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Mongolian language

Index Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family. [1]

244 relations: 'Phags-pa script, Ablative case, Accusative case, Adjective, Advanced and retracted tongue root, Adverbial, Affirmation and negation, Affricate consonant, Agglutination, Agglutinative language, Alasha dialect, Alexis Manaster Ramer, Allative case, Altaic languages, Analogy, Animacy, Anna Vladimirovna Dybo, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, Armenian language, Articulatory phonetics, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Auxiliary verb, Baarin Mongolian, Back vowel, Baruun-Urt, Bayankhongor, Bonan language, Buddhist texts, Buryat language, Byambyn Rinchen, Calque, Causative, Central consonant, Central vowel, Chakhar Mongolian, China, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chinggeltei, Classical Mongolian language, Classical Tibetan, Clause, Clear script, Clitic, Close vowel, Close-mid central rounded vowel, Close-mid vowel, ..., Comitative case, Complement (linguistics), Complementizer, Compound (linguistics), Conjunction (grammar), Continuous and progressive aspects, Converb, Copula (linguistics), Coverb, Cyrillic script, Darkhad dialect, Dative case, Daur language, Deel (clothing), Definiteness, Demonstrative, Dental consonant, Dependent clause, Dialect, Dialect continuum, Diphthong, Eastern Yugur language, Eight Banners, Ellipsis (linguistics), English language, Epenthesis, Evidentiality, Finno-Ugrian Society, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fundamental frequency, Gansu, Genitive case, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical particle, Grammatical tense, Head (linguistics), Heilongjiang, Historical linguistics, Igor de Rachewiltz, Independent clause, Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Education Press, Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House, Inscription of Hüis Tolgoi, Instrumental case, Intensity (physics), Interlinear gloss, Interrogative word, Jan-Olof Svantesson, Japanese language, Japonic languages, Jilin, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jurchen language, Kalmyk Oirat, Kangjia language, Kangyur, Khalkha Mongolian, Kharchin Mongols, Khitan language, Khitan large script, Khitan people, Khorchin Mongolian, Kirakos Gandzaketsi, Korean language, Koreanic languages, Labial consonant, Lateral consonant, Latin script, Lenition, Lexical aspect, Liao dynasty, Liaoning, Linguistic modality, Literacy, Loanword, Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Manchu language, Mandarin Chinese, Markedness, Middle Mongol language, Modal particle, Moghol language, Mongol Empire, Mongolia, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Braille, Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian literature, Mongolian name, Mongolian Plateau, Mongolian script, Mongolian Sign Language, Mongolian writing systems, Mongolic languages, Mongols, Monguor language, Monophthong, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Nasal consonant, Near-close vowel, Nicholas Poppe, Nominative case, Northern Wei, Noun, Noun phrase, Numeral (linguistics), Object (grammar), Oirat language, Oirats, Old Turkic language, Old Uyghur alphabet, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Ordos City, Ordos Mongolian, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Parataxis, Participle, Past tense, Patronymic, Perfect (grammar), Persian language, Personal pronoun, Pharyngealization, Phoneme, Phonology, Phonotactics, Plural, Possessive, Predicate (grammar), Preposition and postposition, Productivity (linguistics), Proto-Mongolic language, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Reciprocal (grammar), Relative clause, Resultative, Romanization, Russian language, Sanskrit, Santa language, Sentence (linguistics), Sergei Starostin, Singulative number, Sino-Soviet split, Social networking service, Sociolinguistics, Southern Mongolian, Soyombo alphabet, Standard Chinese, Standard language, Stefan Georg, Stochastic, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Syllabification, Syllable, Syllable weight, Tacheng, Tengyur, Terminology, The Secret History of the Mongols, Topic and comment, Trill consonant, Tungusic languages, Turkic languages, Ulaanbaatar, Uvular consonant, Uyghur language, Variety (linguistics), Velar consonant, Velarization, Verb, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel harmony, Vowel length, Wuhuan, Xianbei, Xilingol League, Xinjiang, Yümjiriin Mönkh-Amgalan. Expand index (194 more) »

'Phags-pa script

The ‘Phags-pa script (дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.

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Ablative case

The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Advanced and retracted tongue root

In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian.

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In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.

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Affirmation and negation

In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Alasha dialect

Alasha (in some Mongolian varieties); Mongolian script Alaša), or, is a Mongolic variety with features of both Oirat and Mongolian that historically used to belong to Oirat but has come under the influence of Mongolian proper. It has more than 40,000 speakers in Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China and consists of two sub-dialects, Alasha proper and.

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Alexis Manaster Ramer

Alexis Manaster Ramer (born 1956) is a Polish-born American linguist (PhD 1981, University of Chicago).

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Allative case

Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.

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Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.

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Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.

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Anna Vladimirovna Dybo

Anna Vladimirovna Dybo (Анна Владимировна Дыбо, born June 4, 1959) is a Russian linguist, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and co-author of the Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages (2003).

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.

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Articulatory phonetics

The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Auxiliary verb

An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.

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Baarin Mongolian

Baarin (Mongolian Baγarin, Chinese 巴林 Bālín) is a dialect of Mongolian spoken mainly in Inner Mongolia.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Baruun-Urt (Баруун-Урт;, west-long) is a town in eastern Mongolia and the capital of Sükhbaatar Province.

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Bayankhongor (Баянхонгор) is the capital of the Bayankhongor Province (aimag) in Mongolia.

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Bonan language

The Bonan language (pronounced, Baonang) (Chinese 保安语 Bǎo'ān yǔ, Amdo Tibetan Dorké) is the Mongolic language of the Bonan people of China.

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Buddhist texts

Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.

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Buryat language

Buryat or Buriat (Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) is a variety of Mongolic spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or as a major dialect group of Mongolian.

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Byambyn Rinchen

Yenshööbü ovogt Byambyn Rinchen (Еншөөбү овогт Бямбын Ринчен, also known in Russian as Rinchin-Dorzhi Radnazhapovich Bimbaev, 25 December 1905 – 4 March 1977) was one of the founders of modern Mongolian literature, a translator of literature and a scholar in various areas of Mongolian studies, especially linguistics.

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In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).

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Central consonant

A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Chakhar Mongolian

The Chakhar (Mongolian script: Čaqar, Cyrillic: Цахар, Tsakhar) dialect is a variety of Mongolian spoken in the central region of Inner Mongolia.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinggeltei (12 June 1924 – 27 December 2013; also Činggeltei, Chinggaltai, Chenggeltai, or Chenggeltei) was a professor of linguistics at the Inner Mongolia University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, focusing on the Mongolic languages.

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Classical Mongolian language

Classical Mongolian is an extinct Mongolic language formerly used in Mongolia, China, and Russia.

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Classical Tibetan

Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.

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In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.

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Clear script

Clear Script (ᡐᡆᡑᡆᡋᡅᡔᡅᡎ, Тод бичг, tod biçg; ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ tod bichig, Тодо бэшэг, Todo besheg, or just todo) is an alphabet created in 1648 by the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya Pandita for the Oirat language.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid central rounded vowel

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Comitative case

The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.

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Complement (linguistics)

In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.

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In linguistics (especially generative grammar), complementizer or complementiser (glossing abbreviation) is a lexical category (part of speech) that includes those words that can be used to turn a clause into the subject or object of a sentence.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

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Continuous and progressive aspects

The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.

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In theoretical linguistics, a converb (abbreviated) is a nonfinite verb form that serves to express adverbial subordination: notions like 'when', 'because', 'after' and 'while'.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Coverb is a grammatical term that can have several different meanings but generally denotes a word or prefix that resembles a verb or co-operates with a verb.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Darkhad dialect

Darkhad (also "Darkhat") is a dialect in-between Central Mongolian and Oirat still variously seen as closer to Oirat or as a dialect of Khalkha Mongolian with some Oirat features.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Daur language

The Daur or Daghur language is a Mongolic language primarily spoken by members of the Daur ethnic group.

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Deel (clothing)

A deel (дээл; Buryat: дэгэл) is an item of traditional clothing commonly worn since centuries ago among the Mongols and other nomadic tribes of Central Asia, including various Turkic peoples, and can be made from cotton, silk, wool, or brocade.

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In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).

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Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dependent clause

A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.

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The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Eastern Yugur language

Eastern Yugur is the Mongolic language spoken within the Yugur nationality.

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Eight Banners

The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.

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Ellipsis (linguistics)

In linguistics, ellipsis (from the ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission") or an elliptical construction is the omission from a clause of one or more words that are nevertheless understood in the context of the remaining elements.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).

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In linguistics, evidentiality is, broadly, the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and if so what kind.

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Finno-Ugrian Society

Finno-Ugrian Society (Société Finno-Ougrienne, Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura) is a Finnish learned society, dedicated to the study of Uralic and Altaic languages.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Fundamental frequency

The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.

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Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Head (linguistics)

In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.

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Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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Igor de Rachewiltz

Igor de Rachewiltz (April 11, 1929 – July 30, 2016) was an Italian historian and philologist specializing in Mongol studies.

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Independent clause

; An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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Inner Mongolia Education Press

The Inner Mongolia Education Press (IMEP) is a publishing company in the Inner Mongolia autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

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Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House

The Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House (IMPPH) is a publishing company based in Hohhot, the capital of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

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Inscription of Hüis Tolgoi

The Inscription of Hüis Tolgoi (HT) is a monolingual inscription found in Bulgan Province, Mongolia in 1975 by D.Navaan.

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Instrumental case

The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

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Intensity (physics)

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.

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Interlinear gloss

In linguistics and pedagogy, an interlinear gloss is a gloss (series of brief explanations, such as definitions or pronunciations) placed between lines (inter- + linear), such as between a line of original text and its translation into another language.

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Interrogative word

An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.

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Jan-Olof Svantesson

Jan-Olof Svantesson, born 1944, is a professor of Linguistics at Lund University, Sweden.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japonic languages

The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.

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Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jurchen language

Jurchen language is the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria, the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries.

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Kalmyk Oirat

Kalmyk Oirat (Хальмг Өөрдин келн, Xaľmg Öördin keln), commonly known as the Kalmyk language (Хальмг келн, Xaľmg keln), is a register of the Oirat language, natively spoken by the Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia.

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Kangjia language

The Kangjia language (in Chinese, 康家语 Kāngjiā Yǔ) is a recently discovered Mongolic language spoken by a Muslim population of around 300 people in Jainca (Jianzha) County, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai province of China.

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The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, comprising the Kangyur or Kanjur ('The Translation of the Word') and the Tengyur or Tanjur (Tengyur) ('Translation of Treatises').

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Khalkha Mongolian

The Khalkha dialect (Mongolian script: Qalq-a ayalγu, Mongolian Cyrillic: Халх аялгуу Khalkh ayalguu) is a dialect of Mongolian widely spoken in Mongolia and according to some classifications includes such Southern Mongolian varieties such as Shiliin gol, Ulaanchab and Sönid.

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Kharchin Mongols

The Kharchin (Харчин, ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ, qaračin) is a subgroup of the Mongols residing mainly (and originally) in North-western Liaoning and Chifeng, Inner Mongolia.

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Khitan language

Khitan or Kitan (in large script or in small, Khitai;, Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century).

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Khitan large script

The Khitan large script was one of two Khitan writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language.

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Khitan people

The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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Khorchin Mongolian

The Khorchin (Mongolian Qorčin, Chinese 科尔沁 Kē'ěrqìn) dialect is a variety of Mongolian spoken in the east of Inner Mongolia, namely in Hinggan League, in the north, north-east and east of Hinggan and in all but the south of the Tongliao region.

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Kirakos Gandzaketsi

Kirakos Gandzaketsi (translit) (c. 1200/1202–1271) was an Armenian historian of the 13th century and author of the History of Armenia, a summary of events from the 4th to the 12th century and a detailed description of the events of his own days.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Koreanic languages

The Koreanic languages are a language family consisting of the modern Korean language together with extinct ancient relatives closer to it than to any other proposed links.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Lexical aspect

The lexical aspect or aktionsart (plural aktionsarten) of a verb is a part of the way in which that verb is structured in relation to time.

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Liao dynasty

The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.

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Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.

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Linguistic modality

In linguistics, modality is a feature of language that allows for communicating things about, or based on, situations which need not be actual.

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Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area

The Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) linguistic area is a linguistic area that stretches from Thailand to China and is home to speakers of languages of the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong–Mien (or Miao–Yao), Kra–Dai, Austronesian (represented by Chamic) and Austroasiatic families.

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.

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Middle Mongol language

Middle Mongol or Middle Mongolian was a Mongolic koiné language spoken in the Mongol Empire.

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Modal particle

In linguistics, modal particles are always uninflected words, and are a type of grammatical particle.

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Moghol language

Moghol (or Mogholi; Dari) is a possibly extinct Mongolic language once spoken in the region of Herat, Afghanistan, in the villages of Kundur and Karez-i-Mulla.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mongolian Academy of Sciences

The Mongolian Academy of Sciences (Mongol ulsyn Shinjlekh ukhaany Akademi) is Mongolia's first centre of modern sciences.

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Mongolian Braille

Mongolian Braille is the braille alphabets used for the Mongolian language in Mongolia.

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Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet

The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet (Mongolian: Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol Kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.

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Mongolian literature

Mongol literature has been greatly influenced by its nomadic oral traditions.

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Mongolian name

Mongolian names have gone through certain revolutions in the history of Mongolia.

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Mongolian Plateau

The Mongolian Plateau is the part of the Central Asian Plateau lying between 37°46′-53°08′N and 87°40′-122°15′E and having an area of approximately.

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Mongolian script

The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

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Mongolian Sign Language

Mongolian Sign Language (Монгол дохионы хэл, Mongol dokhiony khel) is a sign language used in Mongolia.

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Mongolian writing systems

Many alphabets have been devised for the Mongolian language over the centuries, and from a variety of scripts.

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Mongolic languages

The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Monguor language

The Monguor language (also written Mongour and Mongor) is a Mongolic language of its Shirongolic branch and is part of the Gansu–Qinghai sprachbund.

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A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.

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A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Near-close vowel

A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Nicholas Poppe

Nicholas N. Poppe (Никола́й/Ни́колас Никола́евич Поппе, Nikoláj/Níkolas Nikolájevič Poppe; July 27, 1897 – August 8, 1991) was an important Russian linguist.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Northern Wei

The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Noun phrase

A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.

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Numeral (linguistics)

In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a part of speech characterized by the designation of numbers; some examples are the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seventh'.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Oirat language

Oirat (Clear script: Oirad kelen; Kalmyk: Өөрд, Őrd; Khalkha-Mongolian: Ойрад, Oirad) belongs to the group of Mongolic languages.

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Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.

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Old Turkic language

Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.

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Old Uyghur alphabet

The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu that is an ancestor of the modern Yugur language.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Ordos City

Ordos (Ordos qota) is one of the twelve major subdivisions of Inner Mongolia, China.

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Ordos Mongolian

Ordos Mongolian (also Urdus; Mongolian; Chinese 鄂尔多斯 È'ěrduōsī) is a variety of Central Mongolic spoken in the Ordos City region in Inner Mongolia and historically by Ordos Mongols.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Parataxis (from Greek παράταξις "act of placing side by side", from παρα para "beside" + τάξις táxis "arrangement") is a literary technique, in writing or speaking, that favors short, simple sentences, with the use of coordinating rather than subordinating conjunctions.

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A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Past tense

The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.

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Perfect (grammar)

The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).

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Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.

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Predicate (grammar)

There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Productivity (linguistics)

In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.

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Proto-Mongolic language

Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.

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Reciprocal (grammar)

A reciprocal (abbreviated) is a linguistic structure that marks a particular kind of relationship between two noun phrases.

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Relative clause

A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.

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In linguistics, a resultative (abbreviated) is a form that expresses that something or someone has undergone a change in state as the result of the completion of an event.

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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Santa language

The Santa language, also known as Dongxiang (东乡语 Dōngxiāng yǔ), is a Mongolic language spoken by the Dongxiang people in northwest China.

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Sentence (linguistics)

In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.

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Sergei Starostin

Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and philologist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.

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Singulative number

In linguistics, singulative number and collective number (abbreviated and) are terms used when the grammatical number for multiple items is the unmarked form of a noun, and the noun is specially marked to indicate a single item.

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Sino-Soviet split

The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.

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Social networking service

A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.

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Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.

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Southern Mongolian

Southern Mongolian or Inner Mongolian (ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠣ Öbör mongγol ayalγu) is a proposed major dialect group within the taxonomy of the Mongolian language.

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Soyombo alphabet

The Soyombo alphabet (Соёмбо бичиг, Soyombo biçig) is an abugida developed by the monk and scholar Zanabazar in 1686 to write Mongolian.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stefan Georg

Stefan Georg (Ralf-Stefan Georg, born November 7, 1962 in Bottrop) is a German linguist.

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The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Subject (grammar)

The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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Syllabification or syllabication is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Syllable weight

In linguistics, syllable weight is the concept that syllables pattern together according to the number and/or duration of segments in the rime.

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Tacheng (Qoqek/Sawesek) or Chöchek is a county-level city (1994 est. pop. 56,400) and the administrative seat of Tacheng Prefecture, in northern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, one of the autonomous regions of China.

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The Tengyur or Tanjur or Bstan-’gyur (Tibetan: "Translation of Teachings") is the Tibetan collection of commentaries to the Buddhist teachings, or "Translated Treatises".

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Terminology is the study of terms and their use.

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The Secret History of the Mongols

The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language.

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Topic and comment

In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Tungusic languages

The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.

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Uvular consonant

Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Uyghur language

The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Voice (grammar)

In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel harmony

Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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The Wuhuan (Old Chinese: ʔˤa ɢʷˁar, Mongol romanization:Uhuan) were a Proto-Mongolic nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.

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The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.

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Xilingol League

Xilingol, Xilin Gol, Shiliin Gol or Xilinguole Aimag/League (锡林郭勒盟, ᠰᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ|style.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yümjiriin Mönkh-Amgalan

Yümjiriin Mönkh-Amgalan (Юмжирийн Мөнх-Амгалан) (born 1956 in Bayanmönkh, Khentii) is a Professor of Linguistics at the National University of Mongolia.

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Central Mongolian, China Mongolian language, Halh Mongolian language, History of the Mongolian language, ISO 639:khk, ISO 639:mn, ISO 639:mon, Inner Mongolian language, Khalka language, Khalkha Mongol, Khalkha-Mongolian, Mongolian (language), Mongolian Grammar, Mongolian Language, Mongolian Languages, Mongolian phonology, Mongolian-language, Peripheral Mongolian language, Монгол.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_language

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