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Index Mollusca

Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's. [1]

250 relations: Abalone, Abyssal zone, Aculifera, Aldanella, Algae, Ammonoidea, Anaspidea, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomy, Annelid, Anno Domini, Anus, Aorta, Aplacophora, Aragonite, Aristotle, Armenia, Artery, Arthropod, Atrium (heart), Bacteria, Bilateria, Bioindicator, BioScience, Bivalvia, Blood, Blue-ringed octopus, Brachiopod, Brain, Bryozoa, Byssus, Calcareous, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Cambrian, Carl Linnaeus, Carter Center, Caudofoveata, Cecum, Cephalopod, Chitin, Chiton, Chlamys, Chordate, Cilium, Circulatory system, Circumesophageal nerve ring, Cladistics (journal), Clam, Class (biology), ..., Cobcrephora, Coelom, Coleoidea, Colossal squid, Commissure, Commodity, Common Era, Conch, Conchifera, Conchiolin, Cone snail, Conus, Cowry, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crete, Currency, Cuticle, Cuttlefish, David R. Lindberg, Detritus, Doridacea, East Pacific red octopus, Ecosystem, Ediacaran, Egg, Egg cell, Embryology, Endangered species, Engrailed (gene), Esophagus, Euglandina rosea, Excretion, Excretory system, External fertilization, Extinction, Eye, Feces, Filter feeder, Food and Agriculture Organization, Fordilla, Fossil, Freshwater mollusc, Freshwater snail, Gastropod shell, Gastropoda, Geoduck, Giant Pacific octopus, Giant squid, Gill, Gland, Gonad, Habitat, Halkieriid, Halwaxiida, Heart, Helcionellid, Helcionelloida, Hemocyanin, Hermaphrodite, Homo sapiens, Host (biology), Hydrostatic skeleton, Hyolitha, Indian Ocean, Inflammation, Inflation, Internal fertilization, Intracellular digestion, Invertebrate, IUCN Red List, Jellyfish, Kimberella, Larva, Latin, Latitude, Latouchella, Limpet, Lissachatina fulica, Lophophorata, Lophophore, Lophotrochozoa, Malacology, Mantle (mollusc), Marine biology, Melbourne, Mesoderm, Metamerism (biology), Metamorphosis, Micropaleontology, Minoan civilization, Molecular phylogenetics, Molecule, Mollusca, Money, Monophyly, Monoplacophora, Morphology (biology), Mucus, Murex, Mussel, Nacre, Nautiloid, Nautilus, Necrosis, Nectocaris, Neontology, Nephridium, Nervous system, Neurology, Neuroscience, New Zealand mud snail, Nudibranch, Octopus, Odontogriphus, Odontophore, Operculum (gastropod), Ordovician, Organ (anatomy), Organism, Orthrozanclus, Osphradium, Oxygen, Oyster, Pacific Ocean, Pearl, Periostracum, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Pinctada, Pinna nobilis, Plankton, Plectronoceras, Pojetaia, Polychaete, Polyphyly, Procopius, Protein, Radula, Reef, Reproductive system, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory pigment, Rostroconchia, Rudists, Scallop, Schistosoma, Schistosomiasis, Sea butterfly, Sea silk, Seafood, Secretion, Sediment, Septum (cephalopod), Sex organ, Shell money, Siberia, Silicon dioxide, Siphuncle, Skeleton, Slug, Snail, Social status, Solenogastres, Species, Sperm, Spirula, Squid, Statocyst, Subtropics, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Taxonomy (biology), Temperate climate, Tentaculita, Tentaculites, Terrestrial mollusc, Textile, Theopompus, Tonicella lineata, Torsion (gastropod), Toxin, Trilobite, Trochophore, Tropics, Tunicate, Tusk shell, Tyre, Lebanon, Tyrian purple, Urine, Veliger, Ventral nerve cord, Ventricle (heart), Vetigastropoda, Volborthella, West Indies, Whelk, Winston Ponder, Wiwaxia, Xenophyophore, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (200 more) »


Abalone (or; via Spanish abulón, from Rumsen aulón) is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae.

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Abyssal zone

The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.

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Aculifera is a proposed clade of molluscs incorporating those groups that have no conch or shell, that is, the Polyplacophora, Caudofoveata (.

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Aldanella is an extinct paleozoic mollusc that was assigned to the Gastropod stem group but may also belong to a paraphyletic "Monoplacophora".

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.

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The clade Anaspidea, commonly known as sea hares (Aplysia species and related genera), are medium-sized to very large opisthobranch gastropod molluscs with a soft internal shell made of protein.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).

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Aplacophora is a monophyletic group of small, deep-water, exclusively benthic, marine molluscs found in all oceans of the world.

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Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.

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BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

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Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blue-ringed octopus

Blue-ringed octopuses, comprising the genus Hapalochlaena, are four highly venomous species of octopus that are found in tide pools and coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian oceans, from Japan to Australia.

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Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.

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A byssus is a bundle of filaments secreted by many species of bivalve mollusk that function to attach the mollusk to a solid surface.

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Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carter Center

The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

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Caudofoveata is a small class within the phylum Mollusca, also known as Chaetodermomorpha.

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The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.

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A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Chitons are marine molluscs of varying size in the class Polyplacophora, formerly known as Amphineura.

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The chlamys (Ancient Greek: χλαμύς, gen.: χλαμύδος) was a type of an ancient Greek cloak.

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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Circumesophageal nerve ring

A circumesophageal or circumpharyngeal nerve ring is an arrangement of nerve ganglia around the esophagus/ pharynx of an animal.

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Cladistics (journal)

Cladistics is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research in cladistics.

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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Cobcrephora is a genus of that resembles the Palaeoloricates, known from the Silurian of Gotland.

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The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.

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Subclass Coleoidea, or Dibranchiata, is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the various taxa popularly thought of as "soft-bodied" or "shell-less," i.e., octopus, squid and cuttlefish.

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Colossal squid

The colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni, from Greek mesos (middle), onycho (claw, nail), and teuthis (squid)), sometimes called the Antarctic squid or giant cranch squid, is believed to be the largest squid species in terms of mass.

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A commissure is the place where two things abut or are joined.

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In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Conch is a common name that is applied to a number of different medium to large-sized shells.

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Conchifera is a subphylum of the phylum Mollusca.

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Conchiolins (sometimes referred to as conchins) are complex proteins which are secreted by a mollusc's outer epithelium (the mantle).

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Cone snail

Cone snails, cone shells, or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.

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Conus is a genus of predatory sea snails, or cone snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae.Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2015). Conus Linnaeus, 1758. In: MolluscaBase (2015). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p.

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Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.

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David R. Lindberg

David R. Lindberg (1948, U.S.A.) is an American malacologist and professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley.

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In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).

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Doridacea is a taxonomic grouping of dorid nudibranchs, shell-less marine gastropod mollusks.

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East Pacific red octopus

Octopus rubescens (Commonly the East Pacific red octopus, also known as the ruby octopus, a preferred common name due to the abundance of octopus species colloquially known as red octopus) is the most commonly occurring shallow-water octopus on much of the North American West Coast, and a ubiquitous benthic predator in these habitats.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

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Endangered species

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.

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Engrailed (gene)

engrailed is a homeodomain transcription factor involved in many aspects of multicellular development.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Euglandina rosea

Euglandina rosea, common names the rosy wolfsnail or the cannibal snail, is a species of medium-sized to large predatory air-breathing land snail, a carnivorous terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Spiraxidae.

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Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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Excretory system

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body.

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External fertilization

External fertilization is a male organism’s sperm fertilizing a female organism’s egg outside of the female’s body.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Fordilla is an extinct genus of early bivalves, one of two genera in the extinct family Fordillidae.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Freshwater mollusc

Freshwater molluscs are those members of the Phylum Mollusca which live in freshwater habitats, both lotic (flowing water) such as rivers, streams, canals, springs, and cave streams (stygobite species) and lentic (still water) such as lakes, ponds (including temporary or vernal ponds), and ditches.

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Freshwater snail

Freshwater snails are gastropod mollusks which live in freshwater.

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Gastropod shell

The gastropod shell is part of the body of a gastropod or snail, a kind of mollusc.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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The Pacific geoduck, scientific name Panopea generosa, is a species of very large, edible saltwater clam in the family Hiatellidae.

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Giant Pacific octopus

The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini), also known as the North Pacific giant octopus, is a large marine cephalopod belonging to the genus Enteroctopus.

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Giant squid

The giant squid (genus Architeuthis) is a deep-ocean dwelling squid in the family Architeuthidae.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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The halkieriids are a group of fossil Molluscs (see Calvapilosa) from the Lower to Middle Cambrian.

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Halwaxiida or halwaxiids is a proposed clade equivalent to the older orders Sachitida He 1980 and Thambetolepidea Jell 1981, loosely uniting scale-bearing Cambrian animals, which may lie in the stem group to molluscs or lophotrochozoa.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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The Helcionellids are small fossil shells that are universally interpreted as molluscs, though no sources spell out why this taxonomic interpretation is preferred.

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Helcionelloida is an extinct group of ancient molluscs (phylum Mollusca).

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Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Hydrostatic skeleton

A hydrostatic skeleton, or hydroskeleton, is a skeleton supported by fluid pressure.

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Hyoliths are animals with small conical shells, known as fossils from the Palaeozoic Era.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Internal fertilization

Internal fertilization is the union of an egg cell with a sperm during sexual reproduction inside the body of a parent.

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Intracellular digestion

Every organism requires energy to be active.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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IUCN Red List

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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Kimberella is a monospecific genus of bilaterian known only from rocks of the Ediacaran period.

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Latouchella is an extinct genus of marine invertebrate animal, that is considered to be a mollusk and which may be a sea snail, a gastropod.

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Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.

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Lissachatina fulica

Lissachatina fulica is a species of large land snail that belong in the family Achatinidae.

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The Lophophorata are a Lophotrochozoan clade consisting of the Brachiozoa and the Bryozoa.

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The lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by four major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Hyolitha, and Phoronida, which collectively constitute the protostome group Lophophorata.

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Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia.

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Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.

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Mantle (mollusc)

The mantle (also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself.

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Marine biology

Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.

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Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Metamerism (biology)

In biology, metamerism is the phenomenon of having a linear series of body segments fundamentally similar in structure, though not all such structures are entirely alike in any single life form because some of them perform special functions.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristic details.

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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Monoplacophora, meaning "bearing one plate", is a polyphyletic superclass of molluscs with a cap-like shell now living at the bottom of the deep sea.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Murex is a genus of medium to large sized predatory tropical sea snails.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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Nacre (also), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls.

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Nautiloids are a large and diverse group of marine cephalopods (Mollusca) belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea that began in the Late Cambrian and are represented today by the living Nautilus and Allonautilus.

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The nautilus (from the Latin form of the original ναυτίλος, 'sailor') is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Nectocaris pteryx is a species of possible cephalopod affinity, known from the "early Cambrian" (Series 2) Emu Bay Shale and Chengjiang biota, and the "middle Cambrian" (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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New Zealand mud snail

The New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a species of very small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum.

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Nudibranchs are a group of soft-bodied, marine gastropod molluscs which shed their shells after their larval stage.

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The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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Odontogriphus (literally "toothed riddle") is a genus of soft-bodied animals known from middle Cambrian Lagerstätte.

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The odontophore is part of the feeding mechanism in molluscs.

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Operculum (gastropod)

The operculum, meaning little lid, (plural: opercula or operculums) is a corneous or calcareous anatomical structure like a trapdoor which exists in many (but not all) groups of sea snails and freshwater snails, and also in a few groups of land snails.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Orthrozanclus reburrus ("Dawn scythe with bristling hair") is a sea creature known from the Middle Cambrian (~) Burgess shale, about one centimeter long, with long spikes protruding from its armored body The describers of this fossil animal, Simon Conway Morris and Jean-Bernard Caron, say Orthrozanclus may have formed a link between the halkieriid and the wiwaxiid families, uniting them tentatively in a group called "Halwaxiida", characterized by a similar type of body armor; these organisms might have been stem group molluscs, or fall as a stem group to the larger lophotrochozoan clade (containing molluscs, annelids and brachiopods).

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The osphradium is an olfactory organ in certain molluscs, linked with the respiration organ.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.

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The periostracum is a thin organic coating or "skin" which is the outermost layer of the shell of many shelled animals, including molluscs and brachiopods.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Pinctada is a genus of saltwater oysters, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters.

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Pinna nobilis

Pinna nobilis, common name the noble pen shell or fan mussel, is a large species of Mediterranean clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pinnidae, the pen shells.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plectronoceras is the earliest known shelly cephalopod, dating to the Late Cambrian.

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Pojetaia is an extinct genus of early bivalves, one of two genera in the extinct family Fordillidae.

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The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.

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A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.

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Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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The radula (plural radulae or radulas) is an anatomical structure that is used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue.

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A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

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Reproductive system

The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Respiratory pigment

A respiratory pigment is a molecule, such as hemoglobin in humans and other vertebrates, that increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

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The Rostroconchia is a class of extinct molluscs dating from the early Cambrian to the late Permian.

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Rudists are a group of box-, tube-, or ring-shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Late Jurassic and became so diverse during the Cretaceous that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean.

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Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.

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Schistosoma is a genus of trematodes, commonly known as blood flukes.

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Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.

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Sea butterfly

Sea butterflies, scientific name Thecosomata (thecosomes, "case/shell-body"), are a taxonomic suborder of small pelagic swimming sea snails.

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Sea silk

Sea silk is an extremely fine, rare, and valuable fabric that is made from the long silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells (in particular Pinna nobilis).

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Septum (cephalopod)

Septa (singular septum) are thin walls or partitions between the internal chambers (camerae) of the shell of a cephalopod, namely nautiloids or ammonoids.

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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Shell money

Shell money is a medium of exchange similar to coin money and other forms of commodity money, and was once commonly used in many parts of the world.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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The siphuncle is a strand of tissue passing longitudinally through the shell of a cephalopod mollusk.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc.

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Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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The Solenogastres (less often referred to as Neomeniomorpha), common name the solenogasters, are one subclass of small, worm-like, shell-less molluscs (Aplacophora), the other subclass being the Caudofoveata (Chaetodermomorpha).

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Spirula spirula is a species of deep-water squid-like cephalopod mollusk.

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Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.

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The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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Synapomorphy and apomorphy

In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Tentaculita is an extinct class of uncertain placement ranging from the Early Ordovician to the Middle Jurassic.

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Tentaculites is an extinct genus of conical fossils of uncertain affinity, class Tentaculita, although it is not the only member of the class.

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Terrestrial mollusc

Terrestrial molluscs or land molluscs (mollusks) are ecological group that includes all molluscs that lives on land in contrast to freshwater and marine molluscs.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Theopompus (Θεόπομπος; c. 380 BC – c. 315 BC) was a Greek historian and rhetorician.

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Tonicella lineata

Tonicella lineata, commonly known as the lined chiton, is a species of chiton from the North Pacific.

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Torsion (gastropod)

Torsion is a gastropod synapomorphy which occurs in all gastropods during larval development.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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A trochophore (also spelled trocophore) is a type of free-swimming planktonic marine larva with several bands of cilia.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.

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Tusk shell

The tusk shells or tooth shells, often referred to by the more-technical term scaphopods (Greek, "boat-footed"), are members of a class of shelled marine mollusc with worldwide distribution, and are the only class of exclusively infaunal marine molluscs.

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Tyre, Lebanon

Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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Tyrian purple

Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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A veliger is the planktonic larva of many kinds of sea snails and freshwater snails, as well as most bivalve molluscs (clams) and tusk shells.

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Ventral nerve cord

The ventral nerve cord (VNC) makes up a part of the central nervous system of some phyla of the bilaterians, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Vetigastropoda is a major taxonomic group of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks that form a very ancient lineage.

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Volborthella is an animal of uncertain classification, whose fossils pre-date.

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West Indies

The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

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Whelk is a common name that is applied to various kinds of sea snail.

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Winston Ponder

Winston F. Ponder (born 1941) is a noted malacologist from New Zealand who has named and described many marine and freshwater animals, especially micromolluscs.

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Wiwaxia is a genus of soft-bodied animals that were covered in carbonaceous scales and spines.

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Xenophyophores are multinucleate unicellular organisms found on the ocean floor throughout the world's oceans, at depths of 500 to 10,600 meters (1,640 feet to 6.6 miles).

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10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mollusca

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