156 relations: Abraham–Minkowski controversy, Absolute space and time, Acceleration, Accretion (astrophysics), Acoustic wave equation, Advection, Angular momentum, Aristotle, Avicenna, Aydın Sayılı, Body force, Cartesian coordinate system, Cauchy momentum equation, Cauchy stress tensor, Center of mass, Center-of-momentum frame, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Classical electromagnetism, Classical mechanics, Closed system, Coefficient of restitution, Collision, Conjugate variables, Continuum mechanics, Covariance and contravariance of vectors, Crystal momentum, Deformation (mechanics), Dielectric, Discourse on Metaphysics, Dissipation, Dot product, Drag (physics), Dyne, Elastic collision, Electric field, Electric potential, Electromagnetic radiation, Euclidean vector, Euler's laws of motion, Euler–Lagrange equation, Explosion, Fluid dynamics, Fluid parcel, Flux, Foot per second, Four-momentum, Four-vector, Frame of reference, Franck–Hertz experiment, Galilean cannon, ..., Galilean invariance, Galilean transformation, Galileo Galilei, Gaussian units, General relativity, Generalized coordinates, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gradient, Gravitational acceleration, Gravity assist, Hamiltonian mechanics, Heat, Homogeneity (physics), Hossein Nasr, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Imaginary unit, Impulse (physics), Incompressible flow, Inelastic collision, International System of Units, Invariant (physics), Invariant mass, Italian language, Jean Buridan, John Philoponus, John Wallis, Kilogram, Kinetic energy, Lagrangian mechanics, Light, Lorentz factor, Lorentz force, Lorentz transformation, Louis de Broglie, Magnetic field, Magnetic potential, Magnetization, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Material derivative, Matter wave, Maxwell stress tensor, Metre per second, Metric signature, Minkowski space, Momentum transfer, Navier–Stokes equations, Newton (unit), Newton second, Newton's laws of motion, Newtonian fluid, Noether's theorem, Orders of magnitude (momentum), Oxford University Press, P-wave, Particle accelerator, Peter John Olivi, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photon, Planck constant, Planck momentum, Planck–Einstein relation, Plural, Pool (cue sports), Position and momentum space, Potential energy, Poynting vector, Pressure, Propagation constant, Proper time, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Radio wave, Reaction (physics), René Descartes, Rocket, Routledge, S-wave, Self-adjoint operator, Shear stress, SI derived unit, Slug (unit), Solar sail, Solid mechanics, Sound, Special relativity, Speed of light, Speed of sound, Star, Stiffness, Strain rate, Symmetry, Theory of impetus, Theory of relativity, Traffic collision, Translational symmetry, Two New Sciences, Ultraviolet, Uncertainty principle, Vacuum permeability, Variable-mass system, Velocity, Viscosity, Wave, Wave function, Werner Heisenberg. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
The Abraham–Minkowski controversy is a physics debate concerning electromagnetic momentum within dielectric media.
Absolute space and time is a concept in physics and philosophy about the properties of the universe.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
In physics, the acoustic wave equation governs the propagation of acoustic waves through a material medium.
In the field of physics, engineering, and earth sciences, advection is the transport of a substance by bulk motion.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Aydın Sayılı (2 May 1913 – 15 October 1993) was a prominent Turkish historian of science.
A body force is a force that acts throughout the volume of a body.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
The Cauchy momentum equation is a vector partial differential equation put forth by Cauchy that describes the non-relativistic momentum transport in any continuum.
In continuum mechanics, the Cauchy stress tensor \boldsymbol\sigma, true stress tensor, or simply called the stress tensor is a second order tensor named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
In physics, the center-of-momentum frame (also zero-momentum frame or COM frame) of a system is the unique (up to velocity but not origin) inertial frame in which the total momentum of the system vanishes.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.
The coefficient of restitution (COR) is the ratio of the final to initial relative velocity between two objects after they collide.
A collision is an event in which two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time.
Conjugate variables are pairs of variables mathematically defined in such a way that they become Fourier transform duals, or more generally are related through Pontryagin duality.
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis.
In solid-state physics crystal momentum or quasimomentum is a momentum-like vector associated with electrons in a crystal lattice.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
The Discourse on Metaphysics (Discours de métaphysique, 1686) is a short treatise by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in which he develops a philosophy concerning physical substance, motion and resistance of bodies, and God's role within the universe.
Dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that takes place in homogeneous thermodynamic systems.
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
The dyne (symbol dyn, from Greek δύναμις, dynamis, meaning power, force) is a derived unit of force specified in the centimetre–gram–second (CGS) system of units, a predecessor of the modern SI.
An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
In classical mechanics, Euler's laws of motion are equations of motion which extend Newton's laws of motion for point particle to rigid body motion.
In the calculus of variations, the Euler–Lagrange equation, Euler's equation, or Lagrange's equation (although the latter name is ambiguous—see disambiguation page), is a second-order partial differential equation whose solutions are the functions for which a given functional is stationary.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
In fluid dynamics, within the framework of continuum mechanics, a fluid parcel is a very small amount of fluid, identifiable throughout its dynamic history while moving with the fluid flow.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
The foot per second (plural feet per second) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity, which includes direction).
In special relativity, four-momentum is the generalization of the classical three-dimensional momentum to four-dimensional spacetime.
In special relativity, a four-vector (also known as a 4-vector) is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
The Franck–Hertz experiment was the first electrical measurement to clearly show the quantum nature of atoms, and thus "transformed our understanding of the world".
A Galilean cannon is a device that demonstrates conservation of linear momentum.
Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames.
In physics, a Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian physics.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gaussian units constitute a metric system of physical units.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In analytical mechanics, specifically the study of the rigid body dynamics of multibody systems, the term generalized coordinates refers to the parameters that describe the configuration of the system relative to some reference configuration.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.
Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
In physics, a homogeneous material or system has the same properties at every point; it is uniform without irregularities.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.
In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric flow) refers to a flow in which the material density is constant within a fluid parcel—an infinitesimal volume that moves with the flow velocity.
An inelastic collision, in contrast to an elastic collision, is a collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved due to the action of internal friction.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
In mathematics and theoretical physics, an invariant is a property of a system which remains unchanged under some transformation.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jean Buridan (Latin: Johannes Buridanus; –) was an influential 14th century French philosopher.
John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570), also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.
John Wallis (3 December 1616 – 8 November 1703) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving.
In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.
In physics, the Lorentz transformations (or transformation) are coordinate transformations between two coordinate frames that move at constant velocity relative to each other.
Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duke de Broglie (or; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
The term magnetic potential can be used for either of two quantities in classical electromagnetism: the magnetic vector potential, or simply vector potential, A; and the magnetic scalar potential ψ. Both quantities can be used in certain circumstances to calculate the magnetic field B. The more frequently used magnetic vector potential is defined so that its curl is equal to the magnetic field: curl A.
In classical electromagnetism, magnetization or magnetic polarization is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced magnetic dipole moments in a magnetic material.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In continuum mechanics, the material derivative describes the time rate of change of some physical quantity (like heat or momentum) of a material element that is subjected to a space-and-time-dependent macroscopic velocity field variations of that physical quantity.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
The Maxwell stress tensor (named after James Clerk Maxwell) is a symmetric second-order tensor used in classical electromagnetism to represent the interaction between electromagnetic forces and mechanical momentum.
Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.
The signature of a metric tensor g (or equivalently, a real quadratic form thought of as a real symmetric bilinear form on a finite-dimensional vector space) is the number (counted with multiplicity) of positive and zero eigenvalues of the real symmetric matrix of the metric tensor with respect to a basis.
In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.
In particle physics, wave mechanics and optics, momentum transfer is the amount of momentum that one particle gives to another particle.
In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
The newton second (also newton-second, symbol N s or N·s) is the derived SI unit of impulse.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
In continuum mechanics, a Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are linearly proportional to the local strain rate—the rate of change of its deformation over time.
Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.
The following table lists various orders of magnitude for momentum.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A P-wave is one of the two main types of elastic body waves, called seismic waves in seismology.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Peter John Olivi, also Pierre de Jean Olivi or Petrus Joannis Olivi (1248 – March 14, 1298), was a Franciscan theologian who, although he died professing the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, became a controversial figure in the arguments surrounding poverty at the beginning of the 14th century.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Planck momentum is the unit of momentum in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
The Planck–Einstein relationFrench & Taylor (1978), pp.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Pool is a cue sport played on a table with six pockets along the, into which balls are deposited.
In physics and geometry, there are two closely related vector spaces, usually three-dimensional but in general could be any finite number of dimensions.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
In physics, the Poynting vector represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) of an electromagnetic field.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
The propagation constant of a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave is a measure of the change undergone by the amplitude and phase of the wave as it propagates in a given direction.
In relativity, proper time along a timelike world line is defined as the time as measured by a clock following that line.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
In mathematics, a self-adjoint operator on a finite-dimensional complex vector space V with inner product \langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle is a linear map A (from V to itself) that is its own adjoint: \langle Av,w\rangle.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units (SI).
The slug is a derived unit of mass in the weight-based system of measures, most notably within the British Imperial measurement system and in the United States customary measures system.
Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors.
Solid mechanics is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.
Strain rate is the change in strain (deformation) of a material with respect to time.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
The theory of impetus was an auxiliary or secondary theory of Aristotelian dynamics, put forth initially to explain projectile motion against gravity.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
In geometry, a translation "slides" a thing by a: Ta(p).
The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche Intorno a Due Nuove Scienze), published in 1638 was Galileo's final book and a scientific testament covering much of his work in physics over the preceding thirty years.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
The physical constant μ0, (pronounced "mu naught" or "mu zero"), commonly called the vacuum permeability, permeability of free space, permeability of vacuum, or magnetic constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum.
In mechanics, a variable-mass system is a collection of matter whose mass varies with time.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
Classical three-dimensional momentum, Conservation of Momentum, Conservation of impulse, Conservation of linear momentum, Conservation of momentum, Force summation, Kinetic momentum, Law of conservation of linear momentum, Law of conservation of momentum, Linear Momentum, Linear momenta, Linear momentum, Momenta, Momentum (physics), Momentum conservation, Momentum vector, P=mv, Potential momentum, Relativistic Momentum, Relativistic momentum.