105 relations: Agarose gel electrophoresis, Allele-specific oligonucleotide, Antibody, Antimicrobial resistance, Autoradiograph, Bacterial conjugation, Biochemist, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biology, Biomolecular structure, Biomolecule, Biophysics, Blot (biology), Capillary action, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Central dogma of molecular biology, Chemiluminescence, Complementarity (molecular biology), Complementary DNA, Computational biology, Developmental biology, Differential centrifugation, DNA, DNA replication, Drug, Eastern blot, Edwin Southern, Electric charge, Electroporation, Enzyme, Epistasis, Eukaryote, Evolutionary biology, Expression vector, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Gene expression, Gene expression profiling, Gene knockout, Gene therapy, Genetic code, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome, Knockout, Library (biology), Microinjection, Microscope slide, ..., Molecular biology, Molecular cloning, Molecular engineering, Molecular genetics, Molecular medicine, Molecular modelling, Molecule, Multiple cloning site, Mutant, Nature (journal), Northern blot, Oligonucleotide, Organism, Phenotype, Phylogenetics, Plasmid, Polymerase chain reaction, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Population, Population genetics, Post-translational modification, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Promoter (genetics), Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein structure prediction, Protein–protein interaction prediction, Proteome, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Restriction enzyme, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RNA, Rockefeller Foundation, ScienceDirect, SDS-PAGE, Sedimentation, Site-directed mutagenesis, Southern blot, Species, Stem-cell line, Substrate (chemistry), Tissue (biology), Transcription (biology), Transduction (genetics), Transfection, Transformation (genetics), Transgene, Translation (biology), Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Viscometer, Warren Weaver, Western blot, Wild type, William Astbury, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (55 more) » « Shrink index
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of macromolecules such as DNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose, one of the two main components of agar.
An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) is a short piece of synthetic DNA complementary to the sequence of a variable target DNA.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
A blot, in molecular biology and genetics, is a method of transferring proteins, DNA or RNA, onto a carrier (for example, a nitrocellulose, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or nylon membrane).
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Differential centrifugation is a common procedure in microbiology and cytology used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The eastern blot is a biochemical technique used to analyze protein post translational modifications (PTM) such as lipids, phosphomoieties and glycoconjugates.
Sir Edwin Mellor Southern, FRS FRSE (born 7 June 1938) is an English Lasker Award-winning molecular biologist, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Oxford and a fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into the cell.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
An expression vector, otherwise known as an expression construct, is usually a plasmid or virus designed for gene expression in cells.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the field of molecular biology, gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function.
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, muay thai, mixed martial arts, karate, some forms of taekwondo, and other sports involving striking, as well as fighting-based video games.
In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning.
Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level.
A microscope slide is a thin flat piece of glass, typically 75 by 26 mm (3 by 1 inches) and about 1 mm thick, used to hold objects for examination under a microscope.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them.
Molecular modelling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids.
In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is an alteration of the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome of an organism.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Protein structure prediction is the inference of the three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence—that is, the prediction of its folding and its secondary and tertiary structure from its primary structure.
Protein–protein interaction prediction is a field combining bioinformatics and structural biology in an attempt to identify and catalog physical interactions between pairs or groups of proteins.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR), also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research.
SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) is a variant of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, an analytical method in biochemistry for the separation of charged molecules in mixtures by their molecular masses in an electric field.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology method that is used to make specific and intentional changes to the DNA sequence of a gene and any gene products.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A stem cell line is a group of stem cells that is cultured in vitro and can be propagated indefinitely.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, abbreviated as 2-DE or 2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze proteins.
A viscometer (also called viscosimeter) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid.
Warren Weaver (July 17, 1894 – November 24, 1978) was an American scientist, mathematician, and science administrator.
The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
Wild type (WT) refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
William Thomas Astbury FRS (also Bill Astbury; 25 February 1898, Longton – 4 June 1961, Leeds) was an English physicist and molecular biologist who made pioneering X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
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