466 relations: Afanasievo culture, Afghanistan, Aikido, Alan M. Wachman, Altai Mountains, Altan Khan, Altanbulag, Selenge, Alternative dispute resolution, Amateur boxing, Amban, Amur River, Anandyn Amar, Andronovo culture, Ankara, Appellate court, Appliqué, Arable land, ArcelorMittal, Archery, Architecture in Tibet, Arkhangai Province, Arvaikheer, Asashōryū Akinori, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Winter Games, Astana, Ömnögovi Province, Övörkhangai Province, Bactrian camel, Bandy, Bandy at the 2011 Asian Winter Games, Bangkok, Barnabas Fund, Basketball at the East Asian Games, Battalion, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Bayan-Ölgii Province, Bayankhongor Province, BBC News, Beijing, Berlin, Bhikkhu, Bilge Khagan, Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara, Bogd Khan, Bohumír Šmeral, Book of Han, Borjigin, Brasília, Bronchitis, ..., Brussels, Budapest, Buddhism, Buddhism in Mongolia, Buir Lake, Bulgan (city), Bulgan Province, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Buryat language, Buryats, Buuz, Cairo, Camel, Canberra, Catholic Church, Central Asia, Chad, Chalcolithic, Child mortality, Chimediin Saikhanbileg, China, China and the United Nations, Chinese architecture, Chinggis Khaan International Airport, Choibalsan (city), Christianity, Christianity in Mongolia, Chuluunkhoroot, Citigroup, Collective farming, Common Era, Common ostrich, Communist International, Communist state, Constitution of Mongolia, Constitutional court, Court, Cyrillic script, Dalai Lama, Dalanzadgad, Damdin Sükhbaatar, Darkhan (city), Darkhan-Uul Province, Dayan Khan, Düürgüüd of Mongolia, Deer stone, Deforestation, Democratic Party (Mongolia), Desertification, Dialect, Diplomatic mission, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Districts of Mongolia, Donghu people, Dornod Province, Dornogovi Province, Dundgovi Province, Dzungar genocide, Dzungar people, East Asia, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Emerging markets, Emperor Wen of Han, Emperor Yingzong of Ming, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endorheic basin, Erdene Zuu Monastery, Erdenet, Erenhot, Esen Taishi, Eurasian Steppe, Freedom House, Freedom of information laws by country, Freedom of religion, Freedom of speech, Freestyle wrestling, Göktürks, Genghis Khan, George W. 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The Afanasievo culture, or Afanasevo culture (Russian Афанасьевская культура Afanas'yevskaya kul'tura; " Afanasevan culture"), is the earliest known archaeological culture of south Siberia, occupying the Minusinsk Basin and the Altai Mountains during the eneolithic era, 3300 to 2500 BC.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs.
Alan Michael Wachman (October 13, 1958 – June 21, 2012) was a scholar of East Asian politics and international relations, specializing in cross-strait relations and Sino-U.S. relations.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Altan Khan of the Tümed (1507–1582; Алтан хан; Chinese: 阿爾坦汗), whose given name was Anda (in Mongolian; 俺答 in Chinese), was the leader of the Tümed Mongols, Shunyi Wang (Prince of Shunyi, Chinese: 顺义王) of Ming dynasty China, and de facto ruler of the Right Wing, or western tribes, of the Mongols.
Altanbulag (Алтанбулаг, "golden spring") is a sum (district) of Selenge Province in northern Mongolia.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR; known in some countries, such as India, as external dispute resolution) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation.
Amateur boxing (also called Olympic Boxing) is a variant of boxing practised at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations.
Amban (Manchu:Amban, Mongol: Амбан, Tibetan:ཨམ་བན་am ben, Uighur:ئامبان་am ben) is a Manchu language word meaning "high official," which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing imperial government.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
Anandyn Amar (Анандын Амар; 1886–July 10, 1941) was the head of state of the Mongolian People’s Republic from 1932 to 1936 and twice served as prime minister from 1928–1930 and again from 1936–1939.
The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. 2000–900 BC in western Siberia and the central Eurasian Steppe.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Appliqué is ornamental needlework in which pieces of fabric in different shapes and patterns are sewn or stuck onto a larger piece to form a picture or pattern.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
ArcelorMittal S.A. is a Luxembourgish multinational steel manufacturing corporation headquartered in Luxembourg.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Architecture in Tibet contains Chinese and Indian influences but has many unique features brought about by its adaptation to the cold, generally arid, high-altitude climate of the Tibetan plateau.
Arkhangai (Архангай, Arhangai; the rear of the Khangai) is one of the 21 aimags of Mongolia.
Arvaikheer (Арвайхээр), meaning "Barley Steppe," is the capital of Övörkhangai Aimag (province) and one of the most central points of Mongolia.
is a Mongolian former sumo wrestler (rikishi).
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
The Asian Winter Games (AWG) is an international multi-sport event held every four years for members of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) which features winter events.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Ömnögovi (Өмнөговь Ömnögovǐ, South Gobi) is an aimag (province) of Mongolia, located in the south of the country, in the Gobi Desert.
Övörkhangai (Өвөрхангай, Öwörhangai; "southern Khangai") is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the south of the country.
The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large, even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of Central Asia.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
Bandy at the 2011 Asian Winter Games was held at Medeu in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Barnabas Fund is an international, interdenominational Christian aid agency based in Coventry, in the West Midlands of England that supports Christians who face discrimination or persecution as a consequence of their faith.
The East Asian Games included competitions in the sport of basketball at all six of the Games held between 1993 and 2013.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
Bayan-Ölgii (Баян-Өлгий; Bai'-O'lke, Rich cradle/region, alternately spelled Olgiy, Ulgii, etc.) is the westernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
Bayankhongor (Баянхонгор, literally Rich Darling) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
Bilge Khagan (Old Turkic: 𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰀 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Bilge qaγan) (683 – 25 November 734) was the khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate.
Biligtü Khan or The Emperor Zhaozong of Yuan, born Ayushiridara (Билигт хаан Аюушридар) (temple name: 昭宗, Zhaozong; r. 1370–1378), was a ruler of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia.
The Bogd Khan (Богд хаан; 1869–1924) was enthroned as Khagan of Mongolia (Bogd Khaganate) on 29 December 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty after the Xinhai Revolution.
Bohumír Šmeral (25 October 1880 in Třebíč, Margraviate of Moravia – 8 May 1941 in Moscow) was a Czech politician, leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party, and one of founders of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
Borjigin (plural Borjigid; Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script:, Borjigit) is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Mongolia derives much of its recent characteristics from Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelug and Kagyu lineages, but is distinct and presents its own unique characteristics.
Buir Lake (Буйр нуур) is a freshwater lake that straddles the border between Mongolia and China.
Bulgan (Mongol: Булган) is a town, administrative centre of Bulgan province of Mongolia.
Bulgan (Булган) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in northern Mongolia.
In the United States Government, the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (EAP, originally the Office of Chinese Affairs) is part of the United States Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State and Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as dealing with U.S. foreign policy and U.S. relations with countries in that area.
Buryat or Buriat (Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) is a variety of Mongolic spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or as a major dialect group of Mongolian.
The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.
Buuz (Бууз; Бууза, buuza) is a type of Mongolian steamed dumpling filled with meat.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.
Chimediin Saikhanbileg (Чимэдийн Сайханбилэг; born 17 February 1969) was the Prime Minister of Mongolia from 2014 to 2016.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China was one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council.
Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries.
Chinggis Khaan International Airport (Чингис хаан олон улсын нисэх буудал, Çingis hán olon ulsîn niseh búdal) is the international airport serving Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, situated southwest of the capital.
Choibalsan (Mongolian: Чойбалсан) is the fourth-largest city in Mongolia after Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Erdenet.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in Mongolia is a minority religion.
Chuluunkhoroot (Чулуунхороот, stone corral), also Ereentsav (Эрээнцав), is a sum (district) center in the Dornod Province, Mongolia.
Citigroup Inc. or Citi (stylized as citi) is an American multinational investment bank and financial services corporation headquartered in New York City.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Constitution of Mongolia (Mongol Ulsīn Ündsen Húlĭ, "General Law of the Mongolian State") is the constitution of Mongolia.
A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with constitutional law.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
Dalanzadgad (Даланзадгад) is the capital of Ömnögovi Aimag in Mongolia.
Damdinii Sükhbaatar (Дамдины Сүхбаатар; February 2, 1893 – February 20, 1923) was a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that liberated Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921.
Darkhan (Дархан, "blacksmith") is the third largest city in Mongolia and the capital of Darkhan-Uul Aimag (Darkhan-Uul Province).
Darkhan-Uul (Дархан-Уул, literally Sacred Mountain) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
Dayan Khan (Даян Хаан) (given name: Batumöngke; 1464–1517/1543) was a Mongol khan who reunited the Mongols under Chinggisid supremacy in the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia.
A düüreg (дүүрэг) is a municipal district in the capital of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar.
Deer stones (also known as reindeer stones) are ancient megaliths carved with symbols found largely in Siberia and Mongolia.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Democratic Party (Ардчилсан Нам, Ardchilsan Nam; abbreivated DP) is a centre-right political party in Mongolia.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
A district (sum; сум, arrow, sometimes spelled soum or—from the Russian form—as somon) is a second level administrative subdivision of Mongolia.
Donghu (IPA:; literally: "Eastern foreigners" or "Eastern barbarians") was a confederation of nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE and was destroyed by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE.
Dornod (Дорнод, literally "the East") is the easternmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
Dornogovi (Дорноговь, East Gobi) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
Dundgovi (Дундговь, Middle Gobi) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
The Dzungar genocide was the mass extermination of the Mongol Buddhist Dzungar people, sometimes referred as "Zunghars", at the hands of the Manchu Qing dynasty of China and the Uyghurs of Xinjiang.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC – 6 July 157 BC) was the fifth emperor of the Han Dynasty of ancient China.
Zhu Qizhen (29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464) was the sixth and eighth emperor of the Ming dynasty.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
The Erdene Zuu Monastery (Эрдэнэ Зуу хийд, Chinese:光顯寺, Tibetan:ལྷུན་གྲུབ་བདེ་ཆེན་གླིང་) is probably the earliest surviving Buddhist monastery in Mongolia.
Erdenet (Эрдэнэт, literally "with treasure") is the second-largest city in Mongolia and the capital of the aimag (province) of Orkhon.
Erenhot (ᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Эрээн хот;, commonly shortened to Ereen or Erlian) is a county-level city of the Xilin Gol League, in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, located in the Gobi Desert along the Sino-Mongolian border, across from the Mongolian town of Zamyn-Üüd.
Esen Taishi (d. 1455) was a powerful Oirat Taishi and de facto ruler of the Northern Yuan in 15th century Mongolia.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom of Information laws (FOI laws) allow access by the general public to data held by national governments.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.
Parade of eagle hunters at festival The Golden Eagle Festival or Eagle Festival (Бүргэдийн наадам/бүркіт той), is an annual traditional festival held in Bayan-Ölgii aimag, Mongolia.
Govi-Altai (Говь-Алтай, Gobi-Altai) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
Govisümber (Говьсүмбэр, literally Gobi-Sümber) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (خليج عُمان khalīj ʿUmān; دریای عمان daryāye ʿUmān) is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf.
is a professional sumo wrestler (rikishi) from Ulaanbataar, Mongolia.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Haranga (Харанга, gong) is a hard rock/progressive rock band from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, established in 1989 as the first Mongolian hard rock group.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu (3rd century BCE to 1st century CE), the Xianbei state (93 to 234 CE), the Rouran Khaganate (330-555), the Turkic Khaganate (552-744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia.
Hohhot, abbreviated in Chinese as Hushi, formerly known as Kweisui, is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Horses play a large role in the daily and national life of the Mongols; it is traditionally said that "A Mongol without a horse is like a bird without the wings." Elizabeth Kendall, who travelled through Mongolia in 1911, observed, "To appreciate the Mongol you must see him on horseback,—and indeed you rarely see him otherwise, for he does not put foot to ground if he can help it.
Hurd (Хурд,, "speed") is a Mongolian rock band.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Mongolia include: Individual administrative districts are listed in Sums of Mongolia.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset-management services to encourage private-sector development in developing countries.
The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) is an intergovernmental organization with regional offices in Latin America (Costa Rica), Asia and the Pacific (Australia) and Africa (Ethiopia).
The International Shooting Sport Federation, also known with the acronym ISSF, is the governing body of the Olympic Shooting events in Rifle, Pistol and Shotgun disciplines, and of several non-Olympic Shooting sport events.
In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Mongolia is practiced by approximately 3 to 5% of the population.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jambyn Batmönkh (Жамбын Батмөнх,; 10 March 1926 – 14 May 1997) was a Mongolian communist political leader and economics professor.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
Jargaltulgyn Erdenebat is a Mongolian politician and a member of the Mongolian People's Party.
The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu (Chinese:哲布尊丹巴呼圖克圖, Жавзандамба хутагт, Jawzan Damba Khutagt;, THL Jétsün Dampa Hutuktu "Mongolian Holy Precious Master") are the spiritual heads of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Judicial General Council of Mongolia (Mongol Ulsyn Shüükhiin Yerönkhii Zövlöl) is an organ of the Mongolian judiciary mandated by the Constitution of Mongolia to maintain the independence of the judiciary, represent the Mongolian judiciary and advise on the selection and removal of judicial officers.
Jujutsu (柔術, jūjutsu), also known in the West as Ju-Jitsu or Jiu-Jitsu, is a Japanese martial art and a method of close combat for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses either a short weapon or none.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
The Karasuk culture describes a group of Bronze Age societies who ranged from the Aral Sea to the upper Yenisei in the east and south to the Altai Mountains and the Tian Shan in ca.
(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Köke Temür (died 1375), also known as Wang Baobao, was a Bayad general of the Yuan dynasty.
Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
The Khalkha (Халх, Halh) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century.
Battulga Khaltmaa (Халтмаагийн Баттулга, Khaltmaagiin Battulga,, born 3 March 1963) is a Mongolian politician who has served as the President of Mongolia since 10 July 2017.
Khamag Mongol (Хамаг монгол, lit. "Whole Mongol") was a major Mongolic tribal confederation (khanlig) on the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
Khanbogd (Ханбогд) is a sum (district) of Ömnögovi Province in southern Mongolia.
The Khangai Mountains (Khangayn nuruu) are a mountain range in central Mongolia, some 400 kilometres west of Ulaanbaatar.
Khatun (Mongolian:, khatun, хатан khatan; خاتون khātūn; خاتون, plural خواتين; খাঁতুন, খাতুন; hatun) is a female title of nobility and counterpart to "khan" or "Khagan" prominently used in the Turkic Khaganate and in the subsequent Mongol Empire.
Khövsgöl (Хөвсгөл) is the northernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
Khüiten Peak (Хүйтэн оргил, lit. "cold peak") is the highest point in Mongolia, on the west side of the country along the border with China.
Khentii (Хэнтий) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the east of the country.
Kherlen River (also known as Kerulen or Kerülen) is a river of 1,254 km length in Mongolia and China.
Kheshig (Khishig, Keshik, Keshichan) (Mongolian for favored or blessed) were the imperial guard for Mongol royalty in the Mongol Empire, particularly for rulers like Genghis Khan and his wife Börte.
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
Khorloogiin Choibalsan (Хорлоогийн Чойбалсан, (February 8, 1895 – January 26, 1952) was the Communist leader of the Mongolian People's Republic and Marshal (general chief commander) of the Mongolian armed forces from the 1930s until his death in 1952. His rule marked the first and last time in modern Mongolian history that an individual had complete political power. Sometimes referred to as "the Stalin of Mongolia", Choibalsan oversaw Soviet-ordered purges in the late 1930s that resulted in the deaths of an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Mongolians. Most of the victims were Buddhist clergy, intelligentsia, political dissidents, ethnic Buryats and Kazakhs and other "enemies of the revolution." His intense persecution of Mongolia's Buddhists brought about their near complete extinction in the country. Although Choibalsan's devotion to Joseph Stalin helped preserve his country's fledgling independence during the early years of the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR), it also bound Mongolia closely to the Soviet Union. Throughout his rule, Mongolia's economic, political and military ties to the USSR deepened, infrastructure and literacy rates improved and international recognition of Mongolia's independence expanded, especially after World War II.
Khovd or Hovd (Ховд), formerly known as Kobdo or Khobdo, is the capital of the Khovd Province of Mongolia.
Khovd (Ховд) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the west of the country.
Khuushuur (хуушууp;; t͡ɕɪbʊˈrʲek) is a kind of meat pastry or dumpling popular in Mongolia, similar to Russian and other cuisines' chiburekki or Garlic chives wrap.
Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate mixed with boxing.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
The Kumo Xi (Xu Elina-Qian, p.296b called the Xi since the Sui dynasty (581-618 AD)), also Tatabi, were a Mongolic steppe people located in current northeast China from 207 AD to 907 AD.
In English, the archaeological term kurgan is a loanword from East Slavic languages (and, indirectly, from Turkic languages), equivalent to the archaic English term barrow, also known by the Latin loanword tumulus and terms such as burial mound.
Kurultai (Mongolian:, Хуралдай, Khuruldai; Turkish: Kurultay),Kazakh: Құрылтай, Qurıltay; Корылтай, Qorıltay; Ҡоролтай, Qoroltay; Qurultay; Gurultaý was a political and military council of ancient Mongol and some Turkic chiefs and khans.
Kuwait City (مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait.
Kyakhta (Кя́хта,; Xyaagta) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Laoshang (r. 174–160 BCE), whose proper name was Jiyu, was a Chanyu of the Xiongnu Empire who succeeded his father Modu Chanyu.
Laryngeal cancer, also known as cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma, are mostly squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the skin of the larynx.
Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Ligdan Khutugtu Khan (from Mongolian "Ligden Khutugt Khan"; Mongolian Cyrillic: Лигдэн Хутугт хаан; or from Chinese, Lindan Han; Chinese: 林丹汗; 1588–1634) was the last khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia as well as the last in the Borjigin clan of Mongol Khans who ruled the Mongols from Chakhar.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
Ice Festival, Ice and Snow Festival, or Snow and Ice Festival may refer to one of the following events.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The long song (ᠤᠷᠲᠠ ᠢᠢᠨᠳᠠᠭᠤᠨ, Urtiin duu) is one of the central elements of the traditional music of Mongolia.
A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, Bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mandukhai Khatun (Мандухай хатан), also known as Mandukhai Sechen Khatun (Мандухай сэцэн хатан, or Queen Manduhai the Wise), (c. 1449 – 1510) was the Khatun of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
Baldugiin "Marzan" Sharav (1869 – 1939, Балдугийн 'Марзан' Шарав; marzan.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.
Meng Tian (died 210 BC) was a general of the Qin dynasty who distinguished himself in campaigns against the Xiongnu and in the construction of the Great Wall of China.
MIAT Mongolian Airlines (pronounced me-at, Монголын Иргэний Агаарын Тээвэр, Mongolyn Irgenii Agaaryn Teever (MIAT), Mongolian Civil Air Transport) is the Mongolian national airline, headquartered in the MIAT Building in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
is one of the largest sogo shosha (general trading companies) in Japan, and also part of the Mitsui Group.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Modu, Modun, or Maodun (Mongolian: Модунь, Modun; Баатар, Baatar; c. 234 – c. 174 BC) was the fourth known Xiongnu ruler and the founder of the Xiongnu Empire.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol Post JSC (Монгол Шуудан) is the national postal service of Mongolia.
Mongol zurag (Mонгол зураг, Mongol painting) is a style of painting in Mongolian art.
The Mongolian national bandy team is controlled by the Bandy Federation of Mongolia.
The Mongolian national basketball team is the basketball team that represents Mongolia in international competitions, administered by the Mongolian Basketball Association.
The Mongolia national football team (Монголын хөлбөмбөгийн үндэсний шигшээ баг) represents the Republic of Mongolia in international football under the Mongolian Football Federation.
Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats.
The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet (Mongolian: Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol Kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.
An independence referendum was held in the Mongolian People's Republic on 20 October 1945.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Legislative elections were held in Mongolia on 29 June 2016.
The National Premier League (known as the Khurkhree National Premier League for sponsorship reasons) is the highest football league of Mongolia, controlled by the Mongolian Football Federation.
The Mongolian People's Party (MPP; Монгол Ардын Нам, MAH; Mongol Ardīn Nam, MAN) is the oldest political party in Mongolia.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
The Mongolian Plateau is the part of the Central Asian Plateau lying between 37°46′-53°08′N and 87°40′-122°15′E and having an area of approximately.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1911 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1911) occurred when the region of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1990 (1990 Democratic Revolution,, Ardchilsan Khuvĭsgal) was a democratic peaceful revolution that started with demonstrations and hunger strikes to overthrow the Mongolian People's Republic and eventually moved towards the democratic present day Mongolia and the writing of the new constitution.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
Mongolian shamanism, more broadly called the Mongolian folk religion, or occasionally Tengerism, refers to the animistic and shamanic ethnic religion that has been practiced in Mongolia and its surrounding areas (including Buryatia and Inner Mongolia) at least since the age of recorded history.
Mongolian Sign Language (Монгол дохионы хэл, Mongol dokhiony khel) is a sign language used in Mongolia.
The Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE) (Mongolian: Монголын Хөрөнгийн Бирж/Mongolyn Khöröngiin Birj) is Mongolia's sole stock exchange.
The tögrög or tugrik (ᠲᠥᠭᠥᠷᠢᠭ, төгрөг, tögrög; sign: ₮; code: MNT) is the official currency of Mongolia.
The Mongolian University of Science and Technology, often referred to as MUST; Шинжлэх Ухаан, Технологийн Их Сургууль, was founded in 1969 as a part of the National University of Mongolia with 5 faculties and 13 departments and named the Polytechnical Institute.
Mongolian wrestling, known as Bökh (Mongolian script:; Mongolian Cyrillic: Бөх or Үндэсний бөх), is the folk wrestling style of Mongols in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and other regions where touching the ground with anything other than a foot loses the match.
The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland ecoregion, also known as the Mongolian-Manchurian steppe, in the temperate grassland Biome, is found in Mongolia, the Chinese Autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and northeastern China.
Mongolians in South Korea form the world's largest population of Mongolian citizens abroad.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The morin khuur (морин хуур), also known as the horsehead fiddle, is a traditional Mongolian bowed stringed instrument.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Munkhbayar Dorjsuren (born Dorjsürengiin Mönkhbayar, Доржсүрэнгийн Мөнхбаяр; born July 9, 1969) is a Mongolian-German sport shooter.
Naadam (Наадам, classical Mongolian: Naɣadum,, literally "games") is a traditional festival in Mongolia.
Naidangiin Tüvshinbayar (Найдангийн Түвшинбаяр born 1 June 1984) is a Mongolian judoka.
The National Anthem of Mongolia (Mongol ulsyn töriin duulal) was created in 1950.
The National University of Mongolia (Монгол Улсын Их Сургууль, Mongol Ulsyn Ikh Surguuli, abbreviated NUM or MUIS) is the oldest university in Mongolia, established in 1942 and originally named in honour of Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars).
Norovyn Altankhuyag (Норовын Алтанхуяг) is a Mongolian politician who was the Prime Minister of Mongolia from 2012 to 2014 and a Member of Parliament.
The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.
The order Notostraca comprises the single family Triopsidae, containing the tadpole shrimp or shield shrimp.
Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions.
Oirat (Clear script: Oirad kelen; Kalmyk: Өөрд, Őrd; Khalkha-Mongolian: Ойрад, Oirad) belongs to the group of Mongolic languages.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
Okunev culture (Окуневская культура) is a Bronze Age culture dated to the first half of the 2nd millennium BC in Minusinsk Hollow of southern Siberia.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The Onon is a river in Mongolia and Russia.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Orkhon Aimag (Орхон аймаг) is one of the 21 Aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the north of the country.
Otgonbayar Ershuu (Эршүүгийн Отгонбаяр; * 18 January 1981 in Ulan Bator) is a Mongolian painter.
Otryadyn Gündegmaa (Отрядын Гүндэгмаа, born 23 May 1978), is a Mongolian sports shooter.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or ， Mongolian Cyrillic: or, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol)Huhbator Borjigin.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Mongolia: Mongolia – landlocked sovereign country located in East-Central Asia.
The Oyu Tolgoi mine (Оюу Толгой, also Oyu Tolgoi, Turquoise Hill) is a combined open pit and underground mining project in Khanbogd sum within the south Gobi Desert, approximately east of the Ömnögovi Province capital Dalanzadgad.
Pan-Mongolism is an irredentist idea that advocates cultural and political solidarity of Mongols.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
Panticapaeum (Pantikápaion, Pantikapei) was an ancient Greek city on the eastern shore of Crimea, which the Greeks called Taurica.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
The Pax Mongolica (Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica ("Tatar Peace"), is a historiographical term modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana which describes the stabilising effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Peabody Energy Corporation, headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, is the largest private-sector coal company in the world.
Peljidiin Genden (Пэлжидийн Гэндэн; 1892 or 1895 – November 26, 1937) was a prominent political leader of the Mongolian People's Republic who served as the country's second president (1924 to 1927) and the ninth prime minister (1932–1936).
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pneumoconiosis is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The President of Mongolia (Mongol Ulsyn Yerönkhiilögch) is the executive head of state of Mongolia.
The Prime Minister of Mongolia (Mongol Ulsyn Yerönkhii Said) is the head of government, and heads the Mongolian cabinet.
Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is a regulated, sanctioned boxing.
Mongolia is divided into 21 Provinces (аймаг, often translated as aimags) and one provincial municipality.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.
Renchinlkhümbe (Рэнчинлхүмбэ) is a sum of Khövsgöl aimag.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rio Tinto Group is an Australian-British multinational and one of the world's largest metals and mining corporations.
Baron Roman Nicolaus Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (Барон Ро́берт-Никола́й-Максими́лиан Рома́н Фёдорович фон У́нгерн-Ште́рнберг)adopted Russian name: Роман Фёдорович фон Унгерн-Штернберг, which transliterates as Roman Fyodorovich fon Ungern-Shternberg (10 January 1886 NS – 15 September 1921) was an Austrian-born Russian anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Rouran Khaganate, Ruanruan, Ruru, or Tantan was the name of a state established by proto-Mongols, from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
Sükhbaatar (Сүхбаатар) is one of the 21 aimags of Mongolia, located in the east of the country.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Selenge (Сэлэнгэ) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the north of the country.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Shenhua Group Corporation Limited is a Chinese state-owned mining and energy company.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone) is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April.
The Siberian Route (Сибирский тракт; Sibirsky trakt), also known as the Moscow Highway (Moskovsky trakt, Московский тракт) and Great Highway (Bolshoi trakt, Большой тракт), was a historic route that connected European Russia to Siberia and China.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Slab Grave culture is a archaeological culture of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Mongols.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Japanese War (Советско-японская война; ソ連対日参戦, "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
Soyol Erdene (Соёл Эрдэнэ) is the first rock band of Mongolia.
The Soyombo symbol (Соёмбо, from svayambhu) is a special character in the Soyombo alphabet invented by Zanabazar in 1686.
The Special Court for Sierra Leone, or the "Special Court" (SCSL), also called the Sierra Leone Tribunal, was a judicial body set up by the government of Sierra Leone and the United Nations to "prosecute persons who bear the greatest responsibility for serious violations of international humanitarian law and Sierra Leonean law" committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 and during the Sierra Leone Civil War.
The Stalinist repressions in Mongolia (Их Хэлмэгдүүлэлт, Ikh Khelmegdüülelt, "Great Repression") refers to a period of heightened political violence and persecution in the Mongolian People's Republic between 1937 and 1939.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The State Great Khural (Улсын Их Хурал, Ulsyn Ikh Khural, also State Great Hural, and Ikh Khural; English: lit. State Great Assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Mongolia.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
or sumo wrestling is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a rikishi (wrestler) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or into touching the ground with anything other than the soles of his feet.
The Supreme Court of Mongolia is the highest court in the judicial system of Mongolia, and is generally the court of last resort for non-constitutional matters.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tavan Bogd (Таван богд,, lit. "five saints") is a mountain massif in Mongolia, near the triple border with China and Russia.
Tavan Tolgoi (Таван толгой, also Tavantolgoi, Tavantolgoy, "Five Hill") is one of the world’s largest untapped coking and thermal coal deposits, located in the Ömnögovi Province in southern Mongolia.
Töw (Төв,, lit. "central") is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
Tümen Zasagt Khan (Түмэн засагт хаан, Tümen zasagt xaan) was a 16th-century Mongol Khagan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia who reigned from 1558 to 1592.
Country Code: +976 International Call Prefix: + or 00, some phone companies have 003 on discount services, Mobicom offers a calling scheme 1699p# for the globus express service Trunk Prefix: 01 or 02 National Significant Numbers (NSN): eight digits Format.
A thangka, variously spelt as thangka, tangka, thanka, or tanka (Nepal Bhasa: पौभा), is a Tibetan Buddhist painting on cotton, silk appliqué, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, scene, or mandala.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
The Toluid Civil War was fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264.
Tosontsengel (Тосонцэнгэл, meaning Oil happiness) is a sum of Zavkhan Province (aimag) in western Mongolia.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
The Trans-Mongolian Railway follows an ancient tea-caravan route from China to Russia and connects Ulan-Ude, on the Trans-Baikal (Trans-Siberian) railway in Russia, with the Chinese city of Jining, by way of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.
The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East.
A Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed on 11 January 1913 (corresponding to 29 December 1912 of the Julian calendar), at Urga (now Ulaanbaatar).
A trial court or court of first instance is a court having original jurisdiction, in which trials take place.
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (Cahiagín Elbegdorj; also referred to as Mongolyin Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj; born 30 March 1963) is a Mongolian politician who served as President of Mongolia from 2009 to 2017.
Tsetserleg (Цэцэрлэг, garden) is the capital of Arkhangai Aimag (province) in Mongolia.
Tsogbadrakh Mönkhzul (Цогбадрахын Мөнхзул; born February 28, 1981 in Ulaanbaatar) is a Mongolian sport shooter.
The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turquoise Hill Resources is a Canadian mineral exploration and development company headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл, Tıwa dıl; tʰɯˈʋa tɯl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia.
The Tuvans or Tuvinians (Тывалар, Tıvalar; Тува, Tuva) are an indigenous people of Siberia/Central Asia.
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh (born 14 June 1968) is a Mongolian politician currently serving as Prime Minister of Mongolia since October, 2017.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
Ulaangom (Mongolian: Улаангом, Red Valley) is the capital of Uvs Province in Mongolia.
Ulan-Ude (p; Улаан Үдэ, Ulaan Üde) is the capital city of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia; it is located about southeast of Lake Baikal on the Uda River at its confluence with the Selenga.
Uliastai (Улиастай), also spelled Uliyasutai or Oulia-Sontai, and sometimes known as Javkhlant, is a city in Mongolia located in the western part of the country and from the capital Ulaanbaatar.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) was a United Nations peacekeeping mission established by the United Nations Security Council on September 25, 2007 to provide a multidimensional presence of up to 350 police and military personnel to eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic The mission comes as a response to the dire situation of an estimated 230,000 refugees from Darfur who continue to flee into bordering eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic (CAR).
The United Nations Public Administration Network mission statement is to promote the sharing of knowledge, experiences and best practices throughout the world in sound public policies, effective public administration and efficient civil services, through capacity-building and cooperation among the United Nations Member States, with emphasis on south-south cooperation and UNPAN's commitment to integrity and excellence.
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
Uvs Lake (Uws núr; ozero Ubsu-Nur, Ubsu-Nur lake) is a highly saline lake in an endorheic basin - Uvs Nuur Basin in Mongolia with a small part in Russia.
Uvs (Увс аймаг, Uws aimag) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
Vale S.A. is a Brazilian multinational corporation engaged in metals and mining and one of the largest logistics operators in Brazil.
The Venus figurines of Mal’ta (also: Malta) are several palaeolithic figurines of women found in Siberia, Russia.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ/ວຽງຈັນທນ໌/ວຽງຈັນທະບູຣີ ສຼີສັຕນາຄຄນາຫຸຕ ວິສຸທທິຣັຕນຣາຊທານີ ບໍຣີຣົມຍ໌, Viang chan) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156-234.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Xstrata plc was an Anglo-Swiss multinational mining company headquartered in Zug, Switzerland and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom.
Hsu Seu-Cheng or Xu Shuzheng (11 November 1880 – 29 December 1925) was a Chinese warlord in Republican China.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
The Yenisei Kyrgyz, also known as the Ancient Kyrgyz or the Khyagas (Khakas), were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
Yongle Emperor's campaigns against the Mongols (1410-1424) was the military campaign of Ming China under Yongle Emperor against the Mongols in the north.
Youth in Mongolia constituted 18.7% of the population in 2014, numbering roughly 552 thousand individuals.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (Юмжаагийн Цэдэнбал; September 17, 1916 – April 20, 1991) was the leader of Mongolia from 1940 to 1984.
A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages) or ger (Mongolian) is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar, born Eshidorji, was the sixteenth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu and the first Bogd Gegeen, or supreme spiritual authority, of the Gelugpa (Yellow Hat) lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Outer Mongolia. The son of a Mongol Tüsheet Khan, Zanabazar was declared spiritual leader of Khalkha Mongols by a convocation of nobles in 1639 when he was just four years old. The 5th Dalai Lama (1617–1682) later recognized him as the reincarnation of the Buddhist scholar Taranatha and bestowed on him the Sanskrit name Jñānavajra (Sanskrit: ज्ञानवज्र, Zanabazar in Mongolian) meaning "thunderbolt scepter of wisdom". Over the course of nearly 60 years, Zanabazar advanced the Gelugpa school of Buddhism among the Mongols, supplanting or synthesizing Sakya or "Red Hat" Buddhist traditions that had prevailed in the area, while strongly influencing social and political developments in 17th century Mongolia. His close ties with both Khalka Mongol leaders and the devout Kangxi Emperor facilitated the Khalkha's submission to Qing rule in 1691. In addition to his spiritual and political roles, Zanabazar was a polymath – a prodigious sculptor, painter, architect, poet, costume designer, scholar, and linguist, who is credited with launching Mongolia's seventeenth century cultural renaissance. He is best known for his intricate and elegant Buddhist sculptures created in the Nepali-derived style, two of the most famous being the White Tara and Varajradhara, sculpted in the 1680s. To aid translation of sacred Tibetan texts, he created the Soyombo script from which sprang the Soyombo that later became a national symbol of Mongolia. Zanabazar used his artistic output to promote Buddhism among all levels of Khalkha society and unify Khalkha Mongol tribes during a time of social and political turmoil.
Zavkhan (Завхан, Zawhan) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the west of the country, 1,104 km from Ulaanbaatar.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
A zud or dzud (зуд) is a Mongolian term for a severe winter in which large number of livestock die, primarily due to starvation due to being unable to graze, in other cases directly from the cold.
.мон is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mongolia.
.mn is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mongolia.
The meridian 120° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, Australia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
2017 Bandy World Championship was the 37th Bandy World Championship and was held in Sweden.
3G countries or Global Growth Generating countries are 11 countries which have been identified as sources of growth potential and of profitable investment opportunities.
The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 52nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 52 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 87° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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