252 relations: Abbey, Abbot, Accounting, Adi Shankara, Agriculture, Ahobila Matha, Alms, Anabaptism, Anchorite, Anthony the Great, Apostolnik, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Asceticism, Ashram, Ashta Mathas of Udupi, Athanasius of Alexandria, Barn, Barracks, Beatrice of Silva, Benedict of Nursia, Bethlehem, Bishop, Brewery, Bridget of Sweden, Bridgettines, Bruno of Cologne, Buddhism, Bulgaria, Calendar of saints, Camaldolese, Cambodia, Canon (priest), Canonical hours, Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross, Carmelites, Carthusians, Cathedral, Catholic Church, Celibacy, Cenobitic monasticism, Chapter (religion), Charterhouse (monastery), China, Chirpan, Christian, Church (building), Church of Caucasian Albania, Church of England, Cistercians, ..., Clergy, Cloister, Cluniac Reforms, Community of the Glorious Ascension, Community of the Resurrection, Compline, Conceptionists, Convent, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Council of Serdica, Dashanami Sampradaya, Discalced Carmelites, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Donglin Temple (Jiangxi), Dormitory, Drepung Monastery, Dvaita Vedanta, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecovillage, Egypt, Emar Matha, English Reformation, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Europe, Evangelism, Feudalism, Forge, Former religious orders in the Anglican Communion, Francis de Sales, Francis of Paola, Franciscans, Friar, Gompa, Grande Chartreuse, Greece, Greek language, Helena Blavatsky, Hermit, Hermitage (religious retreat), Hermits of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel, Hieronymites, Hindu temple, Hinduism, Hospice, Hospital, Howrah, India, Intentional community, Iran, Jainism, Jane Frances de Chantal, Japan, Jerome, Jetavana, Jews, Jiangxi, Joan of France, Duchess of Berry, Judaean Desert, Khanqah, Koil, Krishnapura matha, Kyaung, Lama, Laos, Latin, Lauds, Lavra, Library, List of abbeys and priories, List of Buddhist temples, List of monasteries of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate), Madhvacharya, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Mar Awgin, Mar Saba, Maria Vittoria De Fornari Strata, Matha, Matins, Meditation, Mendicant orders, Mesopotamia, Miaphysitism, Middle Ages, Minim (religious order), Mirfield, Monastery of Saint Anthony, Monastery of Saint Athanasius, Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great, Monastery of Santa María del Parral, Monastic Family of Bethlehem, of the Assumption of the Virgin and of Saint Bruno, Monasticism, Monk, Monte Cassino, Motherhouse, Mount Athos, Mount Izla, Musical notation, Myanmar, Nalanda, Nashdom, Neoplatonism, Nepal, New Monasticism, Nimbarka Sampradaya, Nones (liturgy), Notker the Stammerer, Nun, Nusaybin, Oratory (worship), Order of Saint Benedict, Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit, Order of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, Oriental Orthodoxy, Ottoman dynasty, Pachomius the Great, Pali, Parakala Matha, Passionists, Paula of Rome, Philo, Pilgrim, Pilgrimage, Plague (disease), Poor Clares, Portugal, Premonstratensians, Prime (liturgy), Prior, Priory, Protestantism, Puri, Rajasthan, Ramakrishna Math, Ramakrishna Sarada Mission, Ramanuja, Refectory, Refectory table, Religious habit, Religious order, Roman army, Romance languages, Rota (architecture), Rule of St. Augustine, Saint Amun, Sangha, Santa Paula, California, Scholastica, School, Segovia, Sext, Shakers, Shaolin Monastery, Shivalli Brahmins, Shravasti, Skete, Spain, Sri Vaishnavism, Srirangam, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Sufi philosophy, Sufism, Syriac Orthodox Church, Taoism, Temple, Tengboche, Terce, Thailand, Theosophical Society, Theravada, Thomas Merton, Tibet, Tibetan Buddhism, Tironensian Order, Tirupati, Trappists, Udupi, Ukhra, Ukhra Mahanta Asthal, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Vajrayana, Valliscaulian Order, Vassa, Vatican City, Vespers, Vihara, Vinaya, Vishishtadvaita, Vrindavan, Wadi El Natrun, Wat, West Bengal, Westminster Abbey, Wet season, Wudang Mountains, York Minster, Zawiya (institution). Expand index (202 more) » « Shrink index
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Sri Ahobila Matha (also called Sri Ahobila Matam) is a Vadakalai Sri Vaishnava monastery established around 1400 CE at Ahobilam in Andhra Pradesh, India following the Vadakalai tradition of Vedanta Desika.
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world", from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire") is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life.
Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.
An apostolnik or epimandylion is an item of clerical clothing worn by Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic nuns.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Traditionally, an ashram-Hindi (Sanskrit ashrama or ashramam) is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions.
The Ashta Mathas of Udupi (Kannada: ಉಡುಪಿಯ ಅಷ್ಟ ಮಠಗಳು) are a group of eight mathas or Hindu monasteries established by Madhvacharya, the preceptor of the Dvaita school of Hindu thought.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
A barn is an agricultural building usually on farms and used for various purposes.
A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers.
Beatrice of Silva, O.I.C., also known (in Spanish) as Beatriz da Silva y de Menezes and (in Portuguese) as Beatriz de Menezes da Silva, (Campo Maior, Portugal ca. 1424 – Toledo, Castile, 9 August 1492) was a noblewoman of Portugal, who became the foundress of the monastic Order of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady in Spain.
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer.
Bridget of Sweden (1303 – 23 July 1373); born as Birgitta Birgersdotter, also Birgitta of Vadstena, or Saint Birgitta (heliga Birgitta), was a mystic and saint, and founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks after the death of her husband of twenty years.
The Order of the Most Holy Savior, abbreviated as O.Ss.S., and informally known as the Brigittine or Bridgettine Order is a monastic religious order of Augustinian nuns, Religious Sisters, and monks founded by Saint Bridget of Sweden (Birgitta) in 1344, and approved by Pope Urban V in 1370.
Bruno of Cologne (c. 1030 – 6 October 1101) was the founder of the Carthusian Order, he personally founded the order's first two communities.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
The Camaldolese (Ordo Camaldulensium) monks and nuns are two different, but related, monastic communities that trace their lineage to the monastic movement begun by Saint Romuald.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.
In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals.
The Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross, commonly called Crosiers, are a Roman Catholic religious order.
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.
The Carthusian Order (Ordo Cartusiensis), also called the Order of Saint Bruno, is a Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics.
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.
Cenobitic (or coenobitic) monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life.
A chapter (capitulum or capitellum) is one of several bodies of clergy in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Nordic Lutheran churches or their gatherings.
A charterhouse (Chartreuse, Kartause, Certosa, Cartuja) is a monastery of Carthusian monks.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chirpan (Чирпан) is a town on the Tekirska River in Stara Zagora Province of south-central Bulgaria.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
The Albanian Apostolic Church or the Church of Caucasian Albania was an ancient briefly independent autocephalous Igor Kuznetsov.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.
The Cluniac Reforms (also called the Benedictine Reform) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor.
The Community of the Glorious Ascension (CGA) is an Anglican monastic community in the United Kingdom, co-founded in 1960 by twin brothers Michael Ball and Peter Ball who both later became bishops.
The Community of the Resurrection (CR) is an Anglican religious community for men in England.
Compline, also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours.
The Order of the Immaculate Conception (Ordo Inmaculatae Conceptionis), also known as the Conceptionists, are a contemplative religious order of nuns.
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
The Council of Serdica, or Synod of Serdica (also Sardica), was a synod convened in 343 at Serdica in the civil diocese of Dacia, by Roman dominate Emperors Constans I, augustus in the West, and Constantius II, augustus in the East.
Dashanami Sanyasi (IAST "Tradition of Ten Names") is a Hindu monastic tradition of "single-staff renunciation " (ēkadaṇḍisannyāsi) generally associated with the Advaita Vedanta tradition.The disciples of Adi Shankaracharya are also called "Dash Nam Sanyasi" as the Title is further divided into ten groups viz.
The Discalced Carmelites or Barefoot Carmelites is a Catholic mendicant order with roots in the eremitic tradition of the Desert Fathers and Mothers.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
Donglin Temple is a Buddhist monastery approximately from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China.
In United States usage, the word dormitory means a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people, often boarding school, college or university students.
Drepung Monastery ("Rice Heap Monastery"), located at the foot of Mount Gephel, is one of the "great three" Gelug university gompas (monasteries) of Tibet.
Dvaita Vedanta (द्वैत वेदान्त) is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ecovillages are traditional or intentional communities whose goal is to become more socially, culturally, economically and ecologically sustainable.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Emar Matha or Embar Mutt is located in the south-eastern corner of Jagannath Temple, Puri outside the main Prakara near Kalikadevi Sahi.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace (smithy) where such a hearth is located.
Former religious orders in the churches of the Anglican Communion are those communities of monks, nuns, friars, or sisters, having a common life and rule under vows, whose work has ended and whose community has been disbanded.
Francis de Sales (François de Sales; Francesco di Sales); 21 August 156728 December 1622) was a Bishop of Geneva and is honored as a saint in the Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation. He is known also for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation, particularly the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God.
Saint Francis of Paola, O.M. (or: Francesco di Paola or Saint Francis the Fire Handler; 27 March 1416 – 2 April 1507) was an Italian mendicant friar and the founder of the Roman Catholic Order of Minims.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
Gompas, Gönpas, or Gumbas ("remote place", Sanskrit araṇya), also known as ling, are Buddhist ecclesiastical fortifications of learning, lineage and sādhanā that may be understood as a conflation of a fortification, a vihara and a university associated with Tibetan Buddhism and thus common in historical Tibetan regions including parts of China, India, Nepal, Ladakh and Bhutan.
Grande Chartreuse is the head monastery of the Carthusian religious order.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
Although today's meaning is usually a place where a hermit lives in seclusion from the world, hermitage was more commonly used to mean a settlement where a person or a group of people lived religiously, in seclusion.
The Hermits of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel is a branch of the religious Carmelite Order of the Ancient Observance, who originated as hermit monks and have been mendicant friars since the 13th century.
The Order of Saint Jerome or Hieronymites (Ordo Sancti Hieronymi, abbreviated O.S.H.) is a Catholic enclosed religious order and a common name for several congregations of hermit monks living according to the Rule of Saint Augustine, though the inspiration and model of their lives is the 5th-century hermit and biblical scholar, Saint Jerome.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Howrah or Haora, is the second largest city in West Bengal, India, after Kolkata.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Saint Jane Frances de Chantal (Jeanne-Françoise Frémiot, Baronne de Chantal; 28 January 1572 – 13 December 1641) is a Roman Catholic saint, who founded a religious order after the death of her husband.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jetavana was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries or viharas in India.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Joan of France (Jeanne de France, Jeanne de Valois; 23 April 1464 – 4 February 1505), was briefly Queen of France as wife of King Louis XII, in between the death of her brother, King Charles VIII, and the annulment of her marriage.
The Judaean Desert or Judean Desert (מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה Midbar Yehuda, both Desert of Judah or Judaean Desert; صحراء يهودا Sahara Yahudan) is a desert in Israel and the West Bank that lies east of Jerusalem and descends to the Dead Sea.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
Koil or Koyil or Kovil, (meaning: residence of GodThe modern Tamil word for Hindu temple is kōvil (கோவில்) meaning " the residence of God". In ancient Tamil Nadu, the king (கோ, Kō) was considered to be a ‘representative of God on earth' and lived in a kōvil, which also means "king’s house". Old words for king like Kō (கோ "King"), Iṟai (இறை "Emperor") and Āṇṭavan (ஆண்டவன் "Conqueror") are now primarily used to refer to God.) is the Tamil term for a distinct style of Hindu temple with Dravidian architecture.
The Krishnapur Matha (ಕೃಷ್ಣಾಪುರ ಮಠ कृष्णपुरा मठ Kr̥ṣṇāpura maṭha) or Krishnapur Mutt in some records and literature is a Madhwa Vaishnava monastery.
A kyaung (ဘုန်းကြီးကျောင်း, often shortened to) is a Burmese Buddhist monastery (vihara), comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of Buddhist monks.
Lama ("chief" or "high priest") is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma in Tibetan Buddhism.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lauds is a divine office that takes place in the early morning hours.
A lavra or laura (Λαύρα; Cyrillic: Ла́вра) is a type of monastery consisting of a cluster of cells or caves for hermits, with a church and sometimes a refectory at the center.
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.
List of abbeys and priories is a link list for any abbey or priory.
This is a list of Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas for which there are Wikipedia articles, sorted by location.
Madhvācārya (ಮಧ್ವಾಚಾರ್ಯ;; CE 1238–1317), sometimes anglicised as Madhva Acharya, and also known as Purna Prajña and Ananda Teertha, was a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the Dvaita (dualism) school of Vedanta.
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church centered in the Indian state of Kerala.
Mar Awgin (died 363 AD), also known as Awgin of ClysmaThomas Bishop of Marga A.D. 840.
The Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified, known in Arabic as Mar Saba (دير مار سابا; מנזר מר סבא; Ἱερὰ Λαύρα τοῦ Ὁσίου Σάββα τοῦ Ἡγιασμένου; Sfântul Sava), is an Eastern Orthodox Christian monastery overlooking the Kidron Valley at a point halfway between the Old City of Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, within the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank.
Blessed Maria Vittoria De Fornari Strata (1562 – 15 December 1617) was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious and the foundress of the Order of the Annunciation - or Blue Nuns.
A matha (मठ, IAST) or mutt is a Sanskrit word that means "cloister, institute or college", and it also refers to a monastery in Hinduism.
Matins is the monastic nighttime liturgy, ending at dawn, of the canonical hours.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Mendicant orders are, primarily, certain Christian religious orders that have adopted a lifestyle of poverty, traveling, and living in urban areas for purposes of preaching, evangelism, and ministry, especially to the poor.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Miaphysitism is a Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Minims (also called the Minimi or Order of Minims, abbreviated O.M.) are members of a Roman Catholic religious order of friars founded by Saint Francis of Paola in fifteenth-century Italy.
Mirfield is a small town and civil parish in Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England.
The Monastery of Saint Anthony is a Coptic Orthodox monastery standing in an oasis in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, in the southern part of the Suez Governorate.
The Monastery of Saint Athanasius (манастир „Свети Атанасий“) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery located close to the village of Zlatna livada in Chirpan municipality, Stara Zagora Province.
The Monastery of Saint Macarius '''the Great''' also known as Dayr Abū Maqār (دير الأنبا مقار) is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in Wadi El Natrun, Beheira Governorate, about 92 km north west of Cairo, and off the highway between Cairo and Alexandria.
Monastery of Saint Mary of Parral (Monasterio de Santa María del Parral) is a Roman Catholic monastery of the enclosed monks of the Order of Saint Jerome just outside the walls of Segovia, Spain, founded by King Henry IV of Castile in 1454.
The Monastic Family of Bethlehem, of the Assumption of the Virgin and of Saint Bruno (or simply Monks and Sisters of Bethlehem) is a Roman Catholic religious order with Carthusian spirituality founded on November 1, 1950, at Saint Peter's Square, Rome, following the promulgation of the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven, by the inspiration of a small group of French pilgrims.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
A motherhouse is the principal house or community for a religious institute.
Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
Nashdom, also known as Nashdom Abbey, is a former country house and former Anglican Benedictine abbey in Burnham, Buckinghamshire, England.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New Monasticism is a diverse movement, not limited to a specific religious denomination or church and including varying expressions of contemplative life.
The Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST: Nimbārka Sampradāya, Sanskrit निम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, and Sanakādi Sampradāya, is one of the four authorised Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas.
Nones, also known as None (Nona, "Ninth"), the Ninth Hour, or the Midafternoon Prayer, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the traditional Christian liturgies.
Notker the Stammerer (Notcerus Balbulus; 840 – 6 April 912 AD), also called Notker I, Notker the Poet or Notker of Saint Gall, was a musician, author, poet, and Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Saint Gall, now in Switzerland.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
An oratory is a Christian room for prayer, from the Latin orare, to pray.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
The Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit (Ordo Fratrum Sancti Pauli Primi Eremitae, Red svetog Pavla prvog pustinjaka – pavlini, Řád paulínů, Pauliner, Szent Pál első remete szerzeteseinek rendje, Paulini – Zakon Świętego Pawła Pierwszego Pustelnika, Rád Svätého Pavla Prvého Pustovníka), known also simply as Pauline Fathers, is a monastic order of the Roman Catholic Church, founded in Hungary during the 13th century.
The Order of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Ordo de Annuntiatione Beatæ Mariæ Virginis), also known as Sisters of the Annunciation or Annonciades, is a enclosed religious order of contemplative nuns founded in honor of the Annunciation in 1501 at Bourges by Joan de Valois, also known as Joan of France, daughter of King Louis XI of France, and wife of Louis, the Duke of Orléans, later King Louis XII of France.
The Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Ordo SS.), also known as Turchine Nuns or Blue Nuns, is a Roman Catholic religious order of contemplative nuns formed in honour of the mystery of the Incarnation of Christ at Genoa, in Italy, by Blessed Maria Vittoria De Fornari Strata.
The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary (Latin: Ordo Visitationis Beatissimae Mariae Virginis, V.H.M.) or the Visitation Order is an enclosed Roman Catholic religious order for women.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).
Saint Pachomius (Παχώμιος, ca. 292–348), also known as Pachome and Pakhomius, is generally recognized as the founder of Christian cenobitic monasticism.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Bramhatantra Swatantra Parakala Matha is a Vaishnava monastery (matha) established in Karnataka.
The Passionists (Latin: Congregatio Passionis Iesu Christi) are a Roman Catholic religious institute founded by Saint Paul of the Cross with a special emphasis on the Passion of Jesus Christ.
Saint Paula of Rome (AD 347–404) was an ancient Roman saint and early Desert Mother.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Poor Clares, officially the Order of Saint Clare (Ordo sanctae Clarae) – originally referred to as the Order of Poor Ladies, and later the Clarisses, the Minoresses, the Franciscan Clarist Order, and the Second Order of Saint Francis – are members of a contemplative Order of nuns in the Catholic Church.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church founded in Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg.
Prime, or the First Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office (Canonical Hours), said at the first hour of daylight (approximately 6:00 a.m.), between the morning Hour of Lauds and the 9 a.m. Hour of Terce.
Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.
A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Puri is a city and a Municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Ramakrishna Math is a religious monastic order, considered part of the Hindu reform movements.
Ramakrishna Sarada Mission and Sri Sarada Math are twin organizations named after Sri Sarada Devi and Sri Ramakrishna.
Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017–1137 CE) was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism.
A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions.
A refectory table is a highly elongated table used originally for dining in monasteries in Medieval times.
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The rota or "turn" is a cylinder, open on one side, that is built inside a wall of a monastery, nunnery or foundling hospital.
The Rule of St.
Ammon, Amun (Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲁⲙⲟⲩⲛ), Ammonas (Ἀμμώνας), Amoun (Ἀμοῦν), or Ammonius the Hermit (Ἀμμώνιος) was a 4th-century Christian ascetic and the founder of one of the most celebrated monastic communities in Egypt.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Santa Paula is a city in Ventura County, California, United States.
Scholastica (c. 480 – 10 February 543) is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches.
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
Sext, or Sixth Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the traditional Christian liturgies.
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, is a millenarian restorationist Christian sect founded in the 18th century in England.
The Shaolin Monastery, also known as the Shaolin Temple, is a Chan ("Zen") Buddhist temple in Dengfeng County, Henan Province, China.
The Shvalli Brahmins are a Hindu community in Tulu Nadu.
Shravasti (Pali) was a city of ancient India and one of the six largest cities in India during Gautama Buddha's lifetime.
A Skete (from Coptic ϣⲓ(ϩ)ⲏⲧ via Greek σκήτη) is a monastic community in Eastern Christianity that allows relative isolation for monks, but also allows for communal services and the safety of shared resources and protection.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sri Vaishnava Sampradaya or Sri Vaishnavism is a denomination within the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism.
Srirangam (Thiruvarangam in Tamil) is an island and a part of the city of Tiruchirappalli, in South India.
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.
Sufi philosophy includes the schools of thought unique to Sufism, a mystical branch within Islam, also termed as Tasawwuf or Faqr according to its adherents.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Tengboche (or Thyangboche) is a village in Khumjung in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal, located at.
Terce, or Third Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office in almost all the Christian liturgies.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Thomas Merton (1915–1968) was a Catalan Trappist monk of American nationality.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tironensian Order or the Order of Tiron was a medieval monastic order named after the location of the mother abbey (Tiron Abbey, Abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité de Tiron, established in 1109) in the woods of Tiron (sometimes Thiron) in Perche, some 35 miles west of Chartres in France). They were popularly called "Grey Monks" because of their grey robes, which their spiritual cousins, the monks of Savigny, also wore.
Tirupati is a city in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO: Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae) is a Catholic religious order of cloistered contemplative monastics who follow the Rule of St. Benedict.
Udupi (alternatively spelled as Udipi), also known as Odipu in Tulu, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Ukhra is a census town in Pandabeswar CD Block in Durgapur subdivision of Paschim Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Ukhra Nimbarka Peeth Mahanta Asthal is a 250-year-old Mutt (Hindu monastic establishment) of the Nimbarka Vaishnava Sampradaya.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
The Valliscaulian Order was a religious order of the Catholic Church.
Vassa (script, script, both "rain") is the three-month annual retreat observed by Theravada practitioners.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
Vihara (विहार, IAST: vihāra) generally refers to a Buddhist bhikkhu monastery.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
Vishishtadvaita (IAST; विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Vrindavan is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Wadi El Natrun (Arabic for "Natron Valley"; Ϣⲓϩⲏⲧ Šihēt "Measure of the Hearts", Σκῆτις or Σκήτη) is a valley located in Beheira Governorate, Egypt, including a town with the same name.
A wat (វត្ត wōat; ວັດ vat; วัด) is a type of Buddhist temple and Hindu temple in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. The word wat is borrowed from Sanskrit vāṭa (Devanāgarī: वाट), meaning "enclosure".
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
The Wudang Mountains consist of a small mountain range in the northwestern part of Hubei, China, just south of Shiyan.
The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, England, and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe.
A zaouia or zawiya (زاوية zāwiyah; "assembly" "group" or "circle", also spelled zawiyah, zawiyya, zaouiya, zaouïa and zwaya) is an Islamic religious school or monastery.
Antistitium, Christian monastery, Friaries, Hindu monastery, Lamaseries, Lamasery, Monastary, Monasteries, Monastery of nuns, Monastic communities, Monastic community, Monastic complex, Monastries, Monastry, Monestaries, Monestary, Monestery, Mosteiros medievais, Religious house, Sufi monastery, Warming House.