131 relations: Aggregated diamond nanorod, Aluminium, Anatase, Antimony, Apatite, Arsenic, Barium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Boron, Boron nitride, Bowieite, Brinell scale, Cadmium, Caesium, Calcite, Calcium, Carbonado, Carrollite, Cerium, Chalcocite, Chromite, Chromium, Chrysoberyl, Cobalt, Copper, Corundum, Cubic zirconia, Dentin, Diamond, Emerald, Euclase, Fluorite, Friedrich Mohs, Fused quartz, Galena, Gallium, Geology, Germanium, Glass, Goethite, Gold, Graphite, Gypsum, Hafnium, Halite, Hardened steel, Hardness comparison, Hardnesses of the elements (data page), Heazlewoodite, ..., Hematite, Ice, Indium, Iridium, Iron, Jade, Jet (lignite), Knoop hardness test, Lanthanum, Lead, Lithium, Manganese, Materials science, Meyer hardness test, Milling (machining), Mineral, Mineralogy, Molybdenum, Native copper, Natural History (Pliny), Nickel, Niobium, Obsidian, Opal, Ordinal data, Orthoclase, Osmium, Palladium, Pencil, Peridot, Platinum, Pliny the Elder, Porcelain, Potassium, Pyrite, Qualitative property, Quartz, Rhenium, Rhenium diboride, Rhodium, Rockwell scale, Rubidium, Ruthenium, Rutile, Sclerometer, Scratch hardness, Selenium, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon nitride, Silver, Sodium, Sphalerite, Spinel, Steel, Stishovite, Streak (mineralogy), Strontium, Sulfur, Talc, Tantalum, Tantalum carbide, Tanzanite, Tellurium, Thallium, Theophrastus, Thorium, Tin, Titanium, Titanium carbide, Titanium diboride, Titanium nitride, Tooth enamel, Topaz, Tungsten, Uranium, Vanadium, Vickers hardness test, Volcanic glass, Zinc, Zirconium. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are a nanocrystalline form of diamond, also known as nanodiamond or hyperdiamond.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Anatase is a mineral form of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.
Bowieite is a rhodium-iridium-platinum sulfide mineral (Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3, found in platinum-alloy nuggets from Goodnews Bay, Alaska.
The Brinell scale characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbonado, commonly known as the "black diamond", is the toughest form of natural diamond.
Carrollite, CuCo2S4, is a sulfide of copper and cobalt, often with substantial substitution of nickel for the metal ions, and a member of the linnaeite group.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Chalcocite, copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S), is an important copper ore mineral.
Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).
Dentin (American English) or dentine (British English) (substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Euclase is a beryllium aluminium hydroxide silicate mineral (BeAlSiO4(OH)).
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Carl Friedrich Christian Mohs (29 January 1773 – 29 September 1839) was a German geologist and mineralogist.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
The term hardened steel is often used for a medium or high carbon steel that has been given heat treatment and then quenching followed by tempering.
There are a large number of hardness testing methods available (e.g. Vickers, Brinell, Rockwell, Meyer and Leeb).
Heazlewoodite, Ni3S2, is a rare sulfur-poor nickel sulfide mineral found in serpentinitized dunite.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.
The Knoop hardness test is a microhardness test – a test for mechanical hardness used particularly for very brittle materials or thin sheets, where only a small indentation may be made for testing purposes.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
The Meyer hardness test is a rarely used hardness test based upon projected area of an impression.
Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece by advancing (or feeding) the cutter into the workpiece at a certain direction.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Native copper is an uncombined form of copper that occurs as a natural mineral.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
Ordinal data is a categorical, statistical data type where the variables have natural, ordered categories and the distances between the categories is not known.
Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
A pencil is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being broken and/or from leaving marks on the user’s hand during use.
Peridot is gem-quality olivine, which is a silicate mineral with the formula of (Mg, Fe)2SiO4.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Qualitative properties are properties that are observed and can generally not be measured with a numerical result.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rhenium diboride (ReB2) is a synthetic superhard material.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on indentation hardness of a material.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
The Sclerometer, also known as the Turner-Sclerometer (from σκληρός meaning "hard"), is an instrument used by metallurgists, material scientists and mineralogists to measure the scratch hardness of materials.
Scratch hardness tests are used to determine the hardness of a material to scratches and abrasion.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide.
The streak (also called "powder color") of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across an un-weathered surface.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tantalum carbides form a family of binary chemical compounds of tantalum and carbon with the empirical formula TaCx, where x usually varies between 0.4 and 1.
Tanzanite is the blue and violet variety of the mineral zoisite (a calcium aluminium hydroxyl sorosilicate) belonging to the epidote group.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard (Mohs 9–9.5) refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide.
Titanium diboride (TiB2) is an extremely hard ceramic which has excellent heat conductivity, oxidation stability and resistance to mechanical erosion.
Titanium nitride (sometimes known as tinite) is an extremely hard ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminium components to improve the substrate's surface properties.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1921 by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials.
Volcanic glass is the amorphous (uncrystallized) product of rapidly cooling magma.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
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