134 relations: Acremonium, Aflatoxin, Alexander Fleming, Alternaria, American Chemical Society, American English, Antibiotic, Ascomycota, Aspergillus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae, Australian English, Bioaerosol, Biodegradation, Biopolymer, Blue cheese, Brie, British English, Canadian English, Cell nucleus, Cellulose, Cheese, Cholesterol, Ciclosporin, Citrinin, Cladosporium, Clementine, Clostridium, Colony (biology), Conidium, Decomposition, Ecosystem, Edward Abraham, Enzyme, Ernst Chain, Food preservation, Fumonisin, Fungi imperfecti, Fungus, Fusarium, Fusarium venenatum, Genus, Geotrichum candidum, Heterotroph, Hiberno-English, Howard Florey, Hydrophobe, Hypha, Indian English, Jiuniang, ..., Jiuqu, Katsuobushi, Lignin, Lovastatin, Lysis, Mayo Clinic, Medicinal fungi, Meiosis, Mesophile, Microorganism, Mijiu, Mildew, Miso, Mitosis, Mold health issues, Monacolin, Monascus purpureus, Mucor, Multicellular organism, Multinucleate, Mycelium, Mycena haematopus, Mycorrhiza, Mycotoxin, Neurospora, New Zealand English, Norman Heatley, NPR, Ochratoxin, Oncom, Oomycete, Opportunistic infection, Organic matter, Organism, Patulin, Peach, Penicillin, Penicillium, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Psychrophile, Quorn, Red yeast rice, Refrigeration, Rennet, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus, Rhizopus oligosporus, Rhizopus oryzae, Roselle (plant), Sake, Salami, Sam Taylor-Johnson, Saprotrophic nutrition, Sausage, Shōchū, Siderophore, Slime mold, South African English, Soy sauce, Spinellus fusiger, Spirochaete, Spore, Stachybotrys, Stachybotrys chartarum, Stacy Levy, Starch, Statin, Taxonomy (biology), Tempeh, Thermophile, Tolypocladium inflatum, Trichoderma, Trichophyton, Trichothecene, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Ultraviolet, United States Department of Agriculture, Water activity, Xerophile, Yeast, Zygomycota. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
Acremonium is a genus of fungi in the family Hypocreaceae.
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Aspergillus oryzae, known in English as, is a filamentous fungus (a mold) used in Chinese and other East Asian cuisines to ferment soybeans for making soy sauce and fermented bean paste, and also to saccharify rice, other grains, and potatoes in the making of alcoholic beverages such as huangjiu, sake, makgeolli, and shōchū.
Aspergillus sojae is a fungus species in the genus Aspergillus.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
Blue cheese is a general classification of cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, or blue-grey mold and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria.
Brie is a soft cow's-milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated (roughly corresponding to the modern département of Seine-et-Marne).
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.
Citrinin is a mycotoxin which is often found in food. It is a secondary metabolite produced by fungi that contaminate long-stored food and it causes different toxic effects, like nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Citrinin is mainly found in stored grains, but sometimes also in fruits and other plant products.
Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds.
A clementine (Citrus × clementina) is a tangor, a hybrid between a willowleaf mandarin orange (''C.'' × ''deliciosa'') and a sweet orange (C. × sinensis), so named in 1902.
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
A conidium (plural conidia), sometimes termed an asexual chlamydospore or chlamydoconidium (plural chlamydoconidia), is an asexual, non-motile spore of a fungus.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Sir Edward Penley Abraham, (10 June 1913 – 8 May 1999) was an English biochemist instrumental in the development of the first antibiotics penicillin and cephalosporin.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Sir Ernst Boris Chain, FRS (19 June 1906 – 12 August 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
The fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins derived from Fusarium, Liseola section.
The fungi imperfecti or imperfect fungi, also known as Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
Fusarium venenatum is a microfungus of the genus Fusarium that has a high protein content.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geotrichum candidum is a fungus which is a member of the human microbiome, notably associated with skin, sputum and feces where it occurs in 25-30% of specimens.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey, (24 September 189821 February 1968) was an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Sir Ernst Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the development of penicillin.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
Jiuniang (酒酿, also called láozāo, 醪糟, or jiāngmǐjiǔ, 江米酒，tiánbáijiǔ，甜白酒 in Yunnan) is a sweet, soup- or pudding-like dish in Chinese cuisine.
Jiuqu (simplified Chinese: 酒曲; traditional Chinese: 酒麴; pinyin: Jiǔ qū) is a type of East Asian dried fermentation starter grown on a solid medium and used in the production of traditional Chinese alcoholic beverages.
is dried, fermented, and smoked skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Lovastatin (Merck's Mevacor) is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Medicinal fungi are those fungi which produce medically significant metabolites or can be induced to produce such metabolites using biotechnology.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
A mesophile is an organism that grows best in moderate temperature, neither too hot nor too cold, typically between.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mijiu is a Chinese rice wine made from glutinous rice.
Mildew is a form of fungus.
is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and koji (the fungus Aspergillus oryzae) and sometimes rice, barley, or other ingredients.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Mold health issues are potentially harmful effects of molds.
Monacolins are a group of compounds found in yeast species.
Monascus purpureus (syn. M. albidus, M. anka, M. araneosus, M. major, M. rubiginosus, and M. vini;, lit. "red yeast") is a species of mold that is purplish-red in color.
Mucor is a microbial genus of approximately 40 species of moulds commonly found in soil, digestive systems, plant surfaces, some cheeses like tomme de savoie, rotten vegetable matter and iron oxide residue in the biosorption process.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Multinucleate cells (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm.
Fungal mycelium Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungus-like bacterial colony, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae.
Mycena haematopus, commonly known as the bleeding fairy helmet, the burgundydrop bonnet, or the bleeding Mycena, is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family, of the order Agaricales.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
Neurospora is a genus of Ascomycete fungi.
New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.
Norman George Heatley OBE (10 January 1911 – 5 January 2004) was a member of the team of Oxford University scientists who developed penicillin.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species (mainly A. ochraceus, but also by 33% of A. niger industrial strains) and some Penicillium species, especially P. verrucosum and P. carbonarius.
Oncom is one of the traditional staple foods of West Javan (Sundanese) cuisine, Indonesia.
Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of molds, in particular, Aspergillus and Penicillium and Byssochlamys.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Penicillium ascomycetous fungi are of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
Penicillium chrysogenum or P. notatum (formerly) is a species of fungus in the family Trichocomaceae.
Penicillium nalgiovense is an anamorph species of the genus of Penicillium with lipolytic and proteolytic activity, which was first isolated from ellischau cheese.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. psychrophilic or cryophilic) are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in low temperatures, ranging from −20 °C to +10 °C.
Quorn is a meat substitute product originating in the UK and sold primarily in Europe, but also available in 19 countries.
Red yeast rice, red rice koji (べにこうじ, lit. 'red koji') or akakoji (あかこぎ, also meaning 'red koji'), red fermented rice, red kojic rice, red koji rice, anka, or ang-kak, is a bright reddish purple fermented rice, which acquires its colour from being cultivated with the mold Monascus purpureus.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals.
Rhizomucor miehei is a species of fungus.
Rhizopus is a genus of common saprophytic fungi on plants and specialized parasites on animals.
Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the family Mucoraceae and is a widely used starter culture for the production of tempeh at home and industrially.
Rhizopus oryzae is a fungus that lives worldwide in dead organic matter.
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a species of Hibiscus probably native to West Africa, used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion, in which it may be known as carcade.
, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.
Salami (singular salame) is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.
Samantha Louise Taylor-Johnson (née Taylor-Wood, born 4 March 1967) is an English filmmaker and photographer.
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.
is a Japanese distilled beverage less than 45% alcohol by volume.
Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi and serving to transport iron across cell membranes.
Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.
Spinellus fusiger, commonly known as the bonnet mold, is a species of fungus in the Zygomycota phylum.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Stachybotrys is a genus of molds, hyphomycetes or asexually reproducing, filamentous fungi.
Stachybotrys chartarum, also called Stachybotrys atra, Stachybotrys alternans or Stilbospora chartarum, is a black mold that produces its conidia in slime heads.
Stacy Levy (born 1960) is a sculptor who works in sculptural media suggestive of ecological natural patterns and processes such as water flows.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tempeh (témpé) is a traditional soy product originating from Indonesia.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Tolypocladium inflatum is an ascomycete fungus originally isolated from a Norwegian soil sample that, under certain conditions, produces the immunosuppressant drug ciclosporin.
Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi.
Trichophyton is a genus of fungi, which includes the parasitic varieties that cause tinea, including athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, and similar infections of the nail, beard, skin and scalp.
Trichothecenes are a very large family of chemically related mycotoxins produced by various species of Fusarium, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Cephalosporium, Verticimonosporium, and Stachybotrys.
Tyrophagus putrescentiae is a cosmopolitan mite species.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Water activity or aw is the partial vapor pressure of water in a substance divided by the standard state partial vapor pressure of water.
A xerophile is an extremophilic organism that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water, also known as water activity.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi.