476 relations: Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Agence France-Presse, Alecu Donici, Alecu Russo, Alexandru Hâjdeu, Alliance for European Integration, Allies of World War I, Alma-Ata Protocol, Amnesty International, Ancient Rome, Andrei Stratan, Andrian Candu, April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests, Archery, Armenians in Moldova, Associated Press, Association football, Atheism, Aurochs, Bacău, Bîc River, Bălănești Hill, Bălți, Bălți Steppe, BBC News, Beef, Beer, Belarusians, Bender, Moldova, Bessarabia, Bessarabia Germans, Bessarabia Governorate, Bessarabian Bulgarians, Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic, Biathlon, Black Sea, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Bologna Process, Botna River, Boxing, Brandy, Budjak, Bukovina, Bulgarian language, Bulgarians, Byzantine Empire, Cabbage, Cabinet of Moldova, Cahul County, Camenca, ..., Canoeing, Carpathian Mountains, Catholic Church in Moldova, Cereal, Chernivtsi Oblast, Chernozem, Chișinău, Chișinău International Airport, Christian, Christmas, Classical antiquity, Codri, Cogîlnic River, Cojușna, Collier's Encyclopedia, Colonization, Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova, Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of Moldova, Comrat, Constantin Negruzzi, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stamati-Ciurea, Constantin Stere, Constitution of Moldova, Constitution of Moldova (1994), Constitutional Court of Moldova, Constitutional republic, Continental climate, Controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Moldova, Council of Europe, Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Cricova (winery), Crime, Cucuteni–Trypillia culture, Cumans, Cycle sport, Dacia, Dacians, Danube, Danubian Principalities, De facto, Death of Valeriu Boboc, Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area, Democratic Agrarian Party, Democratic Party of Moldova, Demography, Deutsche Welle, Dimitrie Cantemir, Direct election, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dniester, Dosoftei, Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia, Dragostea Din Tei, Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, Early Middle Ages, East Slavs, Eastern Europe, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Partnership, Economy of Moldova, Energy market, Energy policy of the European Union, Energy security, Eugen Doga, Eurasian Steppe, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Court of Human Rights, European Higher Education Area, European Parliament, European Union, European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine, Eurovision Song Contest, Eurovision Song Contest 2005, Eurovision Song Contest 2007, Eurovision Song Contest 2010, Eurovision Song Contest 2011, Ștefan Neaga, Fight (Natalia Barbu song), First Tarlev Cabinet, Folk wrestling, Football, Forced assimilation, Founding of Moldavia, French language, Gagauz language, Gagauz people, Gagauzia, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gavriil Musicescu, Geographical distribution of Russian speakers, Geography of Moldova, German language, Giurgiulești, Glasnost, Goths, Greeks, Grigore Ureche, Gross domestic product, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, Gymnastics, Hîrtop, Cimișlia, Head of government, Head of state, Heim ins Reich, Heiner Bielefeldt, Henri Mathias Berthelot, Higher education, History of Moldova, History of the Jews in Bessarabia, History of the Russo-Turkish wars, HIV/AIDS, Hong Kong, Human Development Index, Human trafficking, Humvee, Hungarians, Huns, Ieremia Movilă, Igor Dodon, Ilan Shor, Ilie Ilașcu, Independence Day of Republic of Moldova, Independence of Moldova, Indirect election, Infant mortality, Information and Security Service of the Republic of Moldova, INOGATE, International Futures, International Monetary Fund, Internet in Moldova, Internet meme, Ion Creangă, Ion Neculce, Ion Nistor, Ion Pelivan, Irreligion, Jan Zamoyski, Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, Jews, Judicial independence, Judicial review, Judo, Jurnalul Național, Kazakhstan, Khotyn, Kindergarten, Kingdom of Romania, Kozak memorandum, Land reform in Romania, Landlocked country, Latin alphabet, Latin peoples, Latin script, Latvian Russian Union, Law enforcement in Moldova, Law Library of Congress, Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, Liberal Party (Moldova), Library of Congress, Life expectancy, Liman (landform), Limba noastră, Lipovans, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of grape varieties, List of Mongol and Tatar attacks in Europe, Literacy, Magistrate, Maria Bieșu, Mark Zeltser, Market economy, Maternal death, Member of the European Parliament, Metropolis of Bessarabia, Metropolis of Chișinău and All Moldova, Michael the Brave, Mihai Eminescu, Mihai Ghimpu, Mileștii Mici (winery), Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of Moldova, Ministry of State Security (Soviet Union), Mircea Druc, Mircea Snegur, Miron Costin, Moldavia, Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldavian Democratic Republic, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldavian Supreme Soviet election, 1990, Moldova President's Cup, Moldova River, Moldova State University, Moldova–European Union Association Agreement, Moldova–European Union relations, Moldova–Russia relations, Moldovan Air Force, Moldovan bank fraud scandal, Moldovan constitutional referendum, 2010, Moldovan cupon, Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet, Moldovan Declaration of Independence, Moldovan Ground Forces, Moldovan language, Moldovan leu, Moldovan parliamentary election, 1994, Moldovan parliamentary election, 2001, Moldovan parliamentary election, 2010, Moldovan parliamentary election, April 2009, Moldovan presidential election, 1996, Moldovan presidential election, 2011–2012, Moldovan presidential election, November–December 2009, Moldovan wine, Moldovans, Moldovenism, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mongol invasion of Europe, Municipiu, Natalia Barbu, National Bank of Moldova, National Library of Moldova, National Patriotic Front, National Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Information Technology of the Republic of Moldova, NATO, Nazi Germany, Neolithic, Neutral country, New Year's Day, Nicolae Timofti, Nikolai Spathari, NKVD, Nogais, O-Zone, Old Believers, Old Calendarists, Oldowan, Olia Tira, Olympic Games, Olympic weightlifting, Operation Barbarossa, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Origin of the Romanians, Ottoman Empire, Our Moldova Alliance, Outline of Moldova, Pale of Settlement, Pannonian Avars, Pantelimon Erhan Cabinet, Parliament of the Republic of Moldova, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Partnership for Peace, Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, Pavel Filip, Pechenegs, Perestroika, Petras Auštrevičius, Petru Cazacu, Petru Lucinschi, Podolia, Podolian Upland, Poles, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Political status of Transnistria, Popular Front of Moldova, Pork, Potato, President of Moldova, President of the Moldovan Parliament, Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Prime Minister of Moldova, Pro-European Coalition, Proportional representation, Protestantism, Prut, Purcari (winery), Quorum, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Moldova, Raion, Răut River, Red Army, Remittance, Representative democracy, Republic, Republic of Genoa, Reuters, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romani people, Romania, Romanian cuisine, Romanian Land Forces, Romanian language, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company, Romanians, Romanticism, Romănești (winery), Rowman & Littlefield, Rugby Europe International Championships, Rugby union, Run Away (SunStroke Project and Olia Tira song), Russia, Russian cuisine, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russians in Moldova, Russification, Saint George, Sergey Stepanov (musician), Sfatul Țării, Sfatul Țării election, 1917, Shooting, Siberia, Slavs, Soroca Fort, Soviet deportations from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Soviet Empire, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Soviet ruble, Soviet Union, Stephen III of Moldavia, SunStroke Project, Sustainable energy, Swimming (sport), Taekwondo, Tajikistan, Tatarbunary uprising, Tatars, Technological convergence, Telephone numbers in Moldova, Television in Romania, Television in Russia, Television in the Soviet Union, Temperate climate, Tertiary sector of the economy, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The World Factbook, Timeline of the introduction of television in countries, Tiraspol, Total fertility rate, Track and field, Traian Băsescu, Transnistria, Transnistria autonomous territorial unit, Transnistria Governorate, Transnistria War, Transylvania, Treaty of Berlin (1878), Treaty of Bucharest (1812), Treaty of Paris (1856), Treaty of Paris (1920), Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Tribute, Tsarist autocracy, Tuberculosis, Turkic peoples, Turkish cuisine, Two-round system, Ukraine, Ukrainian cuisine, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukrainians, Unicameralism, Unification of Romania and Moldova, Union of Bessarabia with Romania, Unitary state, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Security Council Resolution 739, United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, United Principalities, United States Department of State, Ural Mountains, Urbanization, Varlaam, Metropolitan of Moscow, Vasile Tarlev, Vassal state, Vinogradovca, Vladimir Plahotniuc, Vladimir Voronin, Wallachia, Washington, D.C., Wayne S. Vucinich, Western Moldavia, Wideband audio, Wine, World Bank, World Trade Organization, World War I, Wrestling, Zdob și Zdub, Zinaida Greceanîi, .md, 14th Army involvement in Transnistria, 1989 Moldova civil unrest, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 1998 Russian financial crisis, 2004 Census in Transnistria, 2004 Moldovan Census, 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines, 2012 Moldova security zone incident, 2014 Moldovan Census, 26th meridian east, 30th meridian east, 45th parallel north, 49th parallel north. Expand index (426 more) » « Shrink index
The Academy of Sciences of Moldova (Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei), established in 1946, is the main scientific organization of the Republic of Moldova and coordinates research in all areas of science and technology.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Alecu (or Alexandru) Donici (January 19, 1806 – January 21, 1865) was a Moldavian, later Romanian poet and translator.
Alecu Russo (born in March 17, 1819, near Chişinău, died on February 5, 1859, in Iaşi), was a Moldavian Romanian writer, literary critic and publicist.
Alexandru Hâjdeu (Алекса́ндр Фадде́евич Хижде́у, 30 November 1811 – 9 November 1872) was a Russian writer of Romanian origin, who lived in Bessarabia (Russian Empire).
The Alliance for European Integration (Alianța pentru Integrare Europeană) was the centre-right anti-communist ruling coalition in Moldova from the July 2009 election until it lost a no confidence vote on February 13, 2013.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrei Stratan (born September 3, 1966 in Chişinău) is a Moldovan politician.
Andrian Candu (born 27 November 1975, in Chișinău) is a Moldovan politician, member of the Moldovan Parliament since December 2014.
Protests against the April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election results, began on 6 April 2009, in major cities of Moldova (including Bălți and the capital, Chișinău) before the final official results were announced.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Armenians in Moldova are the ethnic Armenians that live in Moldova.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Bacău (Barchau, Bákó) is the main city in Bacău County, Romania.
Bîc (also spelled Bâc) is a river in Moldova, a right tributary of Dniester.
Bălănești Hill (Dealul Bălănești) is the highest geographical point in Moldova, with an altitude of 430 m (429 m according to some sources).
Bălți (Belz, Bielce, Бельцы,, Бєльці,, בעלץ) is a city in Moldova.
Bălți Steppe (Stepa Bălțului), also Beltsy Steppe (Бельцкая степь) is a hilly area with few trees (apart from those near rivers Dniestr, Răut and numerous lakes and creeks), dominated by agriculturally cultivated land, and occasionally by grasses and shrubs, in the northern part of Moldova.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Bender, Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, no.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
The Bessarabia Germans (Bessarabiendeutsche, Germani basarabeni, Бессарабські німці) were an ethnic group who lived in Bessarabia (today part of the Republic of Moldova and south-western Ukraine) between 1814 and 1940.
Bessarabia Oblast was an oblast (1812–1871) and later a guberniya (Guberniya of Bessarabia, 1871–1917) in the Russian Empire.
The Bessarabian Bulgarians (бесарабски българи, besarabski bǎlgari, bulgari basarabeni) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova.
The Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic or Bessarabian SSR (Бессарабская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Бессарабская ССР) was a failed attempt of the Soviet Russia to establish its control over territory of historical Bessarabia in 1919.
The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu (26 February 1838 &ndash) was a Romanian writer and philologist, who pioneered many branches of Romanian philology and history.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
Botna is a river in Moldova, a right tributary of Dniester.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
Budjak or Budzhak (Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian: Буджак; Bugeac; Bucak, historical Cyrillic: Буӂак; Bucak) is a historical region in Ukraine.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
The Cabinet of Moldova is the chief executive body of the government of Moldova.
Cahul County was a county of Bessarabia.
Camenca (Cyrillic spelling Каменка, Каменка, Kamenka, Кам'янка, Kamianka, Kamionka) is a town in Transnistria, Moldova.
Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Catholic Church in Moldova is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chernivtsi Oblast (Чернівецька область, Černivećka oblasť, Regiunea Cernăuți) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia.
Chernozem (r; "black soil") is a black-colored soil containing a high percentage of humus (4% to 16%), and high percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus and ammonia.
Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
Chișinău International Airport is Moldova's main international airport, located southeast of the centre of Chișinău, the capital city.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Codru (also plural Codrii; Forests or Woods) is the name of the forests that grow in the hilly part of central Moldova.
The Cogîlnic River (also Cogâlnic, Kogylnik, Kogîlnic, or Kunduk) is a 243 km river in Moldova and south-western Ukraine.
Cojușna is a village in Strășeni District, Moldova.
Collier's Encyclopedia (full title: Collier's Encyclopedia with Bibliography and Index) was a United States-based general encyclopedia published by Crowell, Collier and Macmillan.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
The Commission for constitutional reform (Comisia pentru reforma constituţională) is a commission instituted in Moldova by acting President Mihai Ghimpu to adopt a new version of the Constitution of Moldova (1994).
The Commission for the Study and Evaluation of the Communist Totalitarian Regime of the Republic of Moldova (Comisia pentru studierea şi aprecierea regimului comunist totalitar din Republica Moldova) is a commission instituted in Moldova by Acting President of Moldova Mihai Ghimpu to investigate the Moldavian SSR, the state which administered the country as a Soviet Socialist Republic from 1940 to 1991, and provide a comprehensive report with the purpose of condemnation of Communism as experienced by Moldovan people.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Moldova (Romanian:, PCM; Moldovan Cyrillic: Партидул Комунист ал Молдовей; Коммунистическая партия Молдавии) was one of the fourteen republic-level parties that formed the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Comrat (Comrat,; Komrat, Russian and Komrat) is a city and municipality in Moldova and the capital of the autonomous region of Gagauzia.
Constantin Negruzzi (first name often Costache; 1808–24 August 1868) was a Romanian poet, novelist, translator, playwright and politician.
Constantin Stamati (1786, Iaşi – September 12, 1869, Ocniţa) was a Romanian/Moldovan writer and translator.
Constantin Stamati-Ciurea (4 May 1828 Chişinău – 22 February 1898) was a Romanian writer and translator from Bessarabia.
Constantin G. Stere or Constantin Sterea (Romanian; Константин Егорович Стере, Konstantin Yegorovich Stere or Константин Георгиевич Стере, Konstantin Georgiyevich Stere; also known under his pen name Șărcăleanu; June 1, 1865 – June 26, 1936) was a Romanian writer, jurist, politician, ideologue of the Poporanist trend, and, in March 1906, co-founder (together with Garabet Ibrăileanu and Paul Bujor — the latter was afterwards replaced by the physician Ioan Cantacuzino) of the literary magazine Viața Românească.
The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova is that country's supreme law.
The Moldovan Constitution of 1994 is the supreme law of the country, since 27 August 1994.
The Constitutional Court of Moldova represent the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction in the Republic of Moldova, autonomous and independent from the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
A controversy exists over the national identity and name of the native language of the main ethnic group in the Republic of Moldova.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (p; sometimes abbreviated to Sovmin or referred to as the Soviet of Ministers), was the de jure government comprising the highest executive and administrative body of the Soviet Union from 1946 until 1991.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices are publications on the annual human rights conditions in countries and regions outside the United States, submitted annually by the United States Department of State to the United States Congress.
Cricova is a Moldovan winery, located in the town with the same name, north of Chişinău.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture (and), also known as the Tripolye culture, is a Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture (5200 to 3500 BC) in Eastern Europe.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene, translit) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Valeriu Victor Boboc (May 5, 1985 - April 8, 2009) was a protester who died in police custody amid the post-election protests in Chişinău, Moldova.
The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTA) are three free trade areas established between the European Union, and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine respectively.
The Democratic Agrarian Party (Partidul Democrat Agrar) was a clandestine political party in the Moldovan SSR.
The Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Democrat din Moldova, PDM; Демократическая партия Молдовы) is a social-democratic political party in Moldova.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Dimitrie or Demetrius Cantemir (1673–1723), also known by other spellings, was a Moldavian soldier, statesman, and man of letters.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dimitrie Barilă, better known under his monastical name Dosoftei (October 26, 1624—December 13, 1693), was a Moldavian Metropolitan, scholar, poet and translator.
Dragoș, also known as Dragoș Vodă, or Dragoș the Founder was the first Voivode of Moldavia, who reigned in the middle of the, according to the earliest Moldavian chronicles.
"Dragostea Din Tei" (literally "Love from the Lindens", official English title: Words of Love), also informally known as "Ma Ya Hi" and "The Numa Numa Song" (see), is the most successful single by the Moldovan pop group O-Zone, sung in Romanian.
Throughout Russian history famines and droughts have been a common feature, often resulting in humanitarian crises traceable to political or economic instability, poor policy, environmental issues and war.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Eastern Partnership (EaP) is an initiative of the European External Action Service of the European Union (EU) governing its relationship with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, intended to provide an avenue for discussions of trade, economic strategy, travel agreements, and other issues between the EU and its Eastern European neighbours.
Moldova is a former Soviet republic in Eastern Europe.
Energy markets are commodity markets that deal specifically with the trade and supply of energy.
Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European Union energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court.
Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.
Eugen Doga (born 1 March 1937) is a Moldovan composer.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) was launched in 2005.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2005 was the 50th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2007 was the 52nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2010 was the 55th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2011 was the 56th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Ștefan Neaga (Moldavian Cyrillic: Штефан Няга; Chișinău, – 30 May 1951) was a Moldavian composer.
"Fight" was the Moldovan entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2007, performed in English by Natalia Barbu.
The First Tarlev Cabinet was the Cabinet of Moldova from 19 April 2001 to 19 April 2005.
A folk wrestling style is any traditional style of wrestling, which may or may not be codified as a modern sport.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
Forced assimilation is a process of cultural assimilation of religious or ethnic minority groups that is forced into an established and generally larger community.
The founding of Moldavia began with the arrival of a Vlach (Romanian) voivode (military leader), Dragoș, soon followed by his people from Maramureș to the region of the Moldova River.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.
The Gagauzes are a Turkic people living mostly in southern Moldova (Gagauzia, Taraclia District, Basarabeasca District), southwestern Ukraine (Budjak), northeastern Bulgaria, Greece, Brazil, the United States and Canada.
Gagauzia (Gagauziya or Gagauz Yeri; Găgăuzia; Гагаузия, Gagaúzija), formally known as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri) (Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauz Yeri; Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia; Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия, Avtonomnoje territoriaľnoje obrazovanije Gagauzija), is an autonomous region of Moldova.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gavriil Musicescu (born Muzychenko) (March 20, 1847, Izmail, Bessarabia Governorate, now in Ukraine – December 21, 1903, Iași, Romania) was a Romanian composer, conductor and musicologist, father of the pianist and musical pedagogue Florica Musicescu.
This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.
Located in Eastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west and southwest by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Giurgiulești is a commune in the Cahul District of Moldova.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Grigore Ureche (1590–1647) was a Moldavian chronicler who wrote on Moldavian history in his Letopiseţul Ţării Moldovei (The Chronicles of the land of Moldavia), covering the period from 1359 to 1594.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
Gymnastics is a sport that requires balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance.
Hîrtop is a commune in Cimișlia District, Moldova.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Heim ins Reich (meaning "back home to the Reich") was a foreign policy pursued by Adolf Hitler during World War II, beginning in 1938.
Heiner Bielefeldt (April 12, 1958) is a German philosopher, historian and Catholic theologian.
Henri Mathias Berthelot (1861–1931) was a French general during World War I. He held an important staff position under Joseph Joffre, the French commander-in-chief, at the First Battle of the Marne, before later commanding a corps in the front line.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded.
The history of the Jews in Bessarabia, a historical region in Eastern Europe, dates back hundreds of years.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV; colloquial: Humvee) is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Ieremia Movilă (Jeremi Mohyła in Polish) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between August 1595 and May 1600, and again between September 1600 and July 10, 1606.
Igor Dodon (born 18 February 1975) is a Moldovan politician who has been the President of Moldova since 23 December 2016.
Ilan Shor (or Șor; born 6 March 1987) is a Moldovan businessman and politician, who is the mayor of Moldovan city Orhei since 2015.
Ilie Ilașcu (born 30 July 1952 in Taxobeni, Făleşti district) is a Moldovan-born Romanian politician, famous for being sentenced to death by the separatist Transnistrian government for alleged involvement in two murders and for actions which have been described as Moldovan state-sponsored terrorism by Transnistrian government officials.
Independence Day (Ziua Independenței) is the national day of Moldova commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence from the Soviet Union on 27 August 1991.
The Independence of Moldova was officially recognized on March 2, 1992, when Moldova gained membership of the United Nations.
An indirect election is an election in which voters do not choose between candidates for an office, but elect people who then choose.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
The Information and Security Service of the Republic of Moldova (Serviciul de Informații și Securitate al Republicii Moldova; SIS) is the principal intelligence agency of Moldova.
INOGATE was an international energy co-operation programme between the European Union (EU), the littoral states of the Black and Caspian seas and their neighbouring countries.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Internet in Moldova is one of the fastest and cheapest in the world.
An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.
Ion Creangă (also known as Nică al lui Ștefan a Petrei, Ion Torcălău and Ioan Ștefănescu; March 1, 1837 – December 31, 1889) was a Moldavian, later Romanian writer, raconteur and schoolteacher.
Ion Neculce (1672–1745) was a Moldavian chronicler.
Ion I. Nistor (August 16, 1876 – November 11, 1962) was a prominent Romanian historian and politician.
Ion Gheorghe Pelivan (April 1, 1876 in Răzeni – January 25, 1954 in Sighet) was a Moldovan politician.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Jan Zamoyski or Zamojski (Ioannes Zamoyski de Zamoscie; 19 March 1542 – 3 June 1605) was a Polish nobleman, magnate, and the 1st ordynat of Zamość.
The Jassy–Kishinev Operation, named after the two major cities, Iași and Chișinău, in the staging area, was a Soviet offensive against Axis forces, which took place in Eastern Romania from 20 to 29 August 1944 during World War II.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
Jurnalul Național is a Romanian newspaper, part of the INTACT Media Group led by Dan Voiculescu, which also includes the popular television station Antena 1.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Khotyn (Хотин,; Hotin; see other names) is a city in Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine, and is the administrative center of Khotyn Raion within the oblast, and is located south-west of Kamianets-Podilskyi.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kozak Memorandum, officially Russian Draft Memorandum on the Basic Principles of the State Structure of a United State in Moldova, was a 2003 proposal aimed at a final settlement of relations between Moldova and Transnistria.
Four major land reforms have taken place in Romania: in 1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin peoples, also called Romance peoples, is a term used broadly to refer to those societies heavily influenced by Roman culture that, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, started to diverge from the spoken Vulgar Latin language, creating localized versions which nowadays make up the Romance languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Latvian Russian Union (Latvijas Krievu savienība, Русский союз Латвии) is an ethnic minority, left-wing political party in Latvia, supported mainly by ethnic Russians and other Russian-speaking minorities.
Moldova law enforcement is accomplished by state institutions subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, such as IGP (General Police Inspectorate) and Border Police.
The Law Library of Congress is the law library of the United States Congress.
The Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Liberal Democrat din Moldova, PLDM) is a conservative political party in Moldova.
The Liberal Party (Partidul Liberal, PL) is a conservative-liberal political party in Moldova.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Liman defined in Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Russian (Лиман) and Romanian (liman) the enlarged estuaries formed as lagoons at the widening mouth of one or several rivers, where flow is blocked by a bar of sediments, as the Dniester Liman or the Razelm liman; a liman can be maritime (the bar being created by the current of a sea) or fluvial (the bar being created by the flow of a bigger river at the confluence).
"Limba noastră" (meaning "Our Language") has been the national anthem of the Republic of Moldova since 1994.
Lipovans or Lippovans (Липовáне, Lipoveni, Липовани, липованци) are Old Believers, mostly of Russian ethnic origin, who settled in the Moldavian Principality, and in the regions of Dobruja and Eastern Muntenia.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana).
The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Maria Bieșu (August 3, 1935 – May 16, 2012) was a Moldovan opera singer.
Mark Efimovich Zeltser (born 8 April 1947) is a Soviet-born American pianist.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The Metropolis of Bessarabia (Mitropolia Basarabiei), also referred to as the Bessarabian Orthodox Church, is a Moldovan autonomous Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan bishopric of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
The Metropolis of Chișinău and All Moldova (Mitropolia Chișinăului și a întregii Moldove; Кишинёвско-Молда́вская митропо́лия), also referred to as the Moldovan Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă din Moldova; Правосла́вная це́рковь Молдо́вы), is a self-governing church under the Russian Orthodox Church.
Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazu(l) or Mihai Bravu, Vitéz Mihály; 1558 – 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (as Michael II, 1593–1601), Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600).
Mihai Eminescu (born Mihail Eminovici; 15 January 1850 – 15 June 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, generally regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.
Mihai Ghimpu (born 19 November 1951) is a Moldovan politician.
Mileștii Mici is a Moldovan wine producer located in the commune of Mileștii Mici.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of Moldova (Ministerul Afacerilor Externe şi Integrării Europene) is one of the nine ministries of the Government of Moldova.
The MGB ('МГБ'), an initialism for Ministerstvo gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti SSSR (p, translated in English as Ministry for State Security), was the name of the Soviet state security apparatus dealing with internal and external security issues: secret police duties, foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence, etc from 1946 to 1953.
Mircea Druc (born 25 July 1941, in Pociumbăuţi, Rîşcani district) is a Moldovan and Romanian politician who served as Prime Minister of Moldova between 26 May 1990 and 22 May 1991.
Mircea Ion Snegur (born 17 January 1940) was the first President of Moldova from 1990–1997.
Miron Costin (March 30, 1633 – 1691, Roman) was a Moldavian (Romanian) political figure and chronicler.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldovan/Romanian: Republica Autonomă Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, or Република Аутономэ Советикэ Cочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet), shortened to Moldavian ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing modern Transnistria (now, de jure, in Moldova, de facto, a breakaway state) and a number of territories that are now part of Ukraine.
The Moldavian Democratic Republic (Republica Democratică Moldovenească), also known as the Moldavian Republic, was a state proclaimed on by the Sfatul Țării (National Council) of Bessarabia, elected in October–November 1917 following the February Revolution and the start of the disintegration of the Russian Empire.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Moldavian SSR in February and March 1990 to elect the 380 members of the Supreme Soviet.
Moldova President's Cup is an international road bicycle racing tournament in Chişinău (Moldova), it was created in 2003.
The Moldova River is a river in Romania, in the historical region of Moldavia.
The Moldova State University (Romanian: Universitatea de Stat din Moldova) is a university located in Chişinău, Moldova.
The Moldova–European Union Association Agreement is a treaty between the European Union (EU), Euratom, their 28 Member States and Moldova that establishes a political and economic association between the two parties.
Relations between Moldova and the European Union (EU) are currently shaped via the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), an EU foreign policy instrument dealing with countries bordering its member states.
Moldova–Russia relations are the bilateral relations between the Republic of Moldova and the Russian Federation.
The Moldovan Air Force is the national air force of Moldova.
In 2014, $1 billion disappeared from three Moldovan banks: Banca de Economii, Unibank and Banca Socială.
The Moldovan referendum of 2010 was a nationwide referendum in Moldova held on 5 September on whether or not the country should amend the Constitution of Moldova to return to direct popular election of the president.
The cupon was the temporary currency of Moldova between 1992 and 1993.
The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet designed for the Moldovan language in the Soviet Union and was in official use from 1924 to 1932 and 1938 to 1989 (and still in use today in the Moldovan region of Transnistria).
The Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova (Declarația de independență a Republicii Moldova) was a document adopted on 27 August 1991 by the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova following the failure of the August coup attempt.
The Moldovan Ground Forces is the land armed forces branch of the Moldovan Armed Forces.
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
The leu (ISO 4217 code MDL) is the currency of Moldova.
Early parliamentary elections were held in Moldova on 27 February 1994.
Parliamentary elections were held in Moldova on 25 February 2001.
Parliamentary elections were held in Moldova on 28 November 2010 after parliamentary vote failed to elect a President for the second time in late 2009.
Parliamentary elections were held in Moldova on 5 April 2009.
Presidential elections were held in Moldova on 17 November 1996, with a second round on 1 December.
A presidential election was held in Moldova on 16 December 2011.
An indirect presidential election was held in Moldova on 10 November 2009 and 7 December 2009, following the parliamentary election held in July 2009.
With a production of 124,200 tons of wine (as of 2009), Moldova has a well-established wine industry.
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
Moldovenism is a political term used to refer to the support and promotion of the Moldovan identity and Moldovan culture.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
A municipiu (from Latin municipium; English: municipality) is a level of administrative subdivision in Romania and Moldova, roughly equivalent to city in some English-speaking countries.
Natalia Barbu (born 22 August 1979 in Bălți) is a Moldovan singer and songwriter.
The National Bank of Moldova (Banca Naţională a Moldovei) is the central bank of the Republic of Moldova.
The National Library of the Republic of Moldova (Biblioteca Naţională a Republicii Moldova, BNRM) located in Chişinău, Moldova is the main library of the state which is responsible for conservation, valorization and protection of written cultural heritage.
The National Patriotic Front (Frontul Naţional Patriotic din Basarabia şi Nordul Bucovinei) was a clandestine political party in the Moldovan SSR.
National Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Information Technology of the Republic of Moldova
National Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Information Technology (ANRCETI) is a central public regulatory authority for telecommunications and informatics services in Moldova.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
Nicolae Timofti (born 22 December 1948 in Ciutulești) is a Moldovan jurist and politician who was President of Moldova from 23 March 2012 until 23 December 2016.
Nikolai Spathari (Nikolai Gavrilovich Spathari; 1636–1708), also known as Nicolae Milescu and Nicolae Milescu Spătaru (first name also Neculai, signing in Latin as Nicolao Spadario Moldavo-Lacone, Nikolaye Gavrilovich Milesku), or Spătarul Milescu-Cârnu (trans.: "Chancellor Milescu the Snub-nosed"), was a Moldavian writer, diplomat and traveler.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in southern European Russia, mainly in the North Caucasus region.
O-Zone is a Moldovan eurodance trio that was active from 1998 to 2005 and consisted of Dan Balan, Radu Sîrbu, and Arsenie Todiraș.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
An Old Calendarist is any Eastern Orthodox Christian or any Eastern Orthodox Church body which uses the historic Julian calendar (called "Old Style Calendar" or "Church calendar" or "Old Calendar"), and whose Church body is not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches that use the New Calendar.
The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.
Olia Tira (born 1 August 1988 in Potsdam, East Germany), also known by her stage name FLUX LIGHT, is a Moldovan singer.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.
Several well-supported theories address the issue of the origin of the Romanians.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Our Moldova Alliance (Partidul Alianță Moldova Noastră, Party Alliance Our Moldova, AMN) was a social-liberal political party in Moldova led by Serafim Urechean, former mayor of Chișinău.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Moldova: Moldova (officially the Republic of Moldova) – landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east and south.
The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary residency was mostly forbidden.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
Pantelimon Erhan Cabinet was the Cabinet of Moldova (7 December 1917 - 27 January 1918).
The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova (Parlamentul Republicii Moldova) is the unicameral assembly of the Republic of Moldova.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul Comuniștilor din Republica Moldova (PCRM), Moldovan Cyrillic: Партидул Комуништилор дин Република Молдова (ПКРМ), Партия коммунистов Республики Молдова, Partiya kommunistov Respubliki Moldova) is a communist party in Moldova led by Vladimir Voronin.
The Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul Socialiştilor din Republica Moldova, PSRM; Партия социалистов Республики Молдова, Partija socialistov Respubliki Moldova) is a pro-Russian democratic socialist, nationalist and populist political party in Moldova.
Pavel Filip (born 10 April 1966 in Pănășești) is a Moldovan politician who currently serves as Prime Minister of Moldova (since 20 January 2016).
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Petras Auštrevičius (born in Juodšiliai, Lithuania, on 16 May 1963) is a Lithuanian liberal politician, diplomat, civil society activist, former member of the Seimas (Lithuanian parliament), and, since 2014, a member of the European Parliament.
Petru Cazacu (October 6, 1873 in Chişinău – August 1956 in Bucharest) was a Romanian politician.
Petru Lucinschi (born 27 January 1940) is a former Moldovan politician who was Moldova's second President (1997–2001).
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
The Podolian Upland (Podolian Plateau) or Podillia Upland (подільська височина, podilska vysochyna) is a big in terms of area upland in southwestern Ukraine on the left bank of Dniester, with its small northwestern part stretching into eastern Poland.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The political status of Transnistria, a self-proclaimed state on the internationally recognized territory of Moldova, has been disputed since the Transnistrian declaration of independence on September 2, 1990.
The Popular Front of Moldova (Frontul Popular din Moldova) was a political movement in the Moldavian SSR, one of the 15 union republics of the former Soviet Union, and in the newly independent Republic of Moldova.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of state of Moldova.
The President of the Parliament (Președintele Parlamentului) is the speaker of the Parliament of Moldova.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Pridnestrovian Moldavian SSR or PMSSR; Moldovan/Romanian: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ Hистрянэ or Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească Nistreană; Приднестрóвская Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika); also commonly known to as Soviet Transnistria or simply known as Transnistria was created on the eastern periphery of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (MSSR) in 1990 by pro-Soviet separatists who hoped to remain within the Soviet Union when it became clear that the MSSR would achieve independence from the USSR.
The Prime Minister of Moldova is Moldova's head of government.
The Pro-European Coalition (Coaliția Pro-Europeană) was the ruling coalition in Moldova from 30 May 2013 until 18 February 2015.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Prut (also spelled in English as Pruth;, Прут) is a long river in Eastern Europe.
Purcari, part of the Purcari Wineries PLC, is a popular wine brand in Central and Eastern Europe.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Radio Moldova (Radio Moldova, RM) is the first publicly funded radio broadcaster in Moldova.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Răut, also referred to as Reut (Ukrainian and (Reut), (Revet)) is a river in Moldova, a right tributary of Dniester.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
The Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company (Societatea Română de Radiodifuziune), informally referred to as Radio Romania (Radio România), is the public radio broadcaster in Romania.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romănești is one of Moldova's largest Moldovan wine producers from the north of Strășeni, part of the Codru Wine Region of Moldova.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Rugby Europe International Championships is the European Championship for tier 2 and tier 3 rugby union nations.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
"Run Away" is a song performed by SunStroke Project and Olia Tira, and represented Moldova at the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 in May 2010 in Oslo, Norway.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russians in Moldova form the second largest ethnic minority in the country.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Sergey Stepanov (sʲɪrˈɡʲej ˈiɡərʲɪvʲɪt͡ɕ sʲtʲɪˈpanəf, Serghei Stepanov (commonly known as Epic Sax Guy or Ultra Sax Guy); born 3 September 1984 in Tiraspol) is a Moldovan musician and composer from Transnistria and a member of the SunStroke Project.
Sfatul Țării (Country Council) was a council that united political, public, cultural, and professional organizations in the greater part of the territory of the Governorate of Bessarabia in the disintegrating Russian Empire, which proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic as part of the Russian Federative Republic in December 1917, and then union with Romania in April (according to the old style, March) 1918.
Indirect elections for the Moldovan Parliament (called Sfatul Țării) took place in Moldova in November 1917.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, slingshot, crossbow, or bow. Even the acts of launching/discharging artillery, darts, grenades, rockets and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion process (deflagration). Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field, in shooting sports, hunting or in combat. A person involved in the shooting activity is a shooter. A proficient shooter is a marksman or sharpshooter. A person's level of shooting proficiency is referred to as marksmanship.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Soroca Fortress (Cetatea Soroca) is a historic fort in the Republic of Moldova, in the modern-day city of Soroca.
The Soviet deportations from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina took place between late 1940 and 1951 and were part of Joseph Stalin's policy of political repression of the potential opposition to the Soviet power (see Population transfer in the Soviet Union).
The informal term "Soviet Empire" is used by critics of the Soviet Union and Russian nationalists"The borders of the Russian World extend significantly farther than borders of Russian Federation.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
The Soviet ruble (рубль; see below for other languages of the USSR) was the currency of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stephen III of Moldavia, known as Stephen the Great (Ștefan cel Mare;; died on 2 July 1504) was voivode (or prince) of Moldavia from 1457 to 1504.
The SunStroke Project is a Moldovan musical trio composed of Sergei Yalovitsky (vocals), Anton Ragoza (violinist and composer) and Sergey Stepanov (saxophonist).
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Tatarbunary uprising (Răscoala de la Tatarbunar) was a Bolshevik-inspired peasant revolt that took place on 15–18 September 1924, in and around the town of Tatarbunary (Tatar-Bunar or Tatarbunar) in Budjak (Bessarabia), then part of Romania, now part of Odessa Oblast, Ukraine.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
This article describe science and technology convergence, with illustrations to convergence of emerging technologies (NBIC, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies) and convergence of media technology.
Country Code: +373 International Call Prefix: 00 Trunk Prefix: 0 On February 1, 2004 Moldova introduced a new closed telephone numbering plan with an open dialing plan.
Television in Romania started in August 1955.
Television is the most popular medium in Russia, with 74% of the population watching national television channels routinely and 59% routinely watching regional channels.
Television in the Soviet Union was owned, controlled and censored by the state.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
This is a list of when the first publicly announced television broadcasts occurred in the mentioned countries.
Tiraspol (Тирасполь; Тираспіль) is internationally recognised as the second largest city in Moldova, but is effectively the capital and administrative centre of the unrecognised Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria).
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
Traian Băsescu (born 4 November 1951) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.
Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
Transnistria autonomous territorial unit, officially The Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester (Unitățile Administrativ-Teritoriale din stînga Nistrului (Transnistria); Административно-территориальные единицы левобережья Днестра (Приднестровья); Автономне територіальне утворення з особливим правовим статусом Придністров'я) is a formal administrative unit of Moldova established by the Government of Moldova to delineate the territory controlled by the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul Transnistriei) was a Romanian-administered territory between Dniester and Southern Bug (Buh), conquered by the Axis Powers from the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa and occupied from 19 August 1941 to 29 January 1944.
The Transnistria War was an armed conflict that broke out in November 1990 in Dubăsari (Дубоссáры, Dubossary) between pro-Transnistria forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard, militia and Cossack units (which were supported by elements of the Russian 14th Army), and pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, was signed on 28 May 1812, in Manuc's Inn in Bucharest, and ratified on 5 July 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War.
The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
The 1920 Treaty of Paris was an act signed by Romania and the principal Allied Powers of the time (France, United Kingdom, Italy and Japan) whose purpose was the recognition of Romanian sovereignty over Bessarabia.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish cuisine (Turkish: Türk mutfağı) is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainian cuisine is the cuisine of Ukraine.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The unification of Romania and Moldova (Unirea Republicii Moldova cu România) is a popular concept in the two countries beginning with the late 1980s, during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
On, the Sfatul Țării, or National Council, of Bessarabia proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
United Nations Security Council resolution 739, adopted without a vote on 5 February 1992, after examining the application of the Republic of Moldova for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Moldova be admitted.
The Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief was established in 1986 by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was the official name of the personal union which later became Romania, adopted in 1859 when Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the Domnitor (Ruling Prince) of both territories, which were still vassals of the Ottoman Empire.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Varlaam (Варлаам) was Metropolitan of Moscow and All Rus' from 1511 to 1521.
Vasile Petru Tarlev (Васил Петров Тарлев; Василий Павлович Тарлев) (born October 6, 1963) is a Moldovan politician.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Vinogradovca is a commune in Taraclia District, Moldova.
Vladimir Plahotniuc (born 1 January 1966), commonly known as Vlad Plahotniuc, is a Moldovan politician, businessman, philanthropist and oligarch.
Vladimir Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is a Moldovan politician.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wayne S. Vucinich (June 23, 1913 – April 21, 2005) was an American professor and historian, as well as a founding father of the Russian, Slavic, East European and Byzantine scholarship at Stanford University following World War II.
Western Moldavia (Moldova), also called Moldavia or Romanian Moldavia, is the historic and geographical part of the former Principality of Moldavia situated in eastern and north-eastern Romania.
Wideband audio, also known as wideband voice or HD voice, is high definition voice quality for telephony audio, contrasted with standard digital telephony "toll quality".
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Zdob și Zdub is a Moldovan band, based in Chișinău.
Zinaida Greceanîi (born 7 February 1956;. Зинаида Петровна Гречаная, Zinaida Petrovna Grechanaya) is a Moldovan politician who was the Prime Minister of Moldova from 31 March 2008, Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 31 March 2008.
.md is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Moldova introduced on March 24, 1994.
The involvement of the Soviet 14th Guards Army in the War of Transnistria was extensive and contributed to the outcome, which left the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR) with de facto independence from the Republic of Moldova.
The 1989 civil unrest in Moldova began on November 7, 1989, in Kishinev, Moldavia and continued on November 10, when protesters burned down the headquarters of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (led by Vladimir Voronin).
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The 2004 Census in Transnistria (Russian: Перепись населения Приднестровской Молдавской Республики 2004 года) was organized in Transnistria at roughly the same time that Moldova held its own census, which Transnistria refused to participate in out of principle and deference to its September 2, 1990 declaration of independence.
The 2004 Republic of Moldova Census was carried out between October 5 and October 12, 2004.
The 2006 Russian import ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines began in late March 2006 and created a diplomatic conflict between the Republic of Moldova and Georgia on the one hand and Russia on the other.
The 2012 Moldova security zone incident happened in the Transnistrian security zone maintained by the Joint Control Commission on the territory of the Republic of Moldova.
The 2014 Republic of Moldova Census was held between 12-25 May 2014.
The meridian 26° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 30° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 45th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 45 degrees north of Earth's equator.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator.
Architecture of Moldova, Country MDA, ISO 3166-1:MD, Modolva, Moldova (Republic Of), Moldova (Republic of), Moldova (republic), Moldova in World War II, Moldova, Republic of, Moldovan (citizen), Moldowa, Republic of Moldavia, Republic of Moldova, Republica Moldova, The Republic of Moldavia, Ukrainians in Moldova.