94 relations: Absolute monarchy, Anhui clique, Ataman, Baikal Cossacks, Barga Mongols, Bogd Khan, Buddhism in Mongolia, Buryats, Cossacks, Da Lam Tserenchimed, Dolon Nor, Empire of China (1915–1916), Empire of Japan, Estates of the realm, Five Races Under One Union, Gonchigjalzangiin Badamdorj, Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, Hailar District, Han Chinese, Harbin, House of Romanov, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, Jalkhanz Khutagt Sodnomyn Damdinbazar, Jamsrangiin Tseveen, Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Khagan, Khalkha Mongols, Khovd (city), Kyakhta, Lama, List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies, Manchu people, Manchuria, Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren, Mijiddorjiin Khanddorj, Mongolia, Mongolia under Qing rule, Mongolian dollar, Mongolian language, Mongolian nobility, Mongolian People's Party, Mongolian People's Republic, Mongolian Revolution of 1911, Mongolian Revolution of 1921, National Assembly (Republic of China), New Policies, Nicholas II of Russia, Occupation of Mongolia, October Revolution, ..., Oirats, Outer Mongolia, Pan-Mongolism, Prime Minister of Mongolia, Protectorate, Provinces of Mongolia, Qing dynasty, Regional state, Republic of China (1912–1949), Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, Ruble, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Republic, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saint Petersburg, Shamanism, Siberia, Soviet (council), Soviet Union, Succession of states, Suzerainty, Tael, Tannu Uriankhai, Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, Theocracy, Tibet, Tibet (1912–1951), Tibetan Buddhism, Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet, Treaty of Kyakhta (1915), Tribute, Tsendiin Damdinsüren, Ulaanbaatar, Uliastai, Upper Mongols, White movement, World War I, Writing system, Xinhai Revolution, Xu Shichang, Xu Shuzheng, Yuan Shikai, Zhang Zuolin. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Anhui clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's Warlord era.
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Ataman (variants: otaman, wataman, vataman; Russian: атаман, отаман) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds.
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Baikal Cossacks were Cossacks of the Transbaikal Cossack Host (Забайка́льское каза́чье во́йско); a Cossack host formed in 1851 in the areas beyond Lake Baikal (hence, Transbaikal).
The Barga (Mongol: Барга) are a subgroup of the Mongol people which gave its name to the Baikal region – "Bargujin-Tukum" (Bargujin Tökhöm) – “the land’s end”, according to the 13th-14th centuries Mongol people’s conception.
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The Bogd Khan (Богд хаан; 1869–1924) was enthroned as Khagan of Mongolia (Bogd Khaganate) on 29 December 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty after the Xinhai Revolution.
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Buddhism in Mongolia derives much of its recent characteristics from Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelug and Kagyu lineages, but is distinct and presents its own unique characteristics.
The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.
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Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
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Da Lam Tserenchimed (ཏཱ་བླ་མ་ཚེ་རིང་འཆི་མེད།; 1869 – 1914) was a prominent lama and early 20th century Mongolian independence leader.
Dolon Nor (Долоон нуур, Doloon nuur, seven lakes; also: To-lun, Dolonnur), is a town and the county seat of Duolun County, Xilin Gol League in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous region, China.
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The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
Five Races Under One Union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.
Gonchigjalzangiin Badamdorj (Padma Dorje; died 1920) was an early 20th-century Mongolian religious figure and prime minister under the Bodg Khaanate from late 1919 to January 1920.
Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, or Semenov (Григо́рий Миха́йлович Семёнов; September 13 (25), 1890 – August 30, 1946), was a Japanese-supported leader of the White movement in Transbaikal and beyond from December 1917 to November 1920, Lieutenant General and Ataman of Baikal Cossacks (1919).
Hailar District is an urban district that serves as the seat of the prefecture-level city Hulunbuir in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China.
The Han Chinese,.
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Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
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The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (style, Kölün buyir, Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir;, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in China.
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Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The Jalkhanz Khutagt Sodnomyn Damdinbazar (Жалханз Хутагт Содномын Дамдинбазар; 1874–1923) was a high Buddhist incarnation from northwestern Mongolia who played a prominent role in the country's independence movement in 1911-1912.
Jamsrangiin Tseveen (Жамсрангийн Цэвээн; Tsyben Zhamtsaranovich Zhamtsarano; often romanized to Jamtsarano), (1880 - May 14, 1942) was a Buryat scholar and one of the leading figures in Mongolian politics and especially academia in the 1920s.
The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu (Chinese:哲布尊丹巴呼圖克圖, Жавзандамба хутагт, Jawzan Damba Khutagt;, THL Jétsün Dampa Hutuktu "Mongolian Holy Precious Master") are the spiritual heads of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
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The Khalkha (Халх, Halh) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century.
Khovd or Hovd (Ховд), formerly known as Kobdo or Khobdo, is the capital of the Khovd Province of Mongolia.
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Kyakhta (Кя́хта,; Xyaagta) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border.
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Lama ("chief" or "high priest") is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma in Tibetan Buddhism.
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These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
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Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren (Манлайбаатар Дамдинсүрэн, first hero Damdinsüren, རྟ་མགྲིན་སྲུང་།; March 13, 1871 – January 27, 1921), born Jamsrangiin Damdinsüren (Жамсрангийн Дамдинсүрэн), was a military commander, Pan-Mongolist and diplomat who led Mongolia's struggle for independence in 1911.
Mijiddorjiin Khanddorj (Мижиддоржийн Ханддорж,; 1869 – 1915), also known by his title Chin Van, or Chin Wang (親王; prince) Khanddorj, was an aristocrat and prominent early 20th-century Mongolian independence leader.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
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Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty of China over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty.
The dollar (доллар) was the currency of Mongolia between 1921 and 1925.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Mongolian nobility (язгууртан сурвалжтан; yazgurtan survaljtan) arose between the 10th and 12th centuries, became prominent in the 13th century, and essentially governed Mongolia until the early 20th century.
The Mongolian People's Party (MPP; Монгол Ардын Нам, MAH; Mongol Ardīn Nam, MAN) is the oldest political party in Mongolia.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1911 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1911) occurred when the region of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924.
The National Assembly refers to several national parliamentary government organizations of the Republic of China.
The New Policies, or New Administration of the late Qing dynasty (1644-1912), also known as the Late Qing Reform, were a series of cultural, economic, educational, military, and political reforms that were implemented in the last decade of the Qing dynasty to keep the dynasty in power after the humiliating defeat in the Boxer Rebellion.
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Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
The occupation of Outer Mongolia by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China began in October 1919 and lasted until early 1921, when Chinese troops in Urga were routed by Baron Ungern's White Russian (Buryats, Russians etc.) and Mongolian forces.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
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Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or ， Mongolian Cyrillic: or, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol)Huhbator Borjigin.
Pan-Mongolism is an irredentist idea that advocates cultural and political solidarity of Mongols.
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The Prime Minister of Mongolia (Mongol Ulsyn Yerönkhii Said) is the head of government, and heads the Mongolian cabinet.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
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Mongolia is divided into 21 Provinces (аймаг, often translated as aimags) and one provincial municipality.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
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A regional state or a regionalised unitary state, is a unitary state in which authority has been decentralized to subnational regions.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Baron Roman Nicolaus Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (Барон Ро́берт-Никола́й-Максими́лиан Рома́н Фёдорович фон У́нгерн-Ште́рнберг)adopted Russian name: Роман Фёдорович фон Унгерн-Штернберг, which transliterates as Roman Fyodorovich fon Ungern-Shternberg (10 January 1886 NS – 15 September 1921) was an Austrian-born Russian anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
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The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September) in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
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Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
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Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
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Tannu Uriankhai (Таңды Урянхай, Tangdy Uryankhai,; Тагна Урианхай, Tagna Urianhai; Урянхайский край, ' Urjanchajskij kraj) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire and, later, the Qing dynasty.
Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren (1878 – April 1919), full title Sain Noyon Khan Namnansüren (Good noyon khan Namnansüren), was a powerful hereditary prince and prominent early 20th-century Mongolian independence leader.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
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The historical era of Tibet from 1912 to 1951 followed the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, and lasted until the invasion of Tibet by the People's Republic of China.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
A Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed on 11 January 1913 (corresponding to 29 December 1912 of the Julian calendar), at Urga (now Ulaanbaatar).
Signed on 25 May 1915, the Treaty of Kyakhta was a tri-party treaty between Russia, Mongolia, and China.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
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Tsendiin Damdinsüren (Цэндийн Дамдинсүрэн, 1908–1986) was a Mongolian writer and linguist.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
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Uliastai (Улиастай), also spelled Uliyasutai or Oulia-Sontai, and sometimes known as Javkhlant, is a city in Mongolia located in the western part of the country and from the capital Ulaanbaatar.
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The Upper Mongols (Mongolian: Deed mongol Дээд монгол, Mongolian Script), also known as the Köke Nuur Mongols (Mongolian: Хөх нуурын Монгол, Mongolian Script:, "Blue lake Mongol") or Qinghai Mongols (Chinese: 青海蒙古) are ethnic Mongol people of Oirat and Khalkha origin who settled around Qinghai Lake in so-called Upper Mongolia.
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The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xu Shichang (Hsu Shih-chang;; courtesy name: Juren (Chu-jen; 菊人); October 20, 1855 – June 5, 1939) was the President of the Republic of China, in Beijing, from 10 October 1918 to 2 June 1922.
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Hsu Seu-Cheng or Xu Shuzheng (11 November 1880 – 29 December 1925) was a Chinese warlord in Republican China.
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Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
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Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.
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Bogd Khaanate, Bogd Khaanate Mongolia, Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia, Bogd Khaganate, Bogd khaanate, Boghda Khaanate of Mongolia, Kyakhta Agreement of 1914, Mongolia (1911–1924), Mongolia (1911–21), Outer Mongolia (1911-19), Outer Mongolia (1911-1919), Outer Mongolia (1911–19), Outer Mongolia (1911–1919), Outer Mongolia in the Bogd Khaan era, 1911-1919, Outer Mongolia, 1911-1919, Outer Mongolia, 1911–1919, Богд хаант Монгол улс.