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Molecular evolution

Index Molecular evolution

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. [1]

116 relations: Abiogenesis, Amino acid, Antioxidant, Archaea, Bacteria, Base pair, Biochemistry, Biological life cycle, Bird, C-value, Cambridge University Press, Cell (biology), Cell division, Centromere, Chelation, Chimeric gene, Chromosome, Chromosome 2, Ciliate, Codon usage bias, Complex traits, Convergent evolution, Deletion (genetics), DNA, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, E. coli long-term evolution experiment, Ectopic recombination, Effective population size, Enterobactin, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary history of life, Evolutionary physiology, Fitness (biology), Frameshift mutation, GC-content, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Gene conversion, Gene duplication, Genetic drift, Genetic hitchhiking, Genetic recombination, Genetics, Genome, Genome evolution, ..., Genomic organization, Genomics, Heterotachy, History of evolutionary thought, History of molecular evolution, Horizontal gene transfer, Human evolution, Intragenomic conflict, Intron, Jack Lester King, Last universal common ancestor, Linkage disequilibrium, List of organisms by chromosome count, Masatoshi Nei, Maximum parsimony (phylogenetics), Messenger RNA, Michael Lynch (geneticist), Molecular biology, Molecular clock, Molecular genetics, Molecular paleontology, Molecule, Morphology (biology), Motoo Kimura, Mutation, Natural selection, Neo-Darwinism, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Non-coding DNA, Nucleotide, Nucleotide diversity, Ophioglossum, Paper chromatography, Phenotype, Phenotypic plasticity, Phylogenetic comparative methods, Point mutation, Population genetics, Protein, Protein sequencing, Protein superfamily, Purine, Pyrimidine, Radiation, Ribosomal RNA, RNA, Science (journal), Selection coefficient, Selective breeding, Selfish genetic element, Sexual selection, Simple random sample, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Speciation, Species complex, Stochastic, Stop codon, Systematics, Taxonomy (biology), Telomere, Thomas H. Jukes, Transition (genetics), Transposable element, Transversion, Virus, Wen-Hsiung Li. Expand index (66 more) »


Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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C-value is the amount, in picograms, of DNA contained within a haploid nucleus (e.g. a gamete) or one half the amount in a diploid somatic cell of a eukaryotic organism.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).

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Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Chimeric gene

Chimeric genes (literally, made of parts from different sources) form through the combination of portions of two or more coding sequences to produce new genes.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chromosome 2

Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.

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Codon usage bias

Codon usage bias refers to differences in the frequency of occurrence of synonymous codons in coding DNA.

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Complex traits

Complex traits, also known as quantitative traits, are traits that do not behave according to simple Mendelian inheritance laws.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Deletion (genetics)

In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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E. coli long-term evolution experiment

The E. coli long-term evolution experiment (LTEE) is an ongoing study in experimental evolution led by Richard Lenski that has been tracking genetic changes in 12 initially identical populations of asexual Escherichia coli bacteria since 24 February 1988.

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Ectopic recombination

Ectopic recombination is an atypical form of recombination in which crossing over occurs at non-homologous, rather than along homologous, loci.

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Effective population size

The effective population size is "the number of individuals in a population who contribute offspring to the next generation," or all the breeding adults in that population.

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Enterobactin (also known as Enterochelin) is a high affinity siderophore that acquires iron for microbial systems.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary history of life

The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.

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Evolutionary physiology

Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Frameshift mutation

A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.

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In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).

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Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene conversion

Gene conversion is the process by which one DNA sequence replaces a homologous sequence such that the sequences become identical after the conversion event.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Genetic drift

Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

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Genetic hitchhiking

Genetic hitchhiking, also called genetic draft or the hitchhiking effect, is when an allele changes frequency not because it itself is under natural selection, but because it is near another gene that is undergoing a selective sweep and that is on the same DNA chain.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome evolution

Genome evolution is the process by which a genome changes in structure (sequence) or size over time.

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Genomic organization

Promoter DNA element. The hereditary material i.e. DNA(deoxyribonuclic acid) of an organism is composed of an array of arrangement of four nucleotides in a specific pattern.

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Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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Heterotachy refers to variations in lineage-specific evolutionary rates over time.

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History of evolutionary thought

Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity – in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.

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History of molecular evolution

The history of molecular evolution starts in the early 20th century with "comparative biochemistry", but the field of molecular evolution came into its own in the 1960s and 1970s, following the rise of molecular biology.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Intragenomic conflict

Intragenomic conflict refers to the evolutionary phenomenon where genes have phenotypic effects that promote their own transmission in detriment of the transmission of other genes that reside in the same genome.

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An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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Jack Lester King

Jack Lester King (March 9, 1934 – June 29, 1983) was an American evolutionary biologist best known for co-authoring (with Thomas H. Jukes) a seminal paper on the neutral theory of molecular evolution, "Non-Darwinian Evolution".

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Last universal common ancestor

The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.

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Linkage disequilibrium

In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given population.

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List of organisms by chromosome count

The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms.

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Masatoshi Nei

is a population geneticist currently affiliated with the Department of Biology at Temple University as a Carnell Professor.

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Maximum parsimony (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, maximum parsimony is an optimality criterion under which the phylogenetic tree that minimizes the total number of character-state changes is to be preferred.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Michael Lynch (geneticist)

Michael Lynch (born 1951) is the Director of the Biodesign Institute for Mechanisms of Evolution at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.

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Molecular paleontology

Molecular paleontology refers to the recovery and analysis of DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids, and their diagenetic products from ancient human, animal, and plant remains.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Motoo Kimura

(November 13, 1924 – November 13, 1994) was a Japanese biologist best known for introducing the neutral theory of molecular evolution in 1968, in collaboration with Tomoko Ohta.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Neo-Darwinism is the interpretation of Darwinian evolution through natural selection as it has variously been modified since it was first proposed.

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Neutral theory of molecular evolution

The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.

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Non-coding DNA

In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Nucleotide diversity

Nucleotide diversity is a concept in molecular genetics which is used to measure the degree of polymorphism within a population.

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Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue ferns, is a genus of about 25–30 species of ferns in the family Ophioglossaceae, of the order Ophioglossales.

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Paper chromatography

Paper chromatography is an analytical method used to separate colored chemicals or substances.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic plasticity

Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

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Phylogenetic comparative methods

Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) use information on the historical relationships of lineages (phylogenies) to test evolutionary hypotheses.

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Point mutation

A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein sequencing

Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide.

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Protein superfamily

A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).

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A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Selection coefficient

In population genetics, a selection coefficient, usually denoted by the letter s, is a measure of differences in fitness.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Selfish genetic element

Selfish genetics elements (also sometimes called selfish DNA) are genetic sequences that spread by forming additional copies of itself within the genome; and makes no specific contribution to the reproductive success of its host organism (it might or might not have significant deleterious effects).

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Simple random sample

In statistics, a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population).

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Species complex

In biology, a species complex is a group of closely related species that are very similar in appearance to the point that the boundaries between them are often unclear.

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The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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Stop codon

In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.

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Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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Thomas H. Jukes

Thomas Hughes Jukes (August 26, 1906 – November 1, 1999) was a British-American biologist known for his work in nutrition, molecular evolution, and for his public engagement with controversial scientific issues, including DDT, vitamin C and creationism.

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Transition (genetics)

In genetics, a transition is a point mutation that changes a purine nucleotide to another purine (A ↔ G) or a pyrimidine nucleotide to another pyrimidine (C ↔ T).

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Transposable element

A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.

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Transversion, in molecular biology, refers to the substitution of a (two ring) purine for a (one ring) pyrimidine or vice versa, in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Wen-Hsiung Li

Wen-Hsiung Li (Traditional Chinese:李文雄, 1942-) is a Taiwanese American scientist working in the fields of molecular evolution, population genetics, and genomics.

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Redirects here:

Gene evolution, Protein evolution, Sequence evolution.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_evolution

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