborg, Esbjerg, and Copenhagen founded in 1974.
Saacid Farah (Cabdi Faarax Shirdoon; عبدي فارح شردون; born 1958) is a Somali businessman, economist and politician.
Abdiaziz District (Degmada Cabdicasiis), also spelled Abdi Asis District, is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Abdirahman Duale Beyle (Cabdiraxmaan Ducaale Beyle; عبد الرحمن دعاله بايل), also known as Abdirahman D. Beileh, is a Somali economist, professor, politician, philanthropist, poet, and well acclaimed song writer.
Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي) (June 8, 1919 – October 15, 1969) was Prime Minister of Somalia from July 12, 1960, to June 14, 1964, and President of Somalia from June 10, 1967, until his assassination on October 15, 1969.
Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed (Cabdiweli Sheekh Axmed, عبدالولي الشيخ أحمد; born 1959), also known as Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed Mohammad, is a Somali economist and politician.
Abdullahi Issa Mohamud (Cabdullaahi Ciise Maxamuud, عبد الله عيسى محمد (November 11, 1922 – March 11, 1988) was a Somali politician. He was the 1st Prime Minister of Somalia during the trusteeship period, serving from February 29, 1956, to July 1, 1960.
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, عبدالله يوسف أحمد‎; 15 December 1934 – 23 March 2012) was a Somali politician and former Colonel in the Somali National Army.
Abdullahi Yusuf Airport, formerly known as the Galkayo Airport, is an airport located in Galkayo, the capital of the north-central Mudug region of Somalia.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Aden Abdulle Osman Daar (Aadan Cabdulle Cismaan Daar, آدم عبد الله عثمان دار.) (December 9, 1908 – June 8, 2007), popularly known as Aden Adde, was a Somali politician.
Aden Adde International Airport (Garoonka Caalamiga Ee Aadan Cadde, مطار آدم عدي الدولي), Aden Abdulle International Airport, formerly known as Mogadishu International Airport, is an international airport serving Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
Somalia is officially divided into eighteen (18) administrative regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which in turn are subdivided into ninety (90) districts (plural degmooyin; singular degmo).
African Express Airways Somali-owned Kenyan airline with its head office at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Embakasi, Nairobi, Kenya.
The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) is an active, regional peacekeeping mission operated by the African Union with the approval of the United Nations in Somalia.
Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a (ASWJ) (Ahlu Suna Waljamaaca) is a Somalia-based paramilitary group consisting of moderate Sufis opposed to radical Islamist groups such as Al-Shabaab.
Ahmed Yusuf (Axmed Yuusuf, أحمد يوسف) was a Somali ruler.
The Ajuran (Arabic: أجران) is a Somali clan.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
Alexander Yusuf is a Somali-British architect.
Ali Mahdi Muhammad (Cali Mahdi Maxamed, علي مهدي محمد) (born January 1, 1939) is a Somali entrepreneur and politician.
Ali Mohamed Gedi (Cali Maxamed Geedi, علي محمد جيدي) (born 2 October 1952) was the Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia from 2004 to 2007.
The Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) was a Somali political party.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Ansaloti Market (Suuqa Ansaloti) is a public market in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arba'a Rukun Mosque (أربع روكون), also known as Arba Rucun, is a mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
An auto rickshaw is a motorized development of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician.
Ayub Daud (Ayuub Daaud, ايوب داؤود) (born 24 February 1990 in Mogadishu) is a Somali international footballer who plays for Budapest Honvéd FC and the Somalia national team as a forward or attacking midfielder.
Imam Azzan bin Qais (الإمام عزان بن قيس) was the Imam of Oman between 1868 and 1870.
A baggage handling system (BHS) is a type of conveyor system installed in airports that transports checked luggage from ticket counters to areas where the bags can be loaded onto airplanes.
Baidoa (Baydhabo), is capital in the southwestern Bay region of Somalia.
The Bakaara Market (Suuqa Bakaaraha) is an open market in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Bakool (Bakool, باكول) is a region (gobol) in southwestern Somalia.
Benaadir (Banaadir, بنادر) is an administrative region (gobol) in southeastern Somalia.
The Banadir Stadium, or Garoonka Banaadir Stadium in Somali language, until the 1970s was called Coni Stadium because built by the Italian Coni.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
Barkhad Abdi (Barkhad Cabdi) (born April 10, 1985) is a Somali-American actor and director.
A battle axe (also battle-axe or battle-ax) is an axe specifically designed for combat.
The second Ajuran–Portuguese Conflict (1542) was an armed engagement between the Ajuran Sultanate and the Portuguese Empire.
The Battle of Mogadishu, or Day of the Rangers (Maalintii Rangers), was part of Operation Gothic Serpent.
The Battle of Ras Kamboni was a battle in the 2006-2007 Somali War fought by the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) and affiliated militias against Ethiopian and the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) forces for control of Ras Kamboni, a town near the Kenyan border which once served as a training camp for the militant Islamist group Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya.
Bay (Baay, باي) is an administrative region (gobol) in southern Somalia.
The Beden, badan, or alternate type names Beden-seyed and Beden-safar, is a fast, ancient Somali single or double-masted maritime vessel and ship, typified by its towering stern-post and powerful rudder.
Benadir University (BU) (Jaamacadda Banadir, جامعـــة بنـــادر), also known as the University of Benadir, is a private university located in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Benadiri people (Reer Benaadir, بناديري), also known as Reer Xamar (pronounced "Hamar") or "people of Xamar",Abbink, p.18.
Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.
Berbera Airport is an airport in Berbera, a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed province in Somaliland.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bondhere District (Degmada Boondheere) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Cefalù (Cifalù; Kephaloídion, Diod., Strabo, or Κεφαλοιδίς, Ptol.; Cephaloedium, or Cephaloedis, Pliny) is a city and comune in the Province of Palermo, located on the northern coast of Sicily, Italy on the Tyrrhenian Sea about east of the provincial capital and west of Messina.
The Cathedral of Cefalù (Duomo di Cefalù) is a Roman Catholic basilica in Cefalù, Sicily.
The Central Bank of Somalia (CBS) (Bankiga Dhexe ee Soomaaliya, البنك المركزي الصومالي) is the monetary authority of Somalia.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Check-in is the process whereby people announce their arrival at a hotel, airport, sea port, or event.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
City University is a private, not-for-profit foundation university located in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia (Dastuurka Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya) is the supreme law of Somalia.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Cristina Ali Farah (born 1973 in Verona, Italy) is an Italian writer of Somali and Italian origin.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Daallo Airlines is a Somali-owned airline based at Dubai Airport Free Zone in Al Garhoud, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
Daynile District (Degmada Dayniile) is a large district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
In academic administrations such as colleges or universities, a dean is the person with significant authority over a specific academic unit, or over a specific area of concern, or both.
A deed (anciently "an evidence") is any legal instrument in writing which passes, affirms or confirms an interest, right, or property and that is signed, attested, delivered, and in some jurisdictions, sealed.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
The Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD for short, is the German Meteorological Office, based in Offenbach am Main, Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes.
Dharkenley District (Degmada Dharkenley) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Diriye Osman (Diriyeh Cismaan, ديري عثمان) (born in 1983) is a Somali-British short story writer, essayist, critic and visual artist.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport (مطار جيبوتي الدولي, Aéroport international Ambouli) is a joint civilian/military-use airport situated in the town of Ambouli, Djibouti.
Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using a chemical solvent other than water.
Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India (between 1500 and 1516).
East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elisa Kadigia Bove is an Italian actress.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) is the military of Ethiopia.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود; 16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005.
Faisal Jeylani Aweys (Faysal Jaylaani Caweeys, فيصل جيلاني عويس) is a Somali taekwondo practitioner.
The Fakr ad-Din Mosque (مسجد فخر الدين زنكي), also known as Masjid Fakhr al-Din, is the oldest mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Fatima Siad (Fadumo Siyaad, فاطمة سياد) (born December 17, 1986) is a Somali-American fashion model.
The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) (Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya, حكومة الصومال الاتحادية) is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, and the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic.
The Federal Parliament of Somalia (Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya; البرلمان الاتحادي في الصومال; Il parlamento federale della Somalia) is the national parliament of Somalia.
Felix Airways Limited, also known as Al Saeeda, (both meaning "Happy," from the Roman term for Yemen, Arabia Felix) is a regional airline based in Sana'a, Yemen.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
The First Somali Bank (FSB) is a bank headquartered in Mogadishu, Somalia.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
George Wynn Brereton Huntingford (19 November 1901 – 19 February 1978) was an English linguist, anthropologist and historian.
Gezira Beach (also known as Jezira Beach) is a popular tourist attraction near the city of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Governor's Palace (Palazzo del Governatore, Mogadiscio) was the seat of the governor of Italian Somaliland, and then the administrator of the Trust Territory of Somaliland.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf (Xaaji Bashiir Ismaaciil Yuusuf, حاجي بشير اسماعيل يوسف) (b. 1912 in Hobyo, Somalia – d. 1984 in Cairo, Egypt), also spelled Hagi Bashir Ismail Yousuf, was a Somali politician.
Hamar Jajab district (Degmada Xamar Jajab) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Hamar Weyne District (Degmada Xamar Weyne) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region Somalia.
Hargeisa Egal International Airport ((Madaarka Hargaysa ee Cigaal مطار هرجيسا إيغال الدولية) is an airport in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland, self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia. Named after Somaliland's second president Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, the airport underwent major renovations in 2012–2013. In 2002 the airport handled 56,000 passengers & 2,300 tons of cargo on a total of 1,750 landings.http://www.eeas.europa.eu/delegations/somalia/documents/more_info/berbera_corridor_pre_feasibilitystudy_executivesummary_en.pdf.
Hassan Abshir Farah (Xasan Xaraami, حسن ابشير فرح) (born June 20, 1945) is a veteran Somali politician.
Hassan Mohamed Hussein "Muungaab" حسن محمد حسين مونجاب) is a Somali politician. He served as Mayor of Mogadishu & Governor of the Banaadir region between 27 February 2014 to 26 October 2015. He also served as State Minister of Justice between August 2016 to 8 February 2017.
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud (Xasan Sheekh Maxamuud, حسن شيخ محمود; born 29 November 1955) is a Somali politician.
Hawa Abdi Dhiblawe (Xaawo Cabdi, حواء عبدي, born May 17, 1947) is a Somali human rights activist and physician.
The Hawiye (Hawiye, بنو هوية) is a Somali clan.
Hawle Wadag District (Degmada Howlwadaag) is a district in the central Banaadir region of Somalia.
Heritage Institute for Policy Studies (HIPS) is a think tank based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Hodan District (Degmada Hodan) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
The Holdridge life zones system is a global bioclimatic scheme for the classification of land areas.
Hormuud Telecom Somalia Inc. is a privately held telecommunications company based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
House numbering is the system of giving a unique number to each building in a street or area, with the intention of making it easier to locate a particular building.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Huriwa District (Degmada Huriwaa) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Mūsā ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī (علي بن موسى المغربي بن سعيد) (1213–1286), also known as Ibn Saʿīd al-Andalusī, was an Arab geographer, historian, poet, and the most important collector of poetry from al-Andalus in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Zara Mohamed Abdulmajid (Zara Maxamed Cabdulmajiid, ايمان محمد عبد المجيد; born 25 July 1955), mononymously known as Iman ("faith" in Arabic), is a Somali-American fashion model, actress and entrepreneur.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The International Bank of Somalia (IBS) (Bangiga caalamiga ah ee Soomaaliya) is an international bank headquartered in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Islamic banking or Islamic finance (مصرفية إسلامية) or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia (Islamic law) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics.
The Islamic Courts Union (ICU; Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga; اتحاد المحاكم الإسلامية Ittihād al-mahākim al-islāmiyya) was a group of Sharia courts that united themselves to form a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, with Sharif Sheikh Ahmed as their head.
The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (Arabic: البنك الإسلامي للتنمية) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
The Islamic Insurance Company, also known as the TAKAFUL INSURANCE OF AFRICA, is a private insurance firm based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
ISO 9362 defines a standard format of Bank Identifier Codes (also known as SWIFT-BIC, BIC, SWIFT ID or SWIFT code) approved by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Istanbul Atatürk Airport (İstanbul Atatürk Havalimanı) is the main international airport serving Istanbul, and the biggest airport in Turkey by total number of passengers, destinations served and aircraft movements.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Italian Somalis (Italo-Somali) are Somali descendants from Italian colonists, as well as long-term Italian residents in Somalia.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Jama Ali Korshel (Cali Qoorsheel Jaamac, جامع علي قورشيل) was a Somali army Major General and former Head of the Somali Police Force.
Jamhuriya University of Science and Technology (JUST) (جامعة جمهورية للعلوم والتكنولوجيا., Jaamacada Jamhuriya) is an accredited private, higher educational institution in Somalia.
Janale (Janaale, جانالة) is a town in the southeastern Lower Shebelle (Shabeellaha Hoose) region of Somalia.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
Jowhar (Jowhaar, جوهر, Giohar, formerly Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi or simply Villabruzzi) is the capital city of Hirshabelle state of Somalia.
Jubaland (Jubbaland, جوبالاند), the Juba Valley (Dooxada Jubba) or Azania (Asaaniya, آزانيا), is an autonomous region in southern Somalia.
Jubba Airways is a Somali airline.
The Jubba River (Wabiga Jubba, Giuba) is a river in southern Somalia.
The Jubba Valley (Dooxada Jubba) is a valley in East Africa.
Keinan Abdi Warsame better known by his stage name K'naan, is a Somali Canadian poet, rapper, singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist.
K50 Airstrip is an airport in the Lower Shabelle region of Somalia.
Kaaraan District (Degmada Kaaraan) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
Kilwa Kisiwani is a community on an Indian Ocean island off the southern coast of present-day Tanzania in eastern Africa.
King Abdulaziz International Airport (KAIA) (مطار الملك عبدالعزيز الدولي) is an airport located 19 km to the north of Jeddah.
Kismayo (Kismaayo; كيسمايو,; Italian: Chisimaio) is a port city in the southern Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose) province of Somalia.
Ladan Osman (Laadan Cismaan, لادان عثمان) is a Somali-American poet and teacher.
Las Anod (Laascaanood; لاس عانود) is the administrative capital of the Sool region of Somaliland.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Joannes Leo Africanus, (c. 1494 – c. 1554?) (born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي) was a Berber Andalusi diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa (Description of Africa) centered on the geography of the Maghreb and Nile Valley.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of cities in Somalia by population.
This article lists the colonial governors of Italian Somaliland from 1889 to 1941.
Somalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
This is a list of diplomatic missions in Somalia.
This is a list of Presidents of Somalia.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Somalia.
Malindi (known as Melinde in antiquity) is a town on Malindi Bay at the mouth of the Galana River, lying on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.
Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring tradition of the Somali people.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
The Mayor of the Mogadishu is head of the executive branch of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
Media of Somalia includes various radio, television, print and internet outlets.
Merca (Marka, مركة) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
Mihrab (محراب, pl. محاريب) is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus.
The Ministry of Defence (Wasaaradda Gaashaandhigga) is charged with co-ordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Somali Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Education of Somalia (Wasaaradda Waxbarashada) (وزارة التعليم) is a ministry responsible for education in Somalia.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Sir Mohamed Muktar Jama "Mo" Farah, (Maxamed Mukhtaar Jaamac Faarax; born 23 March 1983) is the United Kingdom's most successful distance runner.
The Mogadishu Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Mogadishu Stadium is a stadium in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Mogadishu University (جامعة مقديشو, Jaamacadda Muqdisho) is an accredited non-governmental university in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Mohamed Abdullahi "Farmajo" Mohamed (Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed Farmaajo, محمد عبد الله محمد; born 11 March 1962) is a Somali diplomat and politician who is the 9th and current President of Somalia.
Mohamed Farrah Hassan Aidid (محمد فرح حسن عيديد; December 15, 1934 – August 1, 1996) was a Somali military commander and political leader.
Abdirazak Mohamed Nur (Maxamed Nuur, محمد نور) is a Somali politician.
Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mosque of Islamic Solidarity (Masaajidka Isbaheysiga, جامع التضامن الإسلامى) is a mosque located in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal (Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, محمد الحاج ابراهيم ايغال) (August 15, 1928 – May 3, 2002) was a Somali politician.
Muna Hotel (فندق منى, Funduq Muna, Hotel Muna) is a hotel in Mogadishu, Somalia.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
Musse Olol (Muuse Olool, موسى العالول), also known as Muse A. Olol Diinle, is an engineer and social activist.
Mustafa Hassan Mohamed (Mustafa Xasan Maxamed, مصطفى حسن محمد) (born 1 March 1979) is a Somali-Swedish long-distance runner who mainly competes in the 3000 meter steeplechase.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
Nasra Agil (Nasra Cagil; نصرة العقيل) is a Somali-Canadian civil engineer and entrepreneur.
The National Library of Somalia is a national library in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
The National Museum of Somalia (Matxafka Qarankais, متحف وطني للصومال, Museo Nazionale della Somalia) is a national museum in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
The National Theatre of Somalia is located in central Mogadishu, Somalia.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides.
The Ogaden War was a Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden starting with the Somali Democratic Republic's invasion of Ethiopia.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (Cumar Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, عمر عبد الرشيد علي شرماركي) (born 18 June 1960) is a Somali diplomat and politician.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of Djibouti is a port in Djibouti City, the capital of Djibouti.
The Port of Mogadishu, also known as the Mogadishu International Port, is the official seaport of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defense of Portugal.
In political science and political history, the term power vacuum, also known as a power void, is an analogy between a physical vacuum, to the political condition "when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them." The situation can occur when a government has no identifiable central power or authority.
The President of Somalia (Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia.
A presidential palace is the official residence of the president in some countries.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Radio Mogadishu (Radio Muqdisho, راديو مقديشو) is the federal government-run radio station of Somalia.
Rageh Omaar (Raage Oomaar; راجح عمر; born 19 July 1967) is a Somali-born British journalist and writer.
The Rahaweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxaweyn, رحنوين) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
The Regional Somali Language Academy (RSLA) is an intergovernmental regulating body for the Somali language in the Horn region.
A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
In biogeography and paleontology a relict is a population or taxon of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Mogadiscio (Mogadiscen(sis)) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church located in the city of Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sa'id of Mogadishu (Saciid min Muqdisho, rtl Sa'iid min maqadīshū) was a 14th-century Somali scholar and traveler.
Saba Anglana (born November 17, 1970) is a Somali-Italian actress and international singer.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
Salaad Gabeyre Kediye (Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, 1933 – 3 July 1972), also known as Salah Gaveire Kedie, was a Somali senior military official and a revolutionary.
The Salaam Somali Bank (SSB) is a bank headquartered in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Sarapion (Σαράπιον, also spelled Serapion), was an ancient port city in present-day Somalia.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Shabelle Media Network (SMN) is a Radio and Television news organization based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shangani District (Degmada Shangaani) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Abd Al-Rahman bin Abdallah al Shashi (عبد الرحمن بن عبد الله الشاشي) (b. 1829 - 1904), popularly known as Shaykh Sufi, was a 19th-century Somali scholar, poet, reformist and astrologist.
The Shebelle River (Webi Shabeelle, نهر الشبيل, እደላ, Uebi Scebeli) begins in the highlands of Ethiopia, and then flows southeast into Somalia towards Mogadishu.
The Shebelle Valley (Dooxada Shabeelle), also spelled Shabeelle Valley, is a valley in the Horn of Africa.
Shibis District (Degmada Shibis) is a district of the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
SIMAD University is a private university in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The solar azimuth angle is the azimuth angle of the Sun's position.
Somali Airlines was the flag carrier of Somalia.
The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
The 2009–present phase of the Somali Civil War is concentrated in southern Somalia.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
Somali Energy Company (SECO) is a private energy firm based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Somali Film Agency (SFA) was a film regulatory body based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Somali First Division (Heerka Koowaad ee Soomaali, دوري الدرجة الأولى الصومالية) also known as Serie A, is the Somali professional league for men's football association.
The Somali Football Federation (SFF) (Xiriirka Soomaaliyeed ee Kubadda Cagta, الاتحاد الصومالي لكرة القدم) was founded in 1951, and it is one of the national administrative governing bodies of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) responsible for organizing and controlling the sport of football and its competitions (the first, second, and third divisions, as well as the Cup) in the Federal Republic of Somalia, as well as the Somalia national football team.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
Somali National Television (SNTV) (Telefishinka Qaranka Soomaaliyeed) is the national television station of Somalia.
Somali National University (SNU) (Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed, الجامعة الوطنية الصومالية) is a national university in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
The Somali Olympic Committee (Guddiga Olimbikada Soomaaliyeed) is the National Olympic Committee representing Somalia.
The Somali Police Force (SPF; Ciidanka Booliska Soomaaliya (CBS); قوة الشرطة الصومالية) is the national police force and the main civil law enforcement agency of Somalia.
The Somali Postal Service (Somali Post) is the national postal service of Somalia.
The Somali Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, Repubblica Somala, جمهورية الصومال) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland).
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Somalia Cup is the top knockout football tournament in Somalia.
The Somalia national basketball team is the national basketball team of Somalia.
The Somalia national Taekwondo team is the national taekwondo squad of Somalia.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
The State of Somaliland was a short-lived independent state in the territory of present-day northwestern Somalia, which is also known as the self-declared Republic of Somaliland.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Mogadishu (Saldanadda Muqdisho, سلطنة مقديشو) (fl. 10th-16th centuries), also known as the Kingdom of Magadazo, was a medieval Somali trading empire centered in southern Somalia.
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Saldanadda Geledi, سلطنة غلدي) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century.
The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Usultani wa Zanzibar, translit), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar is the sovereign.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) (Gollaha Sare ee Kacaanka, المجلس الثوري الأعلى) was the governmental body that ruled Somalia from 1969 to 1976.
The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.
TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".
Telcom is a telecommunications network operator in Somalia.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.
The Trans-National Industrial Electricity and Gas Company is an energy conglomerate based in Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) (Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was the internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended and the Federal Government of Somalia was inaugurated.
The Trust Territory of Somaliland (officially, the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration") was a United Nations Trust Territory situated in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.
The Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (Türk İşbirliği ve Koordinasyon İdaresi Başkanlığı, TİKA) is a government department of the Prime Ministry of Turkey.
Turkish Red Crescent (Turkish: Türk Kızılayı (official) or Kızılay (for short)) is the largest humanitarian organization in Turkey and is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December 1992 – 4 May 1993.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was the first part of a United Nations (UN) sponsored effort to provide, facilitate, and secure humanitarian relief in Somalia, as well as to monitor the first UN-brokered ceasefire of the Somali Civil War conflict in the early 1990s.
United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
United Nations Security Council resolution 733, adopted unanimously on 23 January 1992, after expressing its alarm at the situation in Somalia regarding the heavy loss of life, destruction to property and threat to regional stability, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, decided to place a "general and complete" arms embargo on the country for the purposes of establishing peace and stability.
United Nations Security Council resolution 746, adopted unanimously on 17 March 1992, after reaffirming Resolution 733 (1992), noting a ceasefire agreement in Mogadishu and a report by the Secretary-General, the Council urged the continuation of the United Nations humanitarian work in Somalia and strongly supported the Secretary-General's decision to dispatch a technical team there.
United Nations Security Council resolution 794, adopted unanimously on 3 December 1992, after reaffirming resolutions 733 (1992), 746 (1992), 751 (1992), 767 (1992) and 775 (1992), the Council " grave alarm" regarding the situation in Somalia and authorised the creation of the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to create a "secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia" in order to provide "essential for the survival of the civilian population".
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Djibouti is a public university in Djibouti City, the capital of Djibouti.
A variety store (also pound shop, dollar store, and other names) is a retail store that sells a wide range of inexpensive household goods.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Villa Somalia (Madaxtooyada Soomaaliya, فيلا الصومال) is a building in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Waayaha Cusub ("The New Era") is a Somali musical collective.
Waberi District (Degmada Waaberi) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Wadajir District (Degmada Wadajir), also called Medina District or Madina DistrictAlexandra Geiser: Auskunft der SFH-Länderanalyse, 2010-08-19, accessdate: 5.
Warta Nabada District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yaqshid District (Degmada Yaaqshiid) is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.
Yāqūt ibn-'Abdullah al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) (ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Arab biographer and geographer of Greek origin, renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.
Yasmin Abshir Warsame (Yasmiin Abshir Warsame, ياسمين ابشير ارسام; born May 5, 1976) is a Canadian model and activist of Somali origin.
Yasmine Allas (Yasmiin Callas, ياسمين أهلك) is a Somali-Dutch actress and writer.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zahra Bani (born 31 December 1979 in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Somali-Italian javelin thrower.
Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
The 1969 Somali coup d'état was the bloodless takeover of Somalia's government on 21 October 1969 by far-left military officers of the Supreme Revolutionary Council led by Siad Barre.
Al Buruuj, Al-Imran primary school, Capital of Somalia, Daru-Salam City, Magadish, Magadoxo, Makadishu, Maqad sjah, Maqadishu, Maqadīshū, Mogadiscio, Mogadiscio under Italian rule, Mogadish, Mogadisho, Mogadishu (Italian Somaliland), Mogadishu, Banadir, Somalia, Mogadishu, Italian Somaliland, Mogadishu, Somalia, Mugadisho, Mukdishu, Muqdisho, The Mog.