366 relations: Aaron the Tyrant, Abolitionism, Academia Mihăileană, Age of Enlightenment, Ahmed III, Albina Românească, Alexander I of Moldavia, Alexander Ypsilantis, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Alexandru Lăpușneanu, Alexăndrel of Moldavia, Ambush, Anathema, Andronikos I Komnenos, Antony IV of Constantinople, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenians of Romania, Ashkenazi Jews, Aurochs, Austrian Empire, Bacău, Baia, Battle of Baia, Battle of Cecora (1620), Battle of Finta, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Obertyn, Battle of the Cosmin Forest, Battle of Vaslui, Battle of Vienna, Bayezid II, Bălți, Bălți Steppe, Bender, Moldova, Bessarabia, Bessarabia Governorate, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Black Sea, Bogdan I of Moldavia, Bogdan II of Moldavia, Bogdan III the One-Eyed, Bogdana Monastery, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Bolesław-Jerzy II, Bolhrad, Bolokhoveni, Botoșani, Bow and arrow, Boyar, ..., Brodnici, Bucharest, Budjak, Bukovina, Butea, Iași, Byzantine Empire, Caïque, Cahul, Camouflage, Cannon, Cantacuzino family, Capital punishment, Carol I of Romania, Carpathian Mountains, Casimir IV Jagiellon, Catholic Church, Cavalry, Cazania lui Varlaam, Ceahlău Massif, Central Europe, Cetatea de Baltă, Cetățuia Monastery, Charles I of Hungary, Cheremosh River, Chernivtsi, Chernivtsi Oblast, Chișinău, Chilia branch, Chronicle of Huru, Churches of Moldavia, Ciceu, Colonization, Comănești, Conservatism, Constantin Șerban, Constantine Mavrocordatos, Constitution, Cossacks, Cotnari, Counterfeit, Crimean Tatars, Crimean War, Cumans, Customs union, Dacia Literară, Danube, Danube Delta, Danubian Principalities, Dărmănești, Dimitrie Cantemir, Divan, Divisions of the Carpathians, Dniester, Dobruja, Dofteana, Domnitor, Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia, Duchy of Bukovina, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Economic history of the Ottoman Empire, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Electoral fraud, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eustratie Dabija, Fetești, Edineț, Feudalism, Fief, Filiki Eteria, Flag and coat of arms of Moldavia, Focșani, Freehold (law), Fyodor Koriatovych, Galați, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gaspar Graziani, George Ducas, George Ghica, George Martinuzzi, German language, Gheorghe Asachi, Gheorghe Ștefan, Gheorghe I. 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Aaron the Tyrant (Aron Tiranul) or Aron Vodă ("Aron the Voivode"), sometimes credited as Aron Emanoil or Emanuel Aaron (Aaron Waida, Aaron Vaivoda, Arvan or Zalim; before 1560 – May 1597), was twice the Prince of Moldavia: between September 1591 and June 1592, and October 1592 to May 3 or 4, 1595.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Academia Mihăileană was an institution of higher learning based in Iași, Moldavia, and active in the first part of the 19th century.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث, Aḥmed-i sālis) (30/31 December 16731 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (r. 1648–87).
Albina Românească ("The Romanian Bee") was a Romanian-language bi-weekly political and literary magazine, printed in Iaşi, Moldavia, at two intervals during the Regulamentul Organic period (between June 1, 1829, and January 3, 1835, and again between January 3, 1837, and January 2, 1850).
Alexander the Good (Alexandru cel Bun or Alexandru I Mușat) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia, reigning between 1400 and 1432, son of Roman I Mușat.
Alexander Ypsilantis, Ypsilanti, or Alexandros Ypsilantis (Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης Alexandros Yipsilantis; Alexandru Ipsilanti; Александр Константинович Ипсиланти Aleksandr Konstantinovich Ipsilanti; 12 December 179231 January 1828), was a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family, a prince of the Danubian Principalities, a senior officer of the Imperial Russian cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars, and a leader of the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization that coordinated the beginning of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza (or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873) was Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Domnitor (Ruler) of the Romanian Principalities.
The Alexandru Ioan Cuza University (Romanian: Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”; acronym: UAIC) is a public university located in Iași, Romania.
Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu was Ruler of Moldavia between September 1552 and 18 November 1561 and then between October 1564 and 5 May 1568.
Alexăndrel, son of Iliaș of Moldavia, was the prince (or voivode) of Moldavia in 1449, from 1452 to 1454, and in 1455.
An ambush is a long-established military tactic in which combatants take advantage of concealment and the element of surprise to attack unsuspecting enemy combatants from concealed positions, such as among dense underbrush or behind hilltops.
Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned.
Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνός, Andrónikos I Komnēnós; – 12 September 1185), usually Latinized as Andronicus I Comnenus, was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185.
Antony IV (? – May 1397) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for two terms, from January 1389 to July 1390, and again from early 1391 until his death.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
Armenians have been present in what is now Romania and Moldova for over a millennium, and have been an important presence as traders since the 14th century.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Bacău (Barchau, Bákó) is the main city in Bacău County, Romania.
Baia (Stadt Molde/Moldenmarkt, Moldvabánya, Civitas Moldaviae) is a commune in the Suceava County, Romania with a population of 6,793 (2002 census).
The Battle of Baia (Bătălia de la Baia, moldvabányai csata) was fought on December 15, 1467, between the Moldavian prince, Stephen the Great and Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus.
The Battle of Cecora (also known as the Battle of Ţuţora/Tsetsora Fields) was a battle between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (aided by rebel Moldavian troops) and Ottoman forces (backed by Nogais), fought from 17 September to 7 October 1620 in Moldavia, near the Prut River.
The Battle of Finta (27 May 1653) was a confrontation between Prince Matei Basarab's Wallachian army and a combined Moldavian–Cossack–Tatar force under Prince Vasile Lupu and Tymofiy Khmelnytsky.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Obertyn (August 22, 1531) was fought between Moldavian Voivode Petru Rareş and Polish forces under hetman Jan Tarnowski, in the town of Obertyn, south of the Dniester River, now in Ukraine.
The Battle of the Cosmin Forest (1497) (bătălia de la Codrii Cosminului; bitwa pod Koźminem) was fought between the Moldavian Prince, Ștefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great), and King John I of Poland (John I Albert) of the Kingdom of Poland.
The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on 10 January 1475, between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Bălți (Belz, Bielce, Бельцы,, Бєльці,, בעלץ) is a city in Moldova.
Bălți Steppe (Stepa Bălțului), also Beltsy Steppe (Бельцкая степь) is a hilly area with few trees (apart from those near rivers Dniestr, Răut and numerous lakes and creeks), dominated by agriculturally cultivated land, and occasionally by grasses and shrubs, in the northern part of Moldova.
Bender, Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, no.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
Bessarabia Oblast was an oblast (1812–1871) and later a guberniya (Guberniya of Bessarabia, 1871–1917) in the Russian Empire.
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Білгород-Дністровський, Cetatea Albă), formerly known as Akkerman (see naming section below), is a city and port situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman (on the Dniester estuary leading to the Black Sea) in Odessa Oblast of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Bessarabia.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bogdan I, or Bogdan the Founder (Bogdan Întemeietorul), was the first independent ruler, or voivode, of Moldavia in the 1360s.
Bogdan II was a prince of Moldavia from 1449 to 1451.
Bogdan III the One-Eyed (Bogdan al III-lea cel Chior) or Bogdan III the Blind (Bogdan al III-lea cel Orb) (1479 – April 20, 1517) Voivode of Moldavia from July 2, 1504 to 1517.
Bogdana Monastery is a Romanian Orthodox monastery in the town of Rădăuți, northern Romania.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
Bolesław-Jerzy II (1305/1310 – April 7, 1340) was a ruler of the Polish Piast dynasty who ruled the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia.
Bolhrad (Болград Bolhrad; Bulgarian and Болград Bolgrad; Bolgrad), also known by its Russian name Bolgrad, is a small city in Odessa Oblast (province) of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Budjak.
Bolokhoveni, also Bolokhov, Bolokhovens, or Bolokhovians (Bolohoveni; Болохівці), were a 13th-century ethnic group that resided in the vicinity of the Rus' principalities of Halych, Volhynia and Kiev, in the territory known as the centered at the city of or Bolokhovo (not identified yet).
Botoșani (Botosány, Botoszany, Botoschan) is the capital city of Botoșani County, in the northern part of Moldavia, Romania.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
The Brodnici (Бродники, Brodniki) were a tribe of uncertain origin.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Budjak or Budzhak (Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian: Буджак; Bugeac; Bucak, historical Cyrillic: Буӂак; Bucak) is a historical region in Ukraine.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Butea is a commune in Iași County, Romania.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caïque (καΐκι, kaiki, from kayık) is the term for a traditional fishing boat usually found among the waters of the Ionian or Aegean Sea, and also a light skiff used on the Bosporus.
Cahul (also known by other alternative names) is a city and municipality in southern Moldova.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The Cantacuzino or Cantacuzène family is a Romanian aristocratic family that gave several Princes of Wallachia and Moldavia, descending from a branch of the Byzantine Kantakouzenos family, specifically from the Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos (reigned 1347–1354).
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the monarch of Romania from 1866 to 1914.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Cazania lui Varlaam (the Homiliary of Varlaam) also known as Carte Românească de Învăţătură (the Romanian Book of Learning) is a book edited by the Metropolitan of Moldavia Varlaam Moţoc in 1643.
The Ceahlău Massif is one of the most notorious mountains of Romania.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Cetatea de Baltă (Küküllővár; Kokelburg) is a commune in Alba County, Romania.
The Cetățuia Monastery (Mănăstirea Cetăţuia) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery located in Iaşi, Romania.
Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Károly Róbert; Karlo Robert; Karol Róbert; 128816 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.
The Cheremosh River is a river in western Ukraine, right-bank tributary of the river Prut.
Chernivtsi (Černivci; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut.
Chernivtsi Oblast (Чернівецька область, Černivećka oblasť, Regiunea Cernăuți) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia.
Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
The Chilia or Kilia branch is a main distributary of the river Danube, that contributes in forming the Danube Delta.
The Chronicle of Huru (Cronica lui Huru) was a forged narrative, first published in 1856-1857; it claimed to be an official chronicle of the medieval Moldavian court and to shed light on Romanian presence in Moldavia from Roman Dacia and up to the 13th century, thus offering an explanation of problematic issues relating to the origin of the Romanians and Romanian history in the Dark Ages.
The eight Romanian Orthodox Churches of Moldavia are located in Suceava County, northern Moldavia, and were built approximately between 1487 and 1583.
Ciceu (Csíkcsicsó, or colloquially Csicsó) is a commune in Romania, located in Harghita County.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
Comănești is a town in Bacău County, Romania, with a population of 19,568.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Constantin II Şerban was Prince of Wallachia between 1654 and 1658, illegitimate son to Radu Şerban (according to custom, being born out of wedlock (social term bastard) did not disqualify Constantin from becoming Prince).
Constantine Mavrocordatos (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Μαυροκορδάτος, Romanian: Constantin Mavrocordat; February 27, 1711November 23, 1769) was a Greek noble who served as Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia at several intervals.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cotnari is a village and the center of the eponymous commune in Iași County, Romania, in the historical region of Moldavia.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Dacia Literară was the first Romanian literary and political journal.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării; Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunayu) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent.
Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene, translit) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century.
Dărmănești is a town in the eastern Romania, in Bacău County, in the valleys of the Trotuș and Uz rivers.
Dimitrie or Demetrius Cantemir (1673–1723), also known by other spellings, was a Moldavian soldier, statesman, and man of letters.
A divan or diwan (دیوان, dīvān) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or its chief official (see dewan).
Divisions of the Carpathians are categorization of the Carpathian mountains system.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
Dofteana (Doftána) is a commune in Bacău County, Romania.
Domnitor (pl. Domnitori) was the official title of the ruler of Romania between 1862 and 1881.
Dragoș, also known as Dragoș Vodă, or Dragoș the Founder was the first Voivode of Moldavia, who reigned in the middle of the, according to the earliest Moldavian chronicles.
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Economic history of the Ottoman Empire covers the period 1299–1923.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Eustratie (or Istrate) Dabija was Prince (Voivode) of Moldavia between 1661 and his death in September 1665.
Fetești is a village in Edineț District, Moldova.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Filiki Eteria or Society of Friends (Φιλική Εταιρεία or Εταιρεία των Φιλικών) was a secret 19th-century organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule of Greece and establish an independent Greek state.
The flag and coat of arms of Moldavia, one of the two Danubian Principalities, together with Wallachia, which formed the basis for the Romanian state, were subject to numerous changes throughout their history.
Focșani (Fokschan; Foksány; Fokşan; Foqshan) is the capital city of Vrancea County in Romania on the shores the Milcov River, in the historical region of Moldavia.
In common law jurisdictions (e.g. England and Wales, United States, Australia, Canada and Ireland), a freehold is the common ownership of real property, or land, and all immovable structures attached to such land, as opposed to a leasehold, in which the property reverts to the owner of the land after the lease period has expired.
Fedir Koriatovych (Федір Коріятович, Fiodor Koriatowic, Teodoras Karijotaitis) (died 1414 in Mukacheve) was a Ruthenian prince of Lithuanian origins, son of Karijotas, Duke of Navahrudak, and grandson of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Galați (also known by other alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gaspar (or Gaşpar, Gasparo) Graziani (also credited as Grazziani, Gratiani and Graţiani; Kasper Gratiani in Polish; ca. 1575/1580–1620) was Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between February 4OS/February 14 NS 1619 and September 19 OS/September 29 NS 1620 (see Adoption of the Gregorian calendar).
Voivode George Ducas (Greek: Γεώργιος Δούκας, Romanian: Gheorghe Duca) (d. 1685) was three times prince of Moldavia (September 1665 – May 1666, November 1668 – 20 August 1672, November 1678 – January 1684) and one time prince of Wallachia (1673 – 29 November 1678).
George Ghica (Gjergj Gjika, Gheorghe Ghika) (3 March 1600 – 2 November 1664) founder of the Ghica family, was Prince of Moldavia in 1658–1659 and Prince of Wallachia in 1659–1660.
George Martinuzzi, O.S.P. (born Juraj Utješinović, also known as György Martinuzzi, Brother György, Georg Utiessenovicz-Martinuzzi or György Fráter Fráter György; 1482 – 16 December 1551), was a Croatian nobleman, Pauline monk and Hungarian statesman who supported King John Zápolya and his son, King John Sigismund Zápolya.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gheorghe Asachi (surname also spelled Asaki; March 1, 1788 – November 12, 1869) was a Moldavian, later Romanian prose writer, poet, painter, historian, dramatist and translator.
Gheorghe Ştefan (István Görgicze, seldom referred to as Burduja; d. 1668 in Szczecin) was Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between April 13 and May 8, 1653, and again from July 16, 1653 to March 13, 1658; he was the son of boyar Dumitraşcu Ceaur; Gheorghe Ştefan was Chancellor (logofăt) during the reign of Vasile Lupu.
Gheorghe (George) I. Brătianu (February 3, 1898 – April 23–27, 1953) was a Romanian politician and historian.
The Ghica family (Ghica, Gjika, Gikas, Γκίκαs) was a noble family active in Wallachia, Moldavia and in the Kingdom of Romania, between the 17th and 19th centuries.
Ghindăoani is a commune in Neamț County, Romania.
Flag terminology is the nomenclature, or system of terms, used in vexillology, the study of flags, to describe precisely the parts, patterns, and other attributes of flags and their display.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries.
Grigore Alexandru Ghica or Ghika (1803 or 1807 – 24 August 1857) was a Prince of Moldavia between 14 October 1849, and June 1853, and again between 30 October 1854, and 3 June 1856.
Grigore Ureche (1590–1647) was a Moldavian chronicler who wrote on Moldavian history in his Letopiseţul Ţării Moldovei (The Chronicles of the land of Moldavia), covering the period from 1359 to 1594.
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author.
Hârlău (also spelled Hîrlău,; חרלאו, Harlau, Harló) is a town in Iași County, Moldavia, Romania.
Hîncești (Cyrillic: Хынчешть; Gancheshty/Hyncheshty) is a city and municipality in Moldova.
Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ținutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herța) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.
Hetman of Zaporizhian Cossacks is a historical term that has multiple meanings.
The High Court of Cassation and Justice (Înalta Curte de Casație și Justiție) is Romania's supreme court, and the court of last resort.
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.
The historical regions of Romania are located in Central and Southeastern Europe.
This is a glossary of historical Romanian taxes used in the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the history of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below).
The history of the Jews in Romania concerns the Jews both of Romania and of Romanian origins, from their first mention on what is present-day Romanian territory.
Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemy's defense and/or retaliation.
Hospodar or gospodar is a term of Slavonic origin, meaning "lord" or "master".
The House of Bogdan, commonly referred to as the House of Mușat, was the ruling family which established the Principality of Moldova with Bogdan I (c. 1363 - 1367), giving the country its first line of Princes, one closely related with the Basarab rulers of Wallachia by several marriages through time.
Huși (Yiddish/חוש Khush, Huszváros, German: Hussburg) is a city in Vaslui County, Romania, former capital of the disbanded Fălciu County in the historical region of Western Moldavia, Romanian Orthodox episcopal see, and home of some of the best vineyards of Romania.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Humor Monastery located in Mănăstirea Humorului, about 5 km north of the town of Gura Humorului, Romania.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Iacob Heraclid (or Eraclid; Ἰάκωβος Ἡρακλείδης; 1527 – November 5, 1563), born Basilicò and also known as Iacobus Heraclides, Heraclid Despotul, or Despot Vodă ("Despot the Voivode"), was a Greek Maltese soldier, adventurer and intellectual, who reigned as Prince of Moldavia from November 1561 to November 1563.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
The Iași National Theatre (Romanian: Teatrul Național Vasile Alecsandri) in Iași, Romania, is the oldest national theatre and one of the most prestigious theatrical institutions in Romania.
Iancu Sasul (John the Saxon) or Ioan Vodă V (Voivode John V; d. September 28, 1582 in Lviv) was the bastard son of Petru Rareş from his relationship with the wife of Braşov Transylvanian Saxon Iorg (Jürgen) Weiss, and Prince of Moldavia between November 1579 and September 1582.
Ieremia Movilă (Jeremi Mohyła in Polish) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between August 1595 and May 1600, and again between September 1600 and July 10, 1606.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Ineu (also Inău) is a peak in the Rodna Mountains, Romania.
Ioan Sandu Sturdza (or Ioniţă Sandu Sturdza) was a Prince of Moldavia from 21 June 1822 to 5 May 1828.
Ion Neculce (1672–1745) was a Moldavian chronicler.
Izmail (translit. Izmayil; Измаил, translit. Izmail; Ismail; also referred to as Ismail; Izmaił, Исмаил) is a historic city on the Danube river in Odessa Oblast in south-western Ukraine.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jani Beg (died 1357) also called Djanibek Khan was a khan of the Golden Horde from 1342 to 1357, succeeding his father Öz Beg Khan.
John III the Terrible (Ioan cel Cumplit), also John III the Brave (Ioan cel Viteaz) (1521–1574) was Voivode of Moldavia between February 1572 and June 1574.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Qaim Maqam, Qaimaqam or Kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam; قائم مقام, "sub-governor") is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire.
Khotyn (Хотин,; Hotin; see other names) is a city in Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine, and is the administrative center of Khotyn Raion within the oblast, and is located south-west of Kamianets-Podilskyi.
Kiliya (Кілія; Килия; Chilia; Moldovan (Cyrillic): Килия; Kilia;, Kellía; Kilya) is a small city in Odessa Oblast (province) of southwestern Ukraine.
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.
Lațcu was Voivode of Moldavia from c. 1367 to c. 1375.
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
The Laz people or Lazi (ლაზი, lazi; or ჭანი, ch'ani; Laz) are an indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Romania.
This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.
This is a list of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Maramureș (Maramureș; Мармарощина, Marmaroshchyna) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern Romania and western Ukraine.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Matei Basarab (1588, Brâncoveni, Olt – 9 April 1654, Bucharest) was a Wallachian Voivode (Prince) between 1632 and 1654.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmet, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
The Metropolis of Moldavia and Bucovina, in Iași, Romania, is a metropolis of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazu(l) or Mihai Bravu, Vitéz Mihály; 1558 – 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (as Michael II, 1593–1601), Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mihail Kogălniceanu (also known as Mihail Cogâlniceanu, Michel de Kogalnitchan; September 6, 1817 – July 1, 1891) was a Moldavian, later Romanian liberal statesman, lawyer, historian and publicist; he became Prime Minister of Romania on October 11, 1863, after the 1859 union of the Danubian Principalities under Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza, and later served as Foreign Minister under Carol I. He was several times Interior Minister under Cuza and Carol.
Mihail Sturdza (1795, Iași – 8 May 1884, Paris), sometimes anglicized as Michael Stourdza, was prince of Moldavia from 1834 to 1849.
The military history of Romania deals with conflicts spreading over a period of about 2500 years across the territory of modern Romania, the Balkan Peninsula and Eastern Europe and the role of the Romanian military in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide.
Mircea the Elder (Mircea cel Bătrân,, d. 31 January 1418) was Voivode of Wallachia from 1386 until his death.
Miron Costin (March 30, 1633 – 1691, Roman) was a Moldavian (Romanian) political figure and chronicler.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
The Moldavian Democratic Republic (Republica Democratică Moldovenească), also known as the Moldavian Republic, was a state proclaimed on by the Sfatul Țării (National Council) of Bessarabia, elected in October–November 1917 following the February Revolution and the start of the disintegration of the Russian Empire.
The Moldavian Magnate Wars refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, clashing with the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for domination and influence over the principality.
Moldavia had a military force for much of its history as an independent and, later, autonomous principality subject to the Ottoman Empire (14th century-1859).
The Moldavian Revolution of 1848 is the name used for an unsuccessful Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist movement inspired by the Revolutions of 1848 in the principality of Moldavia.
Moldovenesc style or Moldavian architectural style is a type of architecture developed in Moldavia during the 14th through 19th centuries.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Moldova River is a river in Romania, in the historical region of Moldavia.
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback.
The Mourouzis (Μουρούζης) or Moruzi are a family which was first mentioned in the Empire of Trebizond.
The Movileşti (Mohyła, Cyrillic: Могила) were a family of boyars in the principality of Moldavia, which became related through marriage with the Muşatin family – the traditional House of Moldavian sovereigns.
The Partida Națională was a liberal Romanian political party active between 1856 and 1859.
The Nativity of St.
A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships, which is controlled by one leader and the largest formation in any navy.
Neagu Bunea Djuvara (August 18, 1916 – January 25, 2018) was a Romanian historian, essayist, philosopher, journalist, novelist and diplomat.
The Neamț Monastery (Mănăstirea Neamț) is a Romanian Orthodox religious settlement, one of the oldest and most important of its kind in Romania.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Nicholas Mavrocordatos (Νικόλαος Μαυροκορδάτος, Nicolae Mavrocordat; May 3, 1670 in ConstantinopleSeptember 3, 1730 in Bucharest) was a Greek member of the Mavrocordatos family, Grand Dragoman to the Divan (1697), and consequently the first Phanariote Hospodar of the Danubian Principalities - Prince of Moldavia, and Prince of Wallachia (both on two separate occasions).
Nicolae Costin (1660–1712) was a Moldavian chronicler.
Nicolae Iorga (sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga;Iova, p. xxvii. January 17, 1871 – November 27, 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright.
Prince Nicolae Vogoride (Romanian version; Bulgarian: Никола or Николай Богориди, Nikola or Nikolay Bogoridi; Greek: Νικόλαος Βογορίδης, Nikolaos Vogoridis; Nikolaki Bey), (1820, Iași, Moldavia – 12 April 1863, Bucharest, Romanian United Principalities) was a caimacam (temporary replacement of Prince; from kaymakam) who ruled Moldavia between 1857–1858, following the Crimean War.
Nogay Horde, Nohai Horde or Nogay Yortu was a confederation of about eighteen Turkic and Mongol tribes that occupied the Pontic-Caspian steppe from about 1500 until they were pushed west by the Kalmyks and south by the Russians in the 17th century.
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in southern European Russia, mainly in the North Caucasus region.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Old Church Slavonic was the main language used for administrative (until the 16th century) and liturgical purposes (until the 17th century) by the Romanian principalities, being still occasionally used in the Orthodox Church until the early 18th century.
Old Orhei (Orheiul Vechi) is a historical and archaeological complex, located in Trebujeni, at north-east of Chişinău, on the Răut River, in Moldova.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
War of the Holy League. The history of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century has classically been described as one of stagnation and reform.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Palace of Justice (Justizpalast) is the seat of the Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) of Austria.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
Count Pavel Dmitrievich Kiselyov or Kiseleff (Па́вел Дми́триевич Киселёв) (Moscow –, Paris) is generally regarded as the most brilliant Russian reformer during Nicholas I's generally conservative reign.
Peter Aaron (Petru Aron) (died 1467), bastard son of Alexandru cel Bun, was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia on three separate occasions: October 1451 to February 1452, August 1454 to February 1455, and May 1455 to April 1457.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Petre Mavrogheni (1819 – 20 April 1887) also known as Petru Mavrogheni was a Romanian politician who served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 11 May until 13 July 1866 and as the Minister of Finance.
Petru I was Voivode (prince) of Moldavia from the end of 1367 to after July 1368.
Petru Rareș, sometimes known as Peter IV (Petru IV; ca. 1487 – 3 September 1546) was twice voievod of Moldavia: 20 January 1527 to 18 September 1538 and 19 February 1541 to 3 September 1546.
Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Φαναριώτες, Fanarioți, Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek families in PhanarEncyclopædia Britannica,Phanariote, 2008, O.Ed.
Piatra Neamț, Bistritz, Karácsonkő) is the capital city of Neamț County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania. Because of its privileged location in the Eastern Carpathian mountains, it is considered one of the most picturesque cities in Romania. The ''Nord-Est'' Regional Development Agency is located in Piatra Neamț.
Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Покуття, Pocuția, Pokucie, Покутье) is a historical area of East-Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers, in modern Ukraine.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Swedish War (1600–11) was a continuation of struggle between Sweden and Poland over control of Livonia and Estonia, as well as the dispute over the Swedish throne between Charles IX of Sweden and Sigismund III of Poland.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
The Princely Academy of Iași was an institution of higher learning, active in the 18th and 19th centuries.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prut (also spelled in English as Pruth;, Прут) is a long river in Eastern Europe.
The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava and the escape of the wounded Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman-held fortress of Bender.
The Putna monastery (Mănăstirea Putna) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery, one of the most important cultural, religious and artistic centers established in medieval Moldavia; as with many others, it was built and dedicated by Stephen the Great.
The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.
Rădăuți (Radautz; Radóc; Radowce; Радівці, Radivtsi; ראַדעװיץ Radevits; Radoviçe) is a city in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania.
Regulamentul Organic (Organic Regulation; Règlement Organique; r)The name also has plural versions in all languages concerned, referring to the dual nature of the document; however, the singular version is usually preferred.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans in Chernivtsi, Ukraine was built between the years 1864 - 1882 to the designs of the Czech architect Josef Hlávka.
Right-bank Ukraine (Правобережна Україна, Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Правобережная Украина, Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina, Pravo breh Ukrajiny, Jobb folyópart Ukrajna) is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.
Roman I was Voivode of Moldavia from December 1391 to March 1394.
Romani people (Roma in Romani; Țigani in Romanian) in Romania, Gypsy, constitute one of the country's largest minorities.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet is the Cyrillic alphabet that was used to write the Romanian language before 1860–1862, when it was officially replaced by a Latin-based Romanian alphabet.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romanian literature is literature written by Romanian authors, although the term may also be used to refer to all literature written in the Romanian language.
The Romanian Old Kingdom (Vechiul Regat or just Regat; Regat or Altreich) is a colloquial term referring to the territory covered by the first independent Romanian nation state, which was composed of the Romanian Principalities—Wallachia and Moldavia.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
România Literară is a cultural and literary magazine from Romania.
Roset-Roznovanu Palace (Palatul Roset-Roznovanu) is an edifice located in Iaşi, Romania.
The Rudi Geodetic Point (Punctul Geodezic Rudi) is a point of the Struve Geodetic Arc in Rudi, Moldova.
Ruginoasa is a commune in Iași County, Romania.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence.
A salary is a form of payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract.
Scarlat Callimachi (Istanbul, 1773 – December 12, 1821, Bolu) was Grand Dragoman of the Sublime Porte 1801–1806, Prince of Moldavia between August 24, 1806 – October 26, 1806, August 4, 1807 – June 13, 1810, September 17, 1812 – June 1819 and Prince of Wallachia between February 1821 – June 1821.
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Seimeni (plural of Seimen) designates the group of flintlock-armed infantry mercenaries charged with guarding the gospodar (ruler) and his court in 17th and 18th century Wallachia and Moldavia.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful two-month siege of the castle in Marienburg (Malbork), the capital of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
The Eyalet of Silistra or Silistria (ایالت سیلیستره; Eyālet-i Silistre), later known as Özü Eyalet (ایالت اوزی; Eyālet-i Özi) meaning Province of Ochakiv was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea littoral and south bank of the Danube River in southeastern Europe.
Siret (Sereth; Seret; Szeretvásár, סערעט Seret) is a town, municipality and former Latin bishopric in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania.
The Siret or Sireth (Сірет or Серет, Siret, Szeret, Сирет) is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of Ukraine, and flows southward into Romania before it joins the Danube.
Slavery had mostly died out in western Europe about the year 1000, replaced by serfdom.
Slavery (robie) existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13th–14th century, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s, and also until 1783, in Transylvania and Bukovina (parts of the Habsburg Monarchy).
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Stănilești is a commune in Vaslui County, Romania.
Stephen I of Moldavia (Moldavian: Ştefan I) was Prince of Moldavia from 1394 to 1399.
Stephen III of Moldavia, known as Stephen the Great (Ștefan cel Mare;; died on 2 July 1504) was voivode (or prince) of Moldavia from 1457 to 1504.
Stephen IV of Moldavia (Moldavian: Ştefan IV), also called Ștefăniță, was Prince of Moldavia from 1517 to 1527.
The Struve Geodetic Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, which yielded the first accurate measurement of a meridian.
Stulpicani is a commune located in Suceava County, Romania.
Sturdza, Sturza or Stourdza is the name of an old Romanian aristocratic family, whose origins can be traced back to the 1540s.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
Suceava is the largest city and the seat of Suceava County, situated in the historical region of Bukovina from Central EuropeKlaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 and north-eastern Romania respectively.
Suceava is a county (județ) of Romania.
For the commune in Ialomița County, see Sudiți, Ialomița.
The riksdaler was the name of a Swedish coin first minted in 1604.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne) concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (Iași) in Moldavia (presently in Romania), was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 and confirming Russia's increasing dominance in the Black Sea.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
Mănăstirea Trei Ierarhi (Monastery of the Three Hierarchs) is a seventeenth-century monastery located in Iaşi, Romania.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe.
The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was the official name of the personal union which later became Romania, adopted in 1859 when Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the Domnitor (Ruling Prince) of both territories, which were still vassals of the Ottoman Empire.
Lupu Coci, known as Vasile Lupu (1595–1661) was the Voivode of Moldavia between 1634 and 1653.
The Vasilian College or Vasilian Academy (Academia Vasiliană) was an institution of higher learning in Iași, the Principality of Moldavia, founded by Prince Vasile Lupu in 1640.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vassal states were a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons.
The Vânători-Neamț Natural Park (Parcul Natural Vânători Neamţ) is situated in north-east Romania, in Neamţ County.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
The Voroneț Monastery is a medieval monastery in the Romanian village of Voroneț, now a part of the town Gura Humorului.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and nationalist uprising in the Principality of Wallachia.
Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Western Moldavia (Moldova), also called Moldavia or Romanian Moldavia, is the historic and geographical part of the former Principality of Moldavia situated in eastern and north-eastern Romania.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yedisan (also Jedisan or Edisan) is a historical territory of the northern coast of Black Sea that appeared sometime in the 17th and 18th centuries as part of the Ottoman Silistra (see Silistra Eyalet) and was named after one of Nogai Hordes.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
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