62 relations: Amedeo Avogadro, Amount of substance, Analytical chemistry, Atom, Atomic mass, Biochemistry, Boiling point, Carbon-12, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemistry, Chlorine, Colligative properties, Cryoscopic constant, Dimension, Dissociation (chemistry), Distillation, DNA, Ebullioscopic constant, Hydrogen, Ideal gas law, International System of Units, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Isotope, Isotope separation, Kilogram, Lithium, Mass, Mass fraction (chemistry), Mass spectrometry, Melting point, Molality, Molar concentration, Molar mass constant, Mole (unit), Mole fraction, Molecular mass, Molecule, Monomer, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nuclide, Parts-per notation, Phosphoramidite, Polymer, Polymer science, Pressure, Properties of water, Protein, Round-off error, ..., Royal Society of Chemistry, Safety data sheet, Significant figures, Small molecule, Solution, Solvent, Standard atomic weight, Sulfur, Temperature, Uncertainty, Unified atomic mass unit, Wiley-Blackwell. Expand index (12 more) » « Shrink index
Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 17769 July 1856), was an Italian scientist, most noted for his contribution to molecular theory now known as Avogadro's law, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules.
Amount of substance (symbol for the quantity is 'n') is a standard-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present.
In thermodynamics, the cryoscopic constant, Kf, relates molality to freezing point depression (which is a colligative property).
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In thermodynamics, the ebullioscopic constant, K_\mathrm b, relates molality b to boiling point elevation.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In chemistry, the mass fraction w_i is the ratio of one substance with mass m_i to the mass of the total mixture m_\text, defined as The symbol Y_i is also used to denote mass fraction.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The molar mass constant, symbol Mu, is a physical constant which relates relative atomic mass and molar mass.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
A phosphoramidite (RO)2PNR2 is a monoamide of a phosphite diester.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A round-off error, also called rounding error, is the difference between the calculated approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value due to rounding.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
A safety data sheet (SDS), material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures.
The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.