134 relations: Absorbance, Acetylene, Alcohol, ASM International, Atom, Atomic force microscopy, Atomic nucleus, Ångström, Biochemistry, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bound state, Carbon, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical nomenclature, Chemical polarity, Chemical substance, Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling, Computational chemistry, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Crystal structure, Diamond, Diatomic molecule, Diffraction, Dihydrogen cation, Dimer (chemistry), Dimethyl ether, DNA, Electric charge, Electricity, Electron, Electron pair, Electrostatics, Elementary particle, Emission spectrum, Empirical formula, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy, Ethanol, Formula unit, Frequency, Frostburg State University, Functional group, Glass, Graphene, Helium, Helium dimer, ..., Heteronuclear molecule, Homonuclear molecule, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, Integer, Ion, Ionic bonding, Ionic compound, Ionic crystal, Isomer, Isotope, Kinetic theory of gases, Latin, Light, List of compounds, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, Macromolecule, Macroscopic scale, Mantle (geology), McGraw-Hill Education, Mechanical equilibrium, Merriam-Webster, Metal, Metallic bonding, Microwave spectroscopy, Mole (unit), Molecular biology, Molecular design software, Molecular engineering, Molecular geometry, Molecular Hamiltonian, Molecular mass, Molecular modelling, Molecular orbital, Molecular physics, Network covalent bonding, Neutron, New Latin, Noble gas, Non-covalent interactions, Nonmetal, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organic chemistry, Oxygen, Particle, Periodic systems of small molecules, Planck constant, Plane (geometry), Polyatomic ion, Polymer, Potential energy surface, Prentice Hall, Properties of water, Proton, Quantum mechanics, Quartz, Radical (chemistry), Ratio, Reactivity (chemistry), René Descartes, Resonance (chemistry), Rock (geology), Rydberg molecule, Salt (chemistry), Schrödinger equation, Small molecule, Sodium chloride, Spectral density, Stereoisomerism, Stoichiometry, Structural formula, Structure of the Earth, Supermolecule, Table of permselectivity for different substances, Theoretical chemistry, Transition state, Unified atomic mass unit, Van der Waals force, Van der Waals molecule, World Wide Molecular Matrix, X-ray. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
ASM (Advanced Semiconductor Materials) International is a Dutch company active in the semiconductor industry.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
In quantum physics, a bound state is a special quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
This is a list of computer programs that are predominantly used for molecular mechanics calculations.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
The hydrogen molecular ion, dihydrogen cation, or, is the simplest molecular ion.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry, an electron pair or a Lewis pair consists of two electrons that occupy the same molecular orbital but have opposite spins.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
A formula unit in chemistry is the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Frostburg State University (FSU) is a public university in Frostburg, Maryland.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
The helium dimer is a van der Waals molecule with formula He2 consisting of two helium atoms.
Heteronuclear molecules, or heteronuclear species, are molecules composed of more than one type of element, for example, HCl.
Homonuclear molecules, or homonuclear species, are molecules composed of only one type of element.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
An ionic crystal is a crystal consisting of ions bound together by their electrostatic attraction.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Compounds are organized into the following lists.
This is a list of molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes, grouped by the number of component atoms.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
Microwave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular design software is software for molecular modeling, that provides special support for developing molecular models de novo.
Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
In atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum chemistry, the molecular Hamiltonian is the Hamiltonian operator representing the energy of the electrons and nuclei in a molecule.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Molecular modelling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules.
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms as well as the molecular dynamics.
A network solid or covalent network solid is a chemical compound (or element) in which the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network extending throughout the material.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
Periodic systems of molecules are charts of molecules similar to the periodic table of the elements.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A potential energy surface (PES) describes the energy of a system, especially a collection of atoms, in terms of certain parameters, normally the positions of the atoms.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
A Rydberg molecule is an electronically excited chemical species.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
The term supermolecule (or supramolecule) was introduced by Karl Lothar Wolf et al. (Übermoleküle) in 1937 to describe hydrogen-bonded acetic acid dimers.
This is a table of permselectivity for different substances in the glomerulus of the kidney in renal filtration.
Theoretical chemistry is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etc.
The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
A van der Waals molecule is a weakly bound complex of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular attractions such as van der Waals forces or by hydrogen bonds.
The World Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) was an proposed electronic repository for unpublished chemical data.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Chemical molecule, Effective molecular radius, Molecular, Molecular Compound, Molecular compound, Molecular radius, Molecular size, Molecular structure, Molecular theory, Molecules, Polyatomic molecule, Polyatomic molecules.