239 relations: A Letter for Tomorrow, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, Abdollah Nouri, Abdolvahed Mousavi Lari, Ahmad Khatami, Ahmad Khorram, Ahmad Masjed-Jamei, Ahmad Motamedi, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Al Gore, Al-Farabi, Ali Abdolalizadeh, Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri, Ali Khamenei, Ali Khatami, Ali Larijani, Ali Shamkhani, Ali Soufi, Ali Younesi, Alliance of Civilizations, Ancient Greece, Angela Merkel, Arabic, Ardakan, Aristotle, Association of Combatant Clerics, Ata'ollah Mohajerani, Azadeh Moaveni, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Bachelor of Arts, Bahman Cultural Center, Bam, Iran, BARAN Foundation, Bashar al-Assad, BBC, Bijan Namdar Zangeneh, Bill Clinton, Blog, Chandrika Kumaratunga, Chelcheragh, Chemical weapon, City and Village Councils of Iran, Civil society, Clash of Civilizations, Colin Powell, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Contemporary Islamic philosophy, Culture minister, Dariush Shayegan, Davos, ..., Democracy, Dialogue Among Civilizations, Dick Cheney, Doha, Ebrahim Yazdi, Economic reconstruction, Election boycott, English language, Eshaq Jahangiri, Esmail Shooshtari, European Union, Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Free market, Freedom of speech, Funeral of Pope John Paul II, Geneva, German language, Germany, Gholamhossein Karbaschi, Ghorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi, Google, Gross domestic product, Guardian Council, Habibollah Bitaraf, Hafez al-Assad, Hamburg, Hassan Habibi, Hassan Rouhani, Hillary Clinton, Hoover Institution, Hossein Kamali, Hossein Mozaffar, Hossein Namazi, Hugo Chávez, Ijtihad, Industrial engineering, Industrialisation, Iran, Iranian calendars, Iranian legislative election, 1980, Iranian legislative election, 1992, Iranian legislative election, 2004, Iranian peoples, Iranian presidential election, 1997, Iranian presidential election, 2001, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian presidential election, 2013, Iranian Reformists, Iranian Revolution, Iranian rial, Iraq, Isa Kalantari, Isfahan, Islamic Centre Hamburg, Islamic Coalition Party, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Iran Participation Front, Islamic Republic News Agency, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Israel, Jacques Chirac, Jafar Towfighi, Javad Tabatabai, Johannes Rau, John Kerry, Jorge Sampaio, Joseph Deiss, Kamal Kharazi, Kayhan, Kazem Mousavi-Bojnourdi, Kōichirō Matsuura, Khatib, Kjell Magne Bondevik, Klaus Schwab, Kofi Annan, Lebanese University, Left-wing politics, Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, Lionel Jospin, List of mayors of Tehran, Macroeconomics, Madeleine Albright, Mahathir Mohamad, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud Hojjati, Manouchehr Yazdi, Mary Robinson, Masoud Pezeshkian, Master's degree, Ministry of Commerce (Iran), Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (Iran), Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance (Iran), Ministry of Education (Iran), Ministry of Energy (Iran), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iran), Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Ministry of Industries and Mines (Iran), Ministry of Information and Communications Technology of Iran, Ministry of Intelligence, Ministry of Interior (Iran), Ministry of Justice (Iran), Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Iran), Ministry of Petroleum (Iran), Ministry of Roads and Transportation (Iran), Ministry of Roads and Urban Development (Iran), Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (Iran), Ministry of Welfare and Social Security, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Mohammad Farhadi, Mohammad Khatami presidential campaign, 2009, Mohammad Reza Aref, Mohammad Reza Tabesh, Mohammad Saeedikia, Mohammad Shariatmadari, Mohammad-Reza Khatami, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow State University, Moshe Katsav, Mostafa Moeen, Muhammad, Muqtada al-Sadr, Musa al-Sadr, Nasser Khaleghi, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, National Library of Iran, Neelain University, New York University Tandon School of Engineering, Nuclear weapon, OECD, Palestinians, Pegah Ahangarani, Persian Gulf, Persian Jews, Persian language, Political philosophy, Politics, Politics of Iran, Pope John Paul II, Poverty threshold, President of Iran, President of Ireland, President of Israel, President of Portugal, President of Sri Lanka, President of the Swiss Confederation, Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister of Norway, Qatar, Qom, Rahman Dadman, Romano Prodi, Ruhollah Khatami, Ruhollah Khomeini, Safavid dynasty, Safdar Hosseini, Samuel P. Huntington, Sayyid, Second lieutenant, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Sharif University of Technology, Shia Islam, Simon & Schuster, Subsidy, Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, Supreme leader, Tahmasb Mazaheri, The Man with the Chocolate Robe, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tony Blair, UNESCO, United Nations, United States dollar, University of Delhi, University of Isfahan, University of St Andrews, University of Tehran, Vice President of Iran, Vladimir Putin, Washington, D.C., Western philosophy, World Bank, Yaldā Night, Yazd, Yazd Province, Zahra Eshraghi, 2003 Bam earthquake, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests. Expand index (189 more) » « Shrink index
A Letter for Tomorrow (نامهای برای فردا; also translated Letter for the Future) is an open letter first published on 3 May 2004, by then-President of Iran Mohammad Khatami, addressing Iranian citizens, especially the youth.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika, GColIH (عبد العزيز بوتفليقة ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Būtaflīqa; born 2 March 1937) is an Algerian politician who has been the fifth President of Algeria since 1999.
Abdollah Noori (عبدالله نوری) is an Iranian cleric and reformist politician.
Abdolvahed Mousavi Lari (born 1954) is an Iranian Shia cleric and reformist politician.
Sayyid Ahmad Khatami (احمد خاتمی, born 8 May 1960) is a senior Iranian cleric, as well as a senior member of the Assembly of Experts.
Ahmad Khorram (احمد خرم, born 1950) is Iranian politician.
Ahmad Masjed-Jamei (احمد مسجدجامعی) is an Iranian reformist politician and academic who was chairman of City Council of Tehran from 3 September 2013 until 3 September 2014.
Seyyed Ahmad Motamedi (سید احمد معتمدی; born 1953 in Tehran) is an Iranian politician & member of Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)'s Electrical Engineering faculty.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Ali Abdolalizadeh (علی عبدالعلیزاده) is an Iranian reformist politician who held office as the Minister of Housing and Urban Development under President Mohammad Khatami.
Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri (علیاکبر ناطقنوری; sometimes spelt Nategh-Nouri) (born 6 October 1944) is an Iranian politician.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Khatami is the younger brother of former Iranian president, Mohammed Khatami, and served as his chief of staff during his second term in office.
Ali Larijani (علی لاریجانی,; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian conservative politician, philosopher and former military officer who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008.
Ali Shamkhani (Persian and Khuzestani Arabic: علی شمخانی, born 29 September 1955) is an Iranian Rear Admiral Upper Half.
Ali Soufi (علی صوفی) is an Iranian reformist politician.
Ali Younesi (born 1 January 1951) is an Iranian politician, who served in different positions.
The United Nations Alliance of Civilizations (UNAOC) is an initiative proposed by the President of the Government of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, at the 59th General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) in 2005.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ardakan (اردكان, also Romanized as Ardakān and Artagan) is the capital city of Ardakan County, Yazd Province, Iran.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Association of Combatant Clerics (majma'-e rowhāniyūn-e mobārez) is an Iranian reformist clerical political party.
Seyyed Ata'ollah Mohajerani (سید عطاءالله مهاجرانی, born 24 July 1954 in Arak, Iran) is an Iranian historian, journalist, author and reformist politician.
Azadeh Moaveni (آزاده معاونى, born 1976 in Palo Alto, California) is an Iranian–American journalist and writer.
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) (Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası (AMEA)), located in Baku, is the main state research organization and the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Azerbaijan.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
The Bahman Cultural Center (Bahman Farhangsara) is municipally created public space for cultural advancement in Tehran.
Bam (بم) is a city and capital of Bam County, Kerman Province, Iran.
Foundation for Freedom, Growth and Development of Iran (بنیاد آزادی، رشد و آبادانی ایران), backronymed BARAN Foundation (بنیاد باران, meaning Rain Foundation) is an Iranian not-for-profit non-governmental organization headed by Mohammad Khatami.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bijan Namdar Zangeneh (بيژن نامدار زنگنه; born June 1951) is an Iranian politician, who served as minister at different cabinets after the Islamic Revolution for 32 years.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (චන්ද්රිකා බණ්ඩාරනායක කුමාරතුංග,சந்திரிகா பண்டாரநாயக்க குமாரதுங்க; born 29 June 1945) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the fifth President of Sri Lanka, from 12 November 1994 to 19 November 2005.
Chelcheragh (Chandelier in English) is a weekly social and news magazine printed in Tehran, Iran.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
City and Village Councils are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
Contemporary Islamic philosophy revives some of the trends of medieval Islamic philosophy, notably the tension between Mutazilite and Asharite views of ethics in science and law, and the duty of Muslims and role of Islam in the sociology of knowledge and in forming ethical codes and legal codes, especially the fiqh (or "jurisprudence") and rules of jihad (or "just war").
A culture minister is a Cabinet position in governments.
Dariush Shayegan (داریوش شایگان; 2 February 1935 – 22 March 2018) was an Iranian philosopher and cultural theorist.
Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Former Iranian president Mohammad Khatami introduced the idea of Dialogue Among Civilizations as a response to Samuel P. Huntington’s theory of a Clash of Civilizations.
Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
Ebrahim Yazdi (ابراهیم یزدی; 26 September 1931 – 27 August 2017) was an Iranian politician and diplomat who served as deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs in the interim government of Mehdi Bazargan, until his resignation in November 1979, in protest at the Iran hostage crisis.
Economic reconstruction refers to a process for creating a proactive vision of economic change.
An election boycott is the boycotting of an election by a group of voters, each of whom abstains from voting.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eshaq Jahangiri Kouhshahi (اسحاق جهانگیری کوهشاهی, born 21 January 1958) is an Iranian politician and first vice president of Hassan Rouhani's government.
Esmail Shooshtari (born 1949 in Quchan, Khorasan province) was the Minister of Justice of the Islamic Republic of Iran for 1997-2005.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Federico Mayor Zaragoza (born 27 January 1934 in Barcelona) is a Spanish scientist, scholar, politician, diplomat, and poet.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The funeral of Pope John Paul II was held on 8 April 2005, six days after his death on 2 April.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gholamhossein Karbaschi (غلامحسین کرباسچی, born 23 August 1954) is an Iranian politician who was the Mayor of Tehran from 1990 until 1998.
Ghorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi (قربانعلی دری نجفآبادی.; born 1950) is an Iranian politician and cleric, previously the Minister of Intelligence of Islamic Republic of Iran.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Habibolah Bitaraf (حبیبالله بیطرف) is an Iranian reformist politician.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hassan Ebrahim Habibi (29 January 1937 – 31 January 2013) was an Iranian politician, lawyer, scholar and the first vice president from 1989 until 2001 under Presidents Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
Hossein Kamali (حسین کمالی; born 27 July 1953) is an Iranian politician and the current secretary-general of Islamic Labour Party.
Hossein Mozaffar (حسین مظفر) is an Iranian conservative politician who was Minister of Education under President Mohammad Khatami and represented Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr in the Parliament of Iran twice.
Hossein Namazi (حسین نمازی) is an Iranian economist and academic, who served in different cabinet posts.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian calendars (گاهشماری ایرانی Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia).
Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 13 March 1980, with a second round on 9 May.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 10 April 1992, with a second round on 8 May.
The Iranian parliamentary elections of February 20 and May 7, 2004 were a victory for Islamic conservatives over the reformist parties.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iranian presidential election of 1997 took place on 23 May 1997, which resulted in an unpredicted win for the reformist candidate Mohammad Khatami.
Iranian presidential election of 2001 took place on 8 June 2001, and resulted in Mohammad Khatami being elected as the President of Iran for his second term.
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013.
The Iranian reformists (Eslâh-Talabân) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iranian rial (ریال ایران Riâl Irân; ISO 4217 code IRR) is the currency of Iran.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isa Kalantari (عیسی کلانتری, born 1952 in Marand, East Azerbaijan) is an Iranian politician and the current head of Department of Environment.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
The Islamic Centre Hamburg (German: Islamisches Zentrum Hamburg) is one of the oldest mosques in Germany and Europe.
The Islamic Coalition Party (ICP; Ḥezb-e moʾtalefa-ye eslāmi) is a conservative political party in Iran that favors economic liberalism.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Iran Participation Front (جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی; Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami) is a reformist political party in Iran.
The Islamic Republic News Agency (خبرگزاری جمهوری اسلامی), or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
Jafar Towfighi Darian (born 19 March 1956) is an Iranian chemical engineer, academic, politician and senior consultant of ministry of science, research and technology who served as minister of science, research and technology for two terms.
Javad Tabatabai (born 1945 in Tabriz) is an Iranian philosopher and political scientist.
Johannes Rau (16 January 193127 January 2006) was a German politician of the SPD.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio, GColTE, GCIH, GColL (born 18 September 1939) is a Portuguese lawyer and politician who was the 18th President of Portugal from 1996 to 2006.
Joseph Deiss (born 18 January 1946) is an economist, Swiss politician and a member of the Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP/PDC).
Seyed Kamal Kharazi (کمال خرازی, born 1 December 1944) is an Iranian reformist politician and diplomat who was the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 20 August 1997 to 24 August 2005 as appointed by President Mohammad Khatami serving for eight years.
Kayhan (کيهان, The Cosmos) is a newspaper in Iran.
Seyyed Mohammad-Kazem Mousavi-Bojnourdi (born 1942 in Najaf, Iraq) is an Iranian historian, theologian and writer.
is a Japanese diplomat.
In Islam, a khatib, khateeb or hatib (Arabic خطيب khaṭīb) is a person who delivers the sermon (khuṭbah) (literally "narration"), during the Friday prayer and Eid prayers.
Kjell Magne Bondevik (born 3 September 1947) is a Norwegian Lutheran minister and politician (Christian Democratic Party).
Klaus Martin Schwab (born 30 March 1938) is a German engineer and economist, best known as the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
The Lebanese University (Université libanaise, الجامعة اللبنانية) is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.
Lionel Jospin (born 12 July 1937) is a French politician, who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997 to 2002.
The Mayor of Tehran is an elected politician who, along with the Tehran’s City Council of 21 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Tehran.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat.
Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (Jawi:محضير بن محمد; IPA:; born 10 July 1925) is a Malaysian politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Malaysia for the second time.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Mahmoud Hojjati (محمود حجتی, born 9 October 1955) is an Iranian politician and current Minister of Agriculture, a position he has held since 2013 and formerly from January 2001 to 2005, in the cabinet of Mohammad Khatami.
Manouchehr Yazdi (منوچهر یزدی) is an Iranian teacher and pan-Iranist politician who served as a member of parliament from 1975 to 1979.
Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (née Bourke; Máire Bean Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) is an Irish Independent politician who served as the 7th President of Ireland, she was the first female to hold this office.
Masoud Pezeshkian (مسعود پزشکیان, born 29 September 1954 in Mahabad from Azerbaijani family) is an Iranian reformist politician who is currently representatiing Tabriz, Osku and Azarshahr electoral district in the Parliament of Iran and serves as its First Deputy Speaker since 29 May 2016.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
The Ministry of Commerce of Iran was the main organ of the Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to domestic and foreign trade.
The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی also known as Ershad ارشاد) is the ministry of Culture of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL; وزارت دفاع و پشتیبانی نیروهای مسلح) is the defence ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran, reestablished in 1989.
The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance's functions are.
The Ministry of Education (وزارت آموزش و پرورش ایران) established in 1964, is an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of K-12 education in Iran.
Ministry of Energy (وزارت نیرو Vezârat-e Niru), is the main organ of the Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to energy, electricity, water and wastewater services.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (وزارت امور خارجه Vezārat-e Omūr-e Khārejeh) is an Iranian government ministry headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who is a member of cabinet.
The Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) has executive responsibility for health and medical education within the Iranian government.
Ministry of Industries and Mines of Iran (Wezārate Sannāye wa Maādene Irān), is the main organ of Iranian Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to industrial and mine sectors.
The Ministry of Information and Communications Technology, or Ministry of ICT (وزارت ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات) established in 1908, is responsible for postal services, telephones and information technology in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: وِزارَتِ اِطّلاعات جُمهوریِ اِسلامیِ ایران Vezarat-e Ettela'at Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran and a member of the Iran Intelligence Community.
The Ministry of Interior (وزارت کشور) of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in charge of performing, supervising and reporting elections, policing, and other responsibilities related to an interior ministry.
Established in 1906, the Minister of Justice is responsible for prosecuting government cases.
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of Iran (وزارت کار و امور اجتماعی), was the main organ of Iranian Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to labour and social affairs.
The Ministry of Petroleum (MOP) (وزارت نفت Vezârat-e Naft) manages the oil industry, the producer of oil and petrochemical products.
Ministry of Roads and Transportation of Iran (وزارت راه و ترابری), was the main organ of Iranian Government responsible for administration of roadway, railway, airway and seaway transport inside the country and transport connections between Iran and other countries.
The Ministry of Roads and Urban Development (وزارت راه و مسكن) is an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of Construction industry, roadway, railway, airway and seaway transport inside the country and transport connections between Iran and other countries that formed on 27 June 2011.
The Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (MSRT) is the government ministry of science, research and technology in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Ministry of Welfare and Social Security (وزارت رفاه و تأمین اجتماعی) established in 2004 and dissolved in 2011, was an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of Social security in Iran.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
Mohammad Farhadi (محمد فرهادی, born 1 January 1949 in Shahroud) is an Iranian physician, politician and former Minister of Science, a position he held from 26 November 2014 until 20 August 2017.
Mohammad Khatami, former President of Iran, announced his candidacy for 2009 Iranian presidential election on 8 February 2009.
Mohammad Reza Aref (محمدرضا عارف, born 19 December 1951) is an Iranian engineer, academic and reformist politician who is currently parliamentary leader of reformists' Hope fraction in the Iranian Parliament, representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr.
Mohammad Reza Tabesh (محمدرضا تابش, born 26 September 1956) is an Iranian reformist politician who is currently a member of the Parliament of Iran representing Ardakan electoral district.
Mohammad Saeedikia (born 1946) is an Iranian politician who served as government minister in different cabinets, the last of which was minister of housing and urban development from 2005 to 2009.
Mohammad Shariatmadari (born 24 June 1960) is an Iranian politician who had been serving as Minister of Industry since 2017.
Mohammad-Reza Khatami (محمدرضا خاتمی, born 1959) is an Iranian politician and nephrologist.
Moscow State Institute of International Relations (Московский государственный институт международных отношений (Университет) МИД России, often abbreviated as MGIMO University, MGIMO (МГИМО)) is an academic institution run by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, which is considered the most elite university in Russia.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
Moshe Katsav (מֹשֶׁה קַצָּב; born 5 December 1945 in Yazd, Iran) is an Iranian-born Israeli former politician who was the eighth President of Israel from 2000 to 2007.
Mostafa Moeen (مصطفی معین; born 1 April 1951 in Najafabad, Isfahan), is an Iranian politician, professor of Pediatrics, and a human right activist which is currently founder and president of Center for Human Rights and Democracy in Iran.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muqtada al-Sadr (Muqtadā ṣ-Ṣadr; born 12 August 1973) is an Iraqi Shia cleric, politician and militia leader.
Musa al-Sadr (سید موسى صدر; 4 June 1928 – disappeared in Libya on 31 August 1978) is a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher and Shi'a religious leader from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel. Born in the Cheharmardan neighbourhood of Qom, Iran, he underwent both seminary and secular studies in Iran. He left Qom for Najaf to study theology and returned to Iran after the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état. He belongs to the Sadr family from Jabal Amel in Lebanon, a branch of Musawi family tracing to Musa Ibn Jaafar, the seventh Shia Imam and ultimately to the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima. Therefore Musa al-Sadr is often styled with the honorific title Sayyid. Some years later, Sadr went to Tyre, Lebanon as the emissary of Ayatollahs Borujerdi and Hakim. Fouad Ajami called him a "towering figure in modern Shi'i political thought and praxis"., chapter 26 He gave the Shia population of Lebanon "a sense of community". In Lebanon, he founded and revived many organizations including schools, charities, and the Amal Movement. On 25 August 1978, Sadr and two companions departed for Libya to meet with government officials at the invitation of Muammar Gaddafi. The three were last seen on 31 August. They were never heard from again. Many theories exist around the circumstances of Sadr's disappearance, none of which have been proven.
Nasser Khaleghi (ناصر خالقی) is an Iranian reformist politician.
The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA;Εθνικὸν καὶ Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Ἀθηνῶν, Ethnikón kai Kapodistriakón Panepistímion Athinón), usually referred to simply as the University of Athens (UoA), is a public university in Zografou, a suburb of Athens, Greece.
The National Library of Iran (NLI) is located in Tehran, Iran, with several branches scattered throughout the city.
Al-Neelain University is a public university located in Khartoum, Sudan.
The New York University Tandon School of Engineering (commonly referred to as Tandon) is the engineering and applied sciences school of New York University.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Pegah Ahangarani (پگاه آهنگرانی; born July 24, 1984) is an Iranian actress and Film director.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian Jews or Iranian Jews (جهودان ایرانی, יהודים פרסים) are Jews historically associated with the Persian Empire, whose successor state is Iran.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
The politics of Iran take place in a framework of a theocracy in a format of syncretic politics that is guided by Islamic ideology.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.
The President of the Portuguese Republic (Presidente da República Portuguesa) is the executive head of state of Portugal.
The President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi; இலங்கை சனாதிபதி Ilankai janātipati) is the executive head of state and head of government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and commander-in-chief of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
The President of the Confederation, colloquially known as the President of Switzerland or Federal President, is the head of Switzerland's seven-member Federal Council, the country's executive branch.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
The Prime Minister of Norway (statsminister, literally the "minister of the state") is the head of government of Norway and the most powerful person in Norwegian politics.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Rahman Dadman (رحمان دادمان) was an Iranian politician born in Ardabil.
Romano Prodi (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician who served as the 10th President of the European Commission from 1999 to 2004.
Ruhollah Khatami (28 October 1906 – 27 October 1988) was a senior Iranian cleric in the city of Yazd.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Safdar Hosseini (صفدر حسینی; born 1954) is an Iranian academic and politician, who has served in various cabinet posts.
Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Sharif University of Technology (SUT, دانشگاه صنعتی شریف) is a public research university in Tehran, Iran and is widely considered to be the nation's leading institution for engineering and physical science disciplines.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution (SCRC; شورای عالی انقلاب فرهنگی, also translated the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council) is a conservative-dominated body based in Qom, was set up at the time of Ayatollah Khomeini.
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.
Tahmasb Mazaheri (born 12 February 1953) is an Iranian politician and economist.
A Night with: The Man with the Chocolate Robe (مردی با عبای شکلاتی) was the title of an event held on December 22, 2005, in honor of former Iranian president Mohammad Khatami after the end of his last term in office.
is a national research university located in Greater Tokyo Area, Japan.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Delhi, informally known as Delhi University (DU), is a collegiate public central university, located in New Delhi, India.
University of Isfahan (UI) (Persian: دانشگاه اصفهان Dāneshgāh-e Esfāhān) is a state-operated university in Isfahan and among the top 10 comprehensive universities of Iran.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
The Vice President of Iran (معاون ریاست جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Shab-e Yalda ("Yalda night" شب یلدا) or Shab-e Chelleh ("night of forty", شب چله) is an Iranian festival celebrated on the "longest and darkest night of the year," Yalda is a winter solstice celebration, that is, in the night of the Northern Hemisphere's winter solstice.
Yazd (یزد), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran.
Yazd Province (استان یزد, Ostān-e Yazd) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Zahra Eshraghi (translit) (born 1964) is an Iranian activist and former government official who believes in feminism and human rights.
The 2003 Bam earthquake struck the Kerman province of southeastern Iran at 01:56 UTC (5:26 AM Iran Standard Time) on December 26.
Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.
H.E. M. Khatami, Hojatoleslam Mohammad Khatami, Hojjatol-Islam Mohammad Khatami, Katami, Khatami, Mohamad Khatami, Mohamed Khatami, Mohammad Khatami-Ardakani, Mohammad Khatemi, Mohammed Khatami, Mohmmad Khatami, Muhammad Khatami, Muhammad al-Khatami, President Khatami, President Mohammad Khatami, Sayyed Mohammad Khatami, Seyd Mohammad Khātamī, Seyed Mohammad Khatami, Seyyed Mohamed Khatami, Seyyed Mohammad Khatami, Seyyed Mohammad Khatami Ardakani, Seyyed Mohammed Khatami, Seyyed Muhammad Khatami, سيد محمد خاتمى.