149 relations: Aggregate demand, Alan Greenspan, Australia, Bank of Canada, Bank of England, Bank of Japan, Bank reserves, Banknote, Behavioral economics, Benjamin M. Friedman, Bond (finance), Bounded rationality, Brazil, Business cycle, Canada, Capital (economics), Capital control, Central bank, Chile, China, Cognitive bias, Colombia, Confidence, Consumer price index, Crawling peg, Credibility, Credit, Credit channel, Credit rating, Currency, Currency band, Currency board, Currency substitution, Czech Republic, David R. Henderson, Demand for money, Derivative (finance), Developed country, Discount window, Edward C. Prescott, Efficiency, European Central Bank, Eurozone, Excess reserves, Exchange rate, Exchange-rate regime, Factors of production, Federal funds, Federal funds rate, Federal Reserve System, ..., Finn E. Kydland, Fiscal policy, Fisher hypothesis, Fixed exchange-rate system, Forward guidance, Fractional-reserve banking, Futures contract, Gold standard, Goods, Government budget balance, Government debt, Government spending, Greenspan put, Gross domestic product, Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, Helicopter money, Heuristic, Hungary, Hyperinflation, Iceland, Incentive, India, Inflation, Inflation targeting, Information, Interaction between monetary and fiscal policies, Interest rate, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, James Meade, James Tobin, Jiaozi (currency), John B. Taylor, Journal of Macroeconomics, Journal of Political Economy, Keynesian economics, Liberty Fund, Loss aversion, Macroeconomic model, Mario Draghi, Market monetarism, Milton Friedman, Monetarism, Monetary base, Monetary conditions index, Monetary economics, Monetary policy, Monetary reform, Monetary transmission mechanism, Money creation, Multiplier (economics), National Bureau of Economic Research, Negative interest on excess reserves, Neoclassical economics, New classical macroeconomics, New Zealand, Nominal income target, Norway, Open market operation, Option (finance), Output gap, Overnight rate, Paul Volcker, Philippines, Poland, Price, Price signal, Price stability, Promissory note, Quantitative easing, Rational agent, Recession, Relative price, Relative purchasing power parity, Reserve requirement, Scott Sumner, Seigniorage, Service (economics), Shoe leather cost, Signalling (economics), South Africa, Stanford University, STIRT, Stock, Swap (finance), Sweden, Tax, Taylor rule, Terms of trade, The American Economic Review, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Time (magazine), Transaction cost, Turkey, Unemployment, United Kingdom, Utility, Volatility (finance), Wage, Yuan dynasty. Expand index (99 more) » « Shrink index
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.
Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Bank of Canada (or BoC) (Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The is the central bank of Japan.
Bank reserves are a commercial banks' holdings of deposits in accounts with a central bank (for instance the European Central Bank or the applicable branch bank of the Federal Reserve System, in the latter case including federal funds), plus currency that is physically held in the bank's vault ("vault cash").
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.
Benjamin Morton Friedman (born 1944) is a leading American political economist.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Confidence has a common meaning of a certainty about handling something, such as work, family, social events, or relationships.
A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the price level of of and purchased by households.
Crawling peg is an exchange rate regime that allows depreciation or appreciation to happen gradually.
Credibility comprises the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message.
Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.
The credit channel mechanism of monetary policy describes the theory that a central bank's policy changes affect the amount of credit that banks issue to firms and consumers for purchases, which in turn affects the real economy.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A currency band is a range of values for the exchange rate for a country’s currency which the country’s central bank acts to keep the exchange rate within.
A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency.
Currency substitution, dollarization, or elminting (from el-, meaning foreign) is the use of a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
David R. Henderson (born November 21, 1950) is a Canadian-born American economist and author who moved to the United States in 1972 and became a U.S. citizen in 1986, serving on President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984.
In monetary economics, the demand for money is the desired holding of financial assets in the form of money: that is, cash or bank deposits rather than investments.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
The discount window is an instrument of monetary policy (usually controlled by central banks) that allows eligible institutions to borrow money from the central bank, usually on a short-term basis, to meet temporary shortages of liquidity caused by internal or external disruptions.
Edward Christian Prescott (born December 26, 1940) is an American economist.
Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
In banking, excess reserves are bank reserves in excess of a reserve requirement set by a central bank.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
An exchange-rate regime is the way an authority manages its currency in relation to other currencies and the foreign exchange market.
In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.
In the United States, federal funds are overnight borrowings between banks and other entities to maintain their bank reserves at the Federal Reserve.
In the United States, the federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions (banks and credit unions) lend reserve balances to other depository institutions overnight, on an uncollateralized basis.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
Finn Erling Kydland (born 1 December 1943) is a Norwegian economist known for his contributions to business cycle theory.
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.
In economics, the Fisher hypothesis (sometimes called the Fisher effect) is the proposition by Irving Fisher that the real interest rate is independent of monetary measures, specifically the nominal interest rate and the expected inflation rate.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
Forward guidance is a tool used by a central bank to exercise its power in monetary policy in order to influence, with their own forecasts, market expectations of future levels of interest rates.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
The "Greenspan put" refers to the monetary policy approach that Alan Greenspan, the former Chairman of the United States Federal Reserve Board, and other Fed members exercised from late 1987 to 2000.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) is an indicator of inflation and price stability for the European Central Bank (ECB).
Helicopter money is a proposed unconventional monetary policy, sometimes suggested as an alternative to quantitative easing (QE) when the economy is in a liquidity trap (when interest rates near zero and the economy remains in recession).
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Inflation targeting is a monetary policy regime in which a central bank has an explicit target inflation rate for the medium term and announces this inflation target to the public.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Fiscal policy and monetary policy are the two tools used by the state to achieve its macroeconomic objectives.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.
James Edward Meade CB, FBA (23 June 1907 – 22 December 1995) was a British economist and winner of the 1977 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences jointly with the Swedish economist Bertil Ohlin for their "pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements." Meade was born in Swanage, Dorset.
James Tobin (March 5, 1918 – March 11, 2002) was an American economist who served on the Council of Economic Advisers and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and taught at Harvard and Yale Universities.
Jiaozi was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China.
John Brian Taylor (born December 8, 1946) is the Mary and Robert Raymond Professor of Economics at Stanford University, and the George P. Shultz Senior Fellow in Economics at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.
The Journal of Macroeconomics is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1979 that covers research on a broad range of issues in monetary economics and macroeconomics, including economic growth, fluctuations, fiscal policy, and macroeconomic forecasting.
The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
In cognitive psychology and decision theory, loss aversion refers to people's tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring equivalent gains: it is better to not lose $5 than to find $5.
A macroeconomic model is an analytical tool designed to describe the operation of the economy of a country or a region.
Mario Draghi (born 3 September 1947) is an Italian economist serving as the President of the European Central Bank since 2011.
Market monetarism is a school of macroeconomic thought that advocates that central banks target the level of nominal income instead of inflation, unemployment, or other measures of economic activity, including in times of shocks such as the bursting of the real estate bubble in 2006, and in the financial crisis that followed.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
In economics, the monetary base (also base money, money base, high-powered money, reserve money, outside money, central bank money or, in the UK, narrow money) in a country is defined as the portion of a commercial bank's reserves that consist of the commercial bank's accounts with its central bank plus the total currency circulating in the public, plus the currency, also known as vault cash, that is physically held in the bank's vault.
In macroeconomics, a monetary conditions index (MCI) is an index number calculated from a linear combination of a small number of economy-wide financial variables deemed relevant for monetary policy.
Monetary economics is a branch of economics that provides a framework for analyzing money in its functions as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Monetary reform is any movement or theory that proposes a system of supplying money and financing the economy that is different from the current system.
The monetary transmission mechanism is the process by which asset prices and general economic conditions are affected as a result of monetary policy decisions.
Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.
In macroeconomics, a multiplier is a factor of proportionality that measures how much an endogenous variable changes in response to a change in some exogenous variable.
The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.
Negative interest on excess reserves is an instrument of unconventional monetary policy applied by central banks to encourage lending by making it costly for commercial banks to hold their excess reserves at central banks so they will lend more readily to the private sector.
Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
New classical macroeconomics, sometimes simply called new classical economics, is a school of thought in macroeconomics that builds its analysis entirely on a neoclassical framework.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
A nominal income target is a monetary policy target.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks.
In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.
The GDP gap or the output gap is the difference between actual GDP or actual output and potential GDP.
The overnight rate is generally the interest rate that large banks use to borrow and lend from one another in the overnight market.
Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (born September 5, 1927) is an American economist.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
A price signal is information conveyed to consumers and producers, via the price charged for a product or service, which provides a signal to increase or decrease supply or demand.
Price stability is a goal of monetary and fiscal policy aiming to support sustainable rates of economic activity.
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.
Quantitative easing (QE), also known as large-scale asset purchases, is an expansionary monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to stimulate the economy and increase liquidity.
In economics, game theory, decision theory, and artificial intelligence, a rational agent is an agent that has clear preferences, models uncertainty via expected values of variables or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
A relative price is the price of a commodity such as a good or service in terms of another; i.e., the ratio of two prices.
Relative purchasing power parity is an economic theory which predicts a relationship between the inflation rates of two countries over a specified period and the movement in the exchange rate between their two currencies over the same period.
The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world's central banks, that sets the minimum amount of reserves that must be held by a commercial bank.
Scott B. Sumner (born 1955) is an American economist.
Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Shoe leather cost refers to the cost of time and effort (or opportunity costs of time and effort) that people expend by holding less cash in order to reduce the inflation tax that they pay on cash holdings when there is high inflation.
In contract theory, signalling (or signaling; see spelling differences) is the idea that one party (termed the agent) credibly conveys some information about itself to another party (the principal).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
STIRT is an acronym for Short Term Interest Rate Trading.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
A swap is a derivative contract where two parties exchange financial instruments.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
In economics, a Taylor rule is a reduced form approximation of the responsiveness of the nominal interest rate, as set by the central bank, to changes in inflation, output, or other economic conditions.
The terms of trade (TOT) is the relative price of imports in terms of exports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.
A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Central bank/Monetary policy, Contractionary, Contractionary monetary policy, Contractionary policies, Expansionary monetary policy, Expansionary policies, Goal of monetary policy, Interest rate targeting, Monetary Policy, Monetary action, Monetary contraction, Monetary expansion, Monetary management, Monetary policies, Monetary policy credibility, Monetary policy of central banks, Monetary regime, Monetray policy, Money policy, Price level targeting, Price policy, Tight credit, Tight money, Tight money policy, Unconventional monetary policy.