378 relations: Abbas Milani, Abd al-Karim Qasim, Abdeen Palace, Abdolhossein Hazhir, Abdolhossein Teymourtash, Abol-Ghasem Kashani, Abolhassan Banisadr, Abu Musa, Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs conflict, Achaemenid Empire, Afghanistan, Afshin Molavi, Ahmad Qavam, Ahmad Shah Qajar, Al-Rifa'i Mosque, Alan Williams (novelist), Alasht, Ali Amini, Ali Reza Pahlavi I, Ali Soheili, Ali-Akbar Davar, Ali-Reza Pahlavi, All the Shah's Men, Allen Dulles, Alliance of the periphery, Allies of World War II, American Jews, Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, Amnesty International, André Malraux, Angina, Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Answer to History, Anthony Eden, Anthony Parsons, Anwar Sadat, Apollo 11, Apollo 11 goodwill messages, Arab nationalism, Ardeshir Zahedi, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Aryan, Asadollah Alam, Ashraf Pahlavi, Aswan, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Azerbaijan, Azerbaijanis, Ba'ath Party, ..., Babylon, Baccarat (company), Baghdad, Bahrain, Baku, Ballantine Books, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Bazaari, Ben Kean, Business Insider, Cairo, Canon law, Captain (armed forces), Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Cemal Gürsel, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Erwin Wilson, Chase Bank, Child marriage, Chinese Muslim Association, Classic Car Club of America, Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces, Conservative Party (UK), Constantine II of Greece, Contadora Island, Coronation, Covert operation, Crown land, Crown prince, Cuba, Cuernavaca, Cyrus the Great, David D. Newsom, David Harris (protester), David Rockefeller, Defence minister, Dhofar Governorate, Dhofar Rebellion, Dieter Nohlen, Director of Central Intelligence, Ebrahim Hakimi, Egypt, Ernest Perron, Ettela'at, Excommunication, Fada'iyan-e Islam, Farah Pahlavi, Farahnaz Pahlavi, Farouk of Egypt, Farrokhroo Parsa, Fatimeh Pahlavi, Fawzia Fuad of Egypt, Fazlollah Zahedi, Federation of American Scientists, Fidel Castro, First World, Fuad I of Egypt, Future history, Gallstone, Gene Tierney, George V, Georgia (country), Gholam Hossein Sadighi, Gholam Reza Azhari, Giulio Alfieri, Government in exile, Greater and Lesser Tunbs, Guadeloupe Conference, Haile Selassie, Haj Ali Razmara, Hamid Mirza, Harold Wilson, Harry S. Truman, Hassan Ali Mansur, Hassan II of Morocco, Hegira, Henry F. Grady, Henry Kissinger, History of Iran, Homayoun, Hossein Ala', Hossein Makki, House of Romanov, Human rights in the Imperial State of Iran, Hussein of Jordan, Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Icarus complex, Imperial Majesty (style), Institut Le Rosey, Intelligence agency, Interim Government of Iran, International Business Times, Ion Mihai Pacepa, Iran, Iran and Red and Black Colonization, Iran hostage crisis, Iran Novin Party, Iran–Israel relations, Iranian monarchy, Iranian Red Crescent Society, Iranian Revolution, Iranian.com, Iraq, Islamic calendar, Islamic republic, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamism, Isma'il Pasha, Israel, Istanbul, Ja'far Pishevari, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Jafar Sharif-Emami, Jamshid Amouzegar, Jean Bernard (physician), Jimmy Carter, John Foster Dulles, Jordan, José López Portillo, Kelly Field Annex, Kermit Roosevelt Jr., KGB, Kurds, Kurds in Iraq, L'Osservatore Romano, La Stampa, Laïcité, Lackland Air Force Base, Larry Schweikart, Leila Pahlavi, Limoges porcelain, List of monarchs of Persia, List of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000), Madeleine Albright, Madrasa Nezam, Maison Jansen, Majlis, Malik, Manouchehr Eghbal, Marble Palace (Tehran), Marrakesh, Marvin Zonis, Maserati 3500 GT, Maserati 450S, Maserati 5000 GT, Mashhad, Maxim's, Mazandaran Province, Mazanderani people, Mecca, Medina, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mehdi Bazargan, Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi, Mercedes-Benz 500K, Mexico City, Michael DeBakey, Middle Persian, Mike Wallace, Military academy, Mithra, Mohamed Hassanein Heikal, Mohammad Ali Foroughi, Mohammad Hassan Mirza, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad Sa'ed, Mohsen Sadr, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Monarchism in Iran, Monarchy of Sweden, Morocco, Morteza-Qoli Bayat, Muhammad, Muslim, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, NASA, National Car Museum of Iran, National Council of Iran, National Front (Iran), Nationalization, Nazi Germany, Nazli Sabri, Nelson Rockefeller, New York University, NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital, Niavaran Complex, Nixon Doctrine, Norman Schwarzkopf Sr., North Yemen Civil War, Nuclear program of Iran, Old Persian, Oman, Omar Torrijos, One-party state, OPEC, Operation Barbarossa, Order of the Garter, Oriana Fallaci, Oval Office, Pahlavi Crown, Pahlavi dynasty, Panama, Paradise Island, Pardon, Park Chung-hee, Parviz Sabeti, Paternalism, Paul Erdman, Peacock Throne, People's Party (Iran), Persepolis, Persian Corridor, Persian Cossack Brigade, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Peshmerga, Political prisoner, Polygamy, Pope John XXIII, Prednisone, Prime Minister of Iran, Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy, Princeton University Press, Qaboos bin Said al Said, Qajar dynasty, Qom, Regional Cooperation for Development, Remote control, Republican Party (United States), Resurgence Party, Reza Hekmat, Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran, Reza Shah, Richard Nixon, Right of asylum, Royal family, Ruhollah Khomeini, Russian Empire, Russo-Persian Wars, Ryszard Kapuściński, Saudi Arabia, Savadkuh County, SAVAK, Secret Intelligence Service, Sex segregation, Shah, Shah of Shahs (book), Shahbanu, Shahbaz (bird), Shahnaz Pahlavi, Shams Pahlavi, Shapour Bakhtiar, Sharif University of Technology, Shatt al-Arab, Shia Islam, Shiraz Arts Festival, Shirin Ebadi, Silvana Mangano, Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiary, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Splenectomy, Sports car, St. Martin's Press, Stagflation, Stephen Kinzer, Storyville (TV series), Strait of Hormuz, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Suffrage, Supreme Leader of Iran, Switzerland, Syracuse University Press, Tadj ol-Molouk, Taipei Grand Mosque, Tehran, Tehran Conference, Tent city, Texas, Teymur Bakhtiar, The Bahamas, The New York Times, Theodore Roosevelt, Tomb of Cyrus, Trans-Iranian Railway, Transliteration, Tudeh Party of Iran, Turkey, Umberto II of Italy, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Security Council, United States Air Force, United States Army Center of Military History, United States Government Publishing Office, United States presidential election, 1952, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Tehran, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Vatican City, Vintage Books, Vladimir Kuzichkin, Volkswagen Beetle, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, Wendell Willkie, West Germany, White House, White Revolution, Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center, William H. Sullivan, William R. Polk, William Shawcross, Winston Churchill, Women's rights movement in Iran, World War II, Yemen, Yvonne De Carlo, 1921 Persian coup d'état, 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, 1973 oil crisis, 1975 Algiers Agreement, 1984 Summer Olympics, 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire, 60 Minutes. Expand index (328 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Malekzadeh Milani (عباس ملکزاده میلانی; born 1949) is an Iranian-American historian and author.
Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Abdeen Palace (قصر عابدين) is a historic Cairo palace, and one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt.
Abdolhosein Hazhir (4 June 1902 – 5 November 1949) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Abdolhossein Teymūrtāsh (عبدالحسین تیمورتاش; 1883–1933) was an influential Iranian statesman who served as the first Minister of Court of the Pahlavi Dynasty from 1925 to 1932, and is credited with playing a crucial role in laying the foundations of modern Iran in the 20th century.
Sayyed Abu’l-Qāsem Kāšāni (سید ابوالقاسم کاشانی; November 19, 1882 – March 14, 1962) was an Iranian politician and Shia Marja.
Seyyed Abolhassan Banisadr (Seyyed Abolhasan Banisadr; born 22 March 1933) is an Iranian politician and economist.
Abu Musa (ابوموسی, أبو موسى) island is a 12.8 square kilometer (4.9 sq mi) island in the eastern Persian Gulf near the entrance to the Strait of Hormuz.
On 30 November 1971, when British forces withdrew from the islands of Abu Musa, Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb in the Strait of Hormuz, Iranian marines moved in to take back territorial control of the islands after British occupation.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afshin Molavi is an Iranian-American author and expert on global geo-political risk and geo-economics, particularly the Middle East and Asia.
Ahmad Ghavam (2 January 1873 – 23 July 1955; احمد قوام), also known as Ghavam os-Saltaneh (قوام السلطنه), was a politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran five times.
Ahmad Shāh Qājār (احمد شاه قاجار; 21 January 1898 – 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia (Iran) from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.
Al-Rifa'i Mosque (مسجد الرفاعى, transliterated also as Al-Rifai, Al-Refai, Al-Refa'i, and named in English the Royal Mosque), is located in Cairo, Egypt, in Midan al-Qal'a, adjacent to the Cairo Citadel.
Alan Emlyn Williams (born 28 August 1935) is an ex-foreign correspondent, novelist and writer of thrillers.
Alasht (Ālaŝt, meaning Eagle Sanctuary, also Romanized as Ālasht) is a city in the Central District of Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Ali Amini (12 September 1905 – 12 December 1992) was an Iranian politician and writer who was the Prime Minister of Iran from 6 May 1961 to 19 July 1962.
Prince Ali Reza Pahlavi (علی رضا پهلوی; 1 March 1922 – 17 October 1954) was the second son of Reza Shah Pahlavi, deposed Shah of Iran, and the brother of the Shah Mohammad Reza.
Ali Soheili (1896 – 1 May 1958) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Ali-Akbar Dāvar (also known as Mirza Ali-Akbar Khan-e Dāvar) (1885–1937) (علیاکبر داور) was the founder of the modern judicial system of Iran.
Prince Alireza Pahlavi (علیرضا پهلوی; 28 April 1966 – 4 January 2011) was a member of the Pahlavi Imperial Family of Iran (Persia).
An American Coup & the Roots of Middle East Terror Half a century ago, the United States overthrew a Middle Eastern government for the first time.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
The Alliance of the periphery or the Periphery doctrine is a foreign policy strategy that called for Israel to develop close strategic alliances with non-Arab Muslim states in the Middle East to counteract the united opposition of Arab states to the existence of Israel.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
Amir-Abbas Hoveyda (Amīr `Abbās Hoveyda; 18 February 1919 – 7 April 1979) was an Iranian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran from 27 January 1965 to 7 August 1977.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Answer to History (French: Réponse à l'histoire; Persian, پاسخ به تاریخ) is a memoir written by the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shortly after his overthrow in 1979 by Islamic revolution.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
Sir Anthony Derrick Parsons (9 September 1922 – 12 August 1996) was a British diplomat, Ambassador to Iran at the time of the Iranian Revolution and Permanent Representative to the UN at the time of the Falklands War.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
The Apollo 11 goodwill messages are statements from leaders of 73 countries around the world on a disc about the size of a 50-cent piece made of silicon that was left on the Moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Ardeshir Zahedi, GCVO (اردشیر زاهدی; born 16 October 1928) is a former Iranian diplomat who served as the country's foreign minister (1966-1971) and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s.
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Amir Asadollah Alam (24 July 1919 – 14 April 1978) was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister from 1962 to 1964.
Princess Ashraf ol-Molouk Pahlavi (اشرف الملوک پهلوی,, 26 October 1919 – 7 January 2016) was the twin sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran (Persia), and a member of the Pahlavi Dynasty.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Baccarat Crystal is a French manufacturer of fine crystal glassware located in Baccarat, France.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
Bazaari (Persian: بازاری) is the name given to the merchant class and workers of bazaars, the traditional marketplaces of Iran.
Benjamin H. Kean (– 1993) was an American physician, author and researcher, widely known for his treatment of the Shah of Iran.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Cemal Gürsel (13 October 1895 – 14 September 1966) was a Turkish army officer, and the fourth President of Turkey.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Erwin Wilson (July 18, 1890 – September 26, 1961) was an American engineer and businessman who served as United States Secretary of Defense from 1953 to 1957 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase Bank, is a national bank headquartered in Manhattan, New York City, that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking subsidiary of the U.S. multinational banking and financial services holding company, JPMorgan Chase & Co.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
The Chinese Muslim Association (CMA) is an organization of Chinese Muslims in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The Classic Car Club of America (CCCA) is an organization founded in 1952 to celebrate the grand automobiles of the prewar period.
Farmandeye Koll-e Qova (فرمانده کل قوا), formerly known as Bozorg Arteshtaran (بزرگارتشتاران), is the supreme commanding authority of all the Armed Forces of Iran and the highest possible military position within the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Constantine II (Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, Konstantínos II,; born 2 June 1940) reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
Isla Contadora (or Contadora Island in English) is a Panamanian island on the Pearl Islands archipelago (Spanish: Archipielago de las Perlas) in the Gulf of Panama.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
A covert operation is a military operation that intended to conceal the identity of or allow plausible denial by the sponsor.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cuernavaca (kʷawˈnaːwak "near the woods") is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
David Dunlop Newsom (January 6, 1918 – March 30, 2008) was an American diplomat.
David Victor Harris (born February 28, 1946 in Fresno, California) is an American journalist and author.
David Rockefeller (June 12, 1915 – March 20, 2017) was an American banker who was chairman and chief executive of Chase Manhattan Corporation.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
The Dhofar Governorate (محافظة ظفار, Muḥāfaẓat Ẓufār) is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area.
The Dhofar Rebellion (ثورة ظفار), also known as the War in Dhofar (الحرب في ظفار) or the Omani Civil War (الحرب الأهلية العمانية), was launched in the province of Dhofar against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, which had Iranian and British support, from 1962 to 1976.
Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939 in Oberhausen) is a German academic and political scientist.
The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the American Central Intelligence Agency from 1946 to 2005, acting as the principal intelligence advisor to the President of the United States and the United States National Security Council, as well as the coordinator of intelligence activities among and between the various U.S. intelligence agencies (collectively known as the Intelligence Community from 1981 onwards).
Ebrahim Hakimi (15 August 1871 – 19 October 1959) was an Iranian statesman, who served as prime minister of Iran on three occasions.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Ernest Perron (June 29, 1908 – 1961) was a Swiss man who served as the best friend, private secretary and closest advisor to Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, a man of considerable behind-the-scenes power in Iran.
Ettela'at (اطلاعات lit. Information) is a Persian language daily newspaper published in Iran.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Fadā'iyān-e Islam (فدائیان اسلام, also spelled as Fadayan-e Islam or in English "Fedayeen of Islam" or "Devotees of Islam" or literally "Self-Sacrificers of Islam") is a Shiʿite fundamentalist group in Iran with a strong activist political orientation, founded in 1946, and a registered political party since 1989.
Farah Pahlavi, née Diba (فرح پهلوی; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the exiled shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
Princess Farahnaz Pahlavi فرحناز پهلوی; born 12 March 1963) is the eldest daughter of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi by his third wife, Farah Diba. She was born Princess Yasmin Farahnaz Pahlavi, as per official dynastic usage, with the style Her Imperial Highness. She lives a very anonymous and discreet life in New York City.
Farouk I (فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.
Farokhroo Parsa (فرخرو پارسا; 24 March 1922 – 8 May 1980) was an Iranian physician, educator and parliamentarian.
Fatimeh Pahlavi (فاطمه پهلوی; 30 October 1928 – 2 June 1987) was Reza Shah Pahlavi's tenth child and half-sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Fawzia Fuad of Egypt (5 November 1921 – 2 July 2013), also known as Muluk Fawzia of Iran, was an Egyptian princess who became Queen of Iran as the first wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Fazlollah Zahedi (Fazlollāh Zāhedi, pronounced; c. 1892 – 2 September 1963) was an Iranian general and statesman who replaced the democratically elected Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh through a coup d'état, in which he played a major role.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Fuad I (فؤاد الأول Fu’ād al-Awwal, I.; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur.
A future history is a postulated history of the future and is used by authors of science fiction and other speculative fiction to construct a common background for fiction.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
Gene Eliza Tierney (November 19, 1920 – November 6, 1991) was an American film and stage actress.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gholam Hossein Sedighi (غلامحسین صدیقی; December 3, 1905 – May 19, 1992), was an Iranian politician and Minister of Interior in the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh in 1953.
Gholam Reza Azhari (غلامرضا ازهاری.; 18 February 1912 – 5 November 2001) was a military leader and Prime Minister of Iran.
Giulio Alfieri (10 July 1924 – 20 March 2002) was an Italian automobile engineer, affiliated with Maserati in Modena, Italy since 1953, where he was central to the development of racing and production cars in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970's.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (تنب بزرگ و تنب کوچک., Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak, طنب الكبرى و طنب الصغرى., Tunb el-Kubra and Tunb el-Sughra) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz.
The Guadeloupe Conference (کنفرانس گوآدلوپ) was a meeting held by four Western powers: the United States, the United Kingdom, France and West Germany in Guadeloupe Island from 4 to 7 January 1979.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Haj Ali Razmara (Ḥājī`alī Razmārā; 30 March 1901 – 7 March 1951) was a military leader and prime minister of Iran.
Prince Sultan Hamid Mirza Qajar (23 April 1918 – 5 May 1988) was the head and heir presumptive of the Qajar dynasty, the former ruling dynasty of Iran, and the son of the last Qajar Crown Prince of Iran.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Hasan Ali Mansur (13 April 1923 – 27 January 1965) was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister from 1964 to 1965.
King Hassan II (الحسن الثاني, MSA: (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, Darija: el-ḥasan ett(s)âni); 9 July 1929 – 23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He was the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909–1961), and his second wife, Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909–1992). Hassan was known to be one of the most severe rulers of Morocco.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Henry Francis Grady (February 12, 1882 – September 14, 1957) was an American diplomat.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Homayoun (also spelled Homayun, Homayoon, or Homayon, همايون.) is a Persian male given name, it also appears as a surname.
Hosein Alā (حسین علاء; December 13, 1881 in Tehran – July 12, 1964 in Tehran) was Prime Minister of Iran in 1951 and from 1955 to 1957.
Seyyed Hossein Makki (سید حسین مکی) was an Iranian politician, orator and historian.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
The Imperial state of Iran, the government of Iran during the Pahlavi dynasty, lasted from 1925 to 1979.
Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.
The Icarus complex is a term in psychoanalysis and personality theory first used by Henry A. MurraySperber, Michael A. "Albert Camus: Camus' the Fall: The Icarus Complex" American Imago (1969), 26:269-280.
Imperial Majesty (His/Her Imperial Majesty, abbreviated as HIM) is a style used by Emperors and Empresses.
Institut Le Rosey, commonly referred to as Le Rosey or simply Rosey, is a boarding school in Rolle, Switzerland.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
The Interim Government of Iran (Dowlat-e Movaghat-e Irân) was the first government established in Iran after the Iranian Revolution, and the first nominal republic established in Iran after 2,500 years of Persian monarchy.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928) is a former three-star general in Communist Romania, who defected to the United States in July 1978 following President Jimmy Carter's approval of his request for political asylum.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
"Iran and Red and Black Colonization" (ایران و استعمار سرخ و سیاه) was the title of an article written by Ahmad Rashidi Motlagh published in Ettela'at newspaper on 7 January 1978.
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.
The Iran Novin Party (lit) was a royalist political party in Iran and the country's ruling party for more than a decade, controlling both cabinet and the parliament from 1964 to 1975.
Iranian–Israeli relations can be divided into four major phases: the period from 1947–53, the friendly period during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty, the worsening period from the 1979 Iranian Revolution to 1990, and finally the hostility since the end of the First Gulf War.
Iranian monarchy may refer to.
The Iranian Red Crescent Society (IRCS), officially the Red Crescent Society of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Jamʿiyat-e Helāl-e Aḥmar-e Jomhuri-e eslāmi-e Irān) is a non-governmental humanitarian organization in Iran.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iranian.com is a website that hosts blogs, news, and commentaries by and for the Iranian diaspora.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Sayyed Ja'far Pishevari (1893 – 11 June 1947) (Seyid Cəfər Pişəvəri, سید جعفر پیشه وری, سید جعفر پیشهوری) was the founder and chairman of separatist and communist Azerbaijan People's Government (November 1945 – November 1946), created and supported by Soviet occupational forces in north-western Iran.
Jacqueline Lee Kennedy Onassis (born Bouvier; July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and the First Lady of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
Jafar Sharif-Imami (9 September 1910 – 16 June 1998) was an Iranian politician who was prime minister from 1960 to 1961 and again in 1978.
Jamshid Amouzegar (جمشید آموزگار‎; 25 June 1923 – 27 September 2016) was an Iranian economist and politician who was prime minister of Iran from 7 August 1977 to 27 August 1978 when he resigned.
Jean Bernard (26 May 1907 in Paris – 17 April 2006 in Paris) was a French physician and haematologist.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
José Guillermo Abel López Portillo y Pacheco, RSerafO (June 16, 1920 – February 17, 2004) was a Mexican lawyer and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as the 51st President of Mexico from 1976 to 1982.
Kelly Field Annex (formerly Kelly Air Force Base) is a United States Air Force facility located in San Antonio, Texas.
Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt Jr. (February 16, 1916 – June 8, 2000), a grandson of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, was a Harvard-educated career intelligence officer who served in the Office of Strategic Services, forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), during and following the second world war, went on to found Arabist organizations such as the American Friends of the Middle East, and then to play a critical role in the CIA's deposition of Mohammad Mossadegh, the democratically elected leader of Iran, in August 1953.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kurds in Iraq (کوردانی باشووری کوردستان / کوردانی عێڕاق.) are people born in or residing in Iraq who are of Kurdish origin.
L'Osservatore Romano (Italian for "The Roman Observer") is the daily newspaper of Vatican City State which carries the Pope’s discourses and reports on the activities of the Holy See, reports on events taking place in the Church and the world, and many cultural articles.
La Stampa (meaning The Press in English) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Turin, Italy.
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
Lackland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Bexar County, Texas.
Larry Earl Schweikart (born April 21, 1951 in Mesa, Arizona) is an American historian and retired professor of history at the University of Dayton.
Princess Leila Pahlavi (لیلا پهلوی, 27 March 1970 – 10 June 2001) was the youngest daughter of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, and his third wife, Farah Pahlavi.
Limoges porcelain designates hard-paste porcelain produced by factories near the city of Limoges, France beginning in the late 18th century, but does not refer to a particular manufacturer.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
;State leaders: 1901–1950 – State leaders in the 21st century – State leaders by year This is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat.
Madrasa Nezam was a military academy located in Shah's Garden (now Hor Square), Tehran.
Maison Jansen (House of Jansen) was a Paris-based interior decoration office founded in 1880 by Dutch-born Jean-Henri Jansen.
(or Mejlis; مجلس, pl. مجالس) is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
Manuchehr Eqbal (منوچهر اقبال; 13 October 1909 – 25 November 1977) was one of the prime ministers of Iran.
The Marble Palace (کاخ مرمر, Kākh-e Marmar) is one of the historic buildings and royal residences in Tehran, Iran.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Marvin Zonis is an American political economist who focuses on Middle Eastern politics and history and an emeritus professor at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, where he continues to teach courses on international political economy, leadership, and e-commerce.
The Maserati 3500 GT (Tipo 101) and the Maserati 3500 GT Convertibile (Tipo 101/C) are 2-door coupé and convertible grand tourers made by Italian car manufacturer Maserati between 1957 and 1964.
Maserati 450S (built 1956–8) is a racing car made by Maserati of Italy, and used in FIA's endurance World Sportscar Championship racing.
The Maserati 5000 GT (1959–1965) is a 2-door coupé automobile, made by Maserati of Italy.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Maxim's is a restaurant in Paris, France, located at No.
Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
The Mazanderani people (مازرون; مردم مازندرانی) or Tabari people (تپورون; مردم تبری) are an Iranian peopleAcademic American Encyclopedia By Grolier Incorporated, page 294 whose homeland is the North of Iran (Tabaristan).
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان; 1 September 1907 – 20 January 1995) was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi (13 December 1919 – 11 October 2008) was an Iranian social activist and politician, who held significant positions, including ambassador of Iran to Denmark during the Pahlavi era.
The Mercedes 500K (type W29) is a grand touring car built by Mercedes-Benz between 1934 and 1936.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Michael Ellis DeBakey (September 7, 1908 – July 11, 2008) was a Lebanese-American cardiac surgeon, scientist, and medical educator.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Myron Leon "Mike" Wallace (May 9, 1918 – April 7, 2012) was an American journalist, game show host, actor, and media personality.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.
Mohamed Hassanein Heikal (محمد حسنين هيكل‎; 23 September 1923 – 17 February 2016) was an Egyptian journalist.
Mohammad Ali Foroughi (1 January 1875 – 26 November 1942, محمدعلی فروغی) also known as Zaka-ol-Molk (Persian: ذُکاءالمُلک) was a teacher, diplomat, nationalist, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran.
Mohammad Hassan Mirza (20 November 1899, in Tabriz – 7 January 1943, in Maidenhead), was the brother of Ahmed Shah Qajar of Iran, and former Crown Prince of the Qajar dynasty.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Muhammad Sa'ed Maraghei (28 April 1881 – 1 November 1973) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Mohsen Sadr (1871 – 19 October 1962) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Iranian monarchism is the advocacy of restoring the constitutional monarchy in Iran, which was abolished after the 1979 Revolution.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Morteza Gholi Bayat (Mortezā Qoli Bayāt, aka Sahām al-Soltān, 1890–10 May 1958) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Car Museum of Iran (Muze Melli Xodrodu Irân) is a museum in Karaj, Iran, opened in 2001.
The National Council of Iran (NCI; Šurā-ye melli-e Īrān), officially the National Council of Iran for Free Elections, is a loosely based umbrella group of the exiled opposition to Iran's Islamic Republic government, and serves as Reza Pahlavi's government in exile either to reclaim the former throne or as the new president of Iran after overthrowing the current government.
The National Front of Iran (Jebha-ye Mellī-e Īrān) is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nazli Sabri (نزلي صبري / نازلى صبرى; Nazlı Sabri; 25 June 1894 – 29 May 1978) was the first Queen of Egypt from 1919 to 1936 as the second wife of King Fuad.
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, and previously as the 49th Governor of New York (1959–1973).
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
The NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital is a nonprofit university hospital in New York City affiliated with two Ivy League medical schools: Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Weill Cornell Medical College.
The Niavaran Palace Complex (مجموعه کاخ نیاوران – Majmue ye Niāvarān) is a historical complex situated in Shemiran (northern Tehran), Iran.
The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by US President Richard Nixon and later formalized in his speech on Vietnamization on November 3, 1969.
Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf (August 28, 1895 – November 25, 1958) was the first superintendent of the New Jersey State Police.
The North Yemen Civil War (ثورة 26 سبتمبر, Thawra 26 Sabtambar, "26 September Revolution") was fought in North Yemen from 1962 to 1970 between royalist partisans of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom and supporters of the Yemen Arab Republic.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera (February 13, 1929 – July 31, 1981), more commonly known as Omar Torrijos, was the Commander of the Panamanian and National Guard and the de facto dictator of Panama from 1968 to 1981.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
Oriana Fallaci (29 June 1929 - 15 September 2006) was an Italian journalist, author, and political interviewer.
The Oval Office is the working office space of the President of the United States located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
The Pahlavi Crown is part of the coronation regalia used by the Pahlavi Shahanshahs of Iran (Persia) and is part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Paradise Island is an island in the Bahamas formerly known as Hog Island.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
Park Chung-hee (or; 14 November 1917 – 26 October 1979) was a South Korean politician, general, who served as the President of South Korea from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, assuming that office after first ruling the country as head of a military junta installed by the May 16 coup in 1961.
Parviz Sabeti (born March 25, 1936) is an Iranian lawyer, former SAVAK deputy under the regime of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.
Paul Emil Erdman (May 19, 1932 - April 23, 2007 in Sonoma County, California) was an American economist and banker who became known for writing novels based on monetary trends and international finance.
The Peacock Throne was a famous jeweled throne that was the seat of the Mughal emperors of India.
People's Party (Ḥezb-e Mardom) was a liberal political party in Pahlavi era Iran.
Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Persian Corridor was a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II.
The Persian Cossack Brigade or Iranian Cossack Brigade (Berīgād-e qazzāq) was a Cossack-style cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Persia (modern Iran).
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Pope John XXIII (Ioannes; Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, (Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel; born 25 December 1936) is a member of the British royal family.
Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy (Maria Gabriella Giuseppa Aldegonda Adelaide Ludovica Felicita Gennara; born 24 February 1940) is the middle daughter of Italy's last king, Umberto II, and Marie José of Belgium, the "May Queen", and a sister of the pretender to their father's throne, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Sayyid Qaboos bin Said Al Said (قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد,; born 18 November 1940) is the Sultan of Oman.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) or Organization for Regional Cooperation and Development (ORCD) was a multi-governmental organization which was originally established on the 21st of July 1964 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, regional members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), to allow socio-economic development of the member states.
In electronics, a remote control or clicker is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Rastakhiz Party of People of Iran (حزب رستاخیز ملت ایران) or simply Rastakhiz Party (lit) was Iran's single legal political party from 1975 to the Iranian Revolution in 1979, founded by the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Reza Hekmat (1891–1978) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Reza Pahlavi (رضا پهلوی; born 31 October 1960) is the last heir apparent to the defunct throne of the Imperial State of Iran and is the current head of the exiled House of Pahlavi.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.
Ryszard Kapuściński (March 4, 1932 – January 23, 2007) was a Polish journalist, photographer, poet and author.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Savadkuh County (also Savadkooh and Savadkouh)(Ŝahrestāne Sawādkuh) is a county in Mazandaran Province in Iran.
SAVAK (ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, literally "Organization of National Intelligence and Security") was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service of Pahlavi dynasty.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Sex segregation is the physical, legal, and cultural separation of people according to their biological sex.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shah of Shahs, published in 1982, is Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuściński's analysis of the decline and fall of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
Shahbanu (fa Šahbānū lit. "King's Lady") was the title for queen consort in Persian and other Iranian languages.
Shahbaz (شاهباز) is the name of a fabled bird.
Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi (شهناز پهلوی, born 27 October 1940) is the first child of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and his first wife, Princess Fawzia of Egypt.
Princess Shams Pahlavi (شمس پهلوی; &ndash) was the elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
Shapour Bakhtiar (شاپور بختیار; 26 June 19146 August 1991) was an Iranian politician who served as the last Prime Minister of Iran under the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Sharif University of Technology (SUT, دانشگاه صنعتی شریف) is a public research university in Tehran, Iran and is widely considered to be the nation's leading institution for engineering and physical science disciplines.
Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Shiraz Festival of Arts (Persian: جشنواره هنر شیراز) was an annual international summer arts festival, held in Iran bringing about the encounter between the East and the West.
Shirin Ebadi (Širin Ebādi; born 21 June 1947) is an Iranian lawyer, a former judge and human rights activist and founder of Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran.
Silvana Mangano (21 April 1930 – 16 December 1989) was an Italian actress.
Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiary (Persian:ثریا اسفندیاری بختیاری, Sorayâ Esfandiyâri-Baxtiyâri; 22 June 1932 – 26 October 2001) was an actress, and the queen consort (Shahbanu) of Iran as the second wife of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A splenectomy is a surgical procedure that partially or completely removes the spleen.
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small, usually two-seater, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling.
In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.
Stephen Kinzer (born August 4, 1951) is an American author, journalist and academic.
Storyville is a documentary strand presented by the BBC showcasing the best in international documentaries.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of arms control.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
Tadj ol-Molouk (تاج الملوک; 17 March 1896 – 10 March 1982) was Queen of Iran as the wife of Reza Shah, founder of the Pahlavi dynasty and Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941.
The Taipei Grand Mosque is the largest and most famous mosque in Taiwan with a total area of 2,747 square meters.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
A tent city is a temporary housing facility made using tents or other temporary structures.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Teymur Bakhtiar (تیمور بختیار; 1914 – 12 August 1970) was an Iranian general and the founder and head of SAVAK from 1956 to 1961, when he was dismissed by the Shah.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The Tomb of Cyrus (Persian: آرامگاه کوروش بزرگ translit. ārāmgāh-e kuroş-e bozorg) is the monument of Cyrus the Great approximately 1 km southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae.
The Trans-Iranian Railway (Persian: راه آهن سراسری ایران) was a major railway building project started in 1927 and completed in 1938, under the direction of the Persian monarch, Reza Shah, and entirely with indigenous capital.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
The Tudeh Party of Iran (lit) is an Iranian communist party.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States presidential election of 1952 was the 42nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1952.
The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.
Vladimir Anatolyevich Kuzichkin Владимир Анатольевич Кузичкин (born 1947) was a Soviet KGB (PGU KGB SSSR) officer, major who defected to the Tehran Station of the British secret intelligence service in 1982.
The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of cancer affecting two types of B cells, lymphoplasmacytoid cells and plasma cells.
Wendell Lewis Willkie (born Lewis Wendell Willkie; February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was an American lawyer and corporate executive, and the 1940 Republican nominee for President.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (انقلاب شاه و مردم Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.
Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center, formerly known as Wilford Hall Medical Center, is a U.S. Air Force medical treatment facility located on the grounds of San Antonio's Lackland Air Force Base.
William Healy Sullivan (October 12, 1922 – October 11, 2013) was an American Foreign Service career officer who served as Ambassador to Laos from 1964–1969, the Philippines from 1973–1977, and Iran from 1977–1979.
William Roe Polk (born 1929 in Fort Worth, Texas) is a veteran foreign policy consultant, author, and relation of president James K. Polk and of the prominent lawyer and diplomat Frank Polk.
William Hartley Hume Shawcross, (born 28 May 1946, Sussex, England) is the Chairman of the Charity Commission for England and Wales, (Glen Owen, Mail Online, Sunday 2 June 2013) and a British writer and commentator.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Iranian women's movement (Persian: جنبش زنان ایران), is based on the Iranian women's social movement for women's rights.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yvonne De Carlo (born Margaret Yvonne Middleton; September 1, 1922 – January 8, 2007) was a Canadian-American actress, dancer, and singer.
1921 Persian coup d'état, known in Iran as 3 Esfand coup d'état (کودتای ۳ اسفند ۱۲۹۹), refers to several major events in Persia (Iran) in 1921, which eventually led to the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty as the ruling house of the country in 1925.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").
The 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état was a covert operation carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz and ended the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944–1954.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1975 Algiers Agreement (commonly known as the Algiers Accord, sometimes as the Algiers Declaration) was an agreement between Iran and Iraq to settle their border disputes and conflicts (such as the Shatt al-Arab, known as Arvand Rud in Iran), and it served as basis for the bilateral treaties signed on 13 June and 26 December 1975.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire (جشنهای ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران), officially known as The 2,500th year of Foundation of Imperial State of Iran (دوهزار و پانصدمین سال بنیانگذاری شاهنشاهی ایران), consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place on 12–16 October 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Imperial State of Iran and the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great.
60 Minutes is an American newsmagazine television program broadcast on the CBS television network.
Aryamehr, HIM King Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Imposed Shah, Last emperor of Persia, Last king of Iran, Last king of Persia, Last shah of Iran, Mohamed Reza Pahlevi, Mohammad Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi/New, Mohammad Reza Pahlevi, Mohammad Reza Shah, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran, Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi, Mohammad Rezā Shāh, Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad-Reza Shah, Mohammad-Rezā Pahlavi, Mohammad-Rezā Shāh, Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Mohammadreza Pahlavi, Mohammadreza Shah Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi, Mohammed Reza Pavlavi, Mohammed Reza Shah, Muhammad Raza Shah Pahlavi, Muhammad Reza, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, Muhammad Reza Shah, Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi, Nesane Aryamehr, Neshan-e-Aryamehr, Nešâne Aryamehr, Nishan-i Aryamehr, Order of Light of the Aryans, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Shah Reza Pahlavi, The shah, Āryāmehr, محمد رضا شاه پهلوی, محمدرضا پهلوی.