213 relations: Abbey, Abbot, Acharanga Sutra, Acharya, Ahimsa in Jainism, Amelungsborn Abbey, Anchorite, Anglican Communion, Anglo-Catholicism, Arthur Kreinheder, Asceticism, Ashta Mathas of Udupi, Augustinians, Östanbäck Monastery, Śvētāmbara, Śvētāmbara Terapanth, Begging, Benedict of Nursia, Bhakti, Bhikkhu, Bhikkhuni, Bodhidharma, Book of Common Prayer, Brahmacharya, Breviary, Canon law, Canons regular, Carmelites, Carthusians, Cassock, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Catholic religious order, Cenobitic monasticism, Chapter and Conventual Mass, China, Chinese martial arts, Choir (architecture), Church Fathers, Church of England, Church Slavonic language, Cistercians, Clergy, Clerical celibacy, Cloak, College of the Resurrection, Community of the Resurrection, Cowl, Deacon, Degrees of Eastern Orthodox monasticism, ..., Desert Fathers, Dharma, Dhoti, Digambara, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Dominican Order, Dvaita Vedanta, Eastern Orthodox Church, England, Episcopal Church (United States), Eucharist, Europe, Evangelical counsels, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Franciscans, Friar, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Gautama Buddha, Grihastha, Guadalcanal, Guṇa, Hail Mary, Hemachandra, Henry VIII of England, Hermann Jacobi, Hermit, Hesychasm, Hierodeacon, Hieromonk, Holy orders, Icon corner, India, Ini Kopuria, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Into Great Silence, Jainism, Jesus Prayer, John Climacus, John Henry Newman, Kalaripayattu, Karma, Katholikon, Khorloogiin Choibalsan, Kingship and kingdom of God, Klobuk, Krishna, Kshullak, Kundakunda, Latin, Lay brother, Lectio Divina, Library of Congress Country Studies, Littlemore, Liturgy of the Hours, Loccum Abbey, Lord's Prayer, Madhvacharya, Mahavira, Mahayana, Mainchín, Mainstream, Mantle (monastic vesture), Martial arts film, Mass (liturgy), Melanesian Brotherhood, Melanesians, Moksha, Monahan, Monastery, Monasticism, Mongolia, Monte Cassino, Murti, Myanmar, Namokar Mantra, Nazirite, Nirvana, Novice, Nun, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Old Testament, Order of Lutheran Franciscans, Order of Saint Benedict, Ordination, Origins of Asian martial arts, Oxford, Oxford, Michigan, Pali, Papua New Guinea, Paryaya, Passion of Jesus, Patimokkha, Philippines, Philokalia, Postulant, Prayer, Prayer rope, Premonstratensians, Priest, Priesthood in the Catholic Church, Prior, Priory, Priory of St. Wigbert, Radha Ramana, Razor, Refectory, Refectory table, Refuge (Buddhism), Religious habit, Religious order, Religious vows, Robe, Rule of Saint Benedict, Saṃsāra, Sacred Books of the East, Sadhu, Saffron, Sallekhana, Samanera, Sampradaya, Sangha, Sannyasa, Sādhanā, Scapular, Second Vatican Council, Seminary, Sewing needle, Shaolin Monastery, Shoe, Sikha, Skete, Skufia, Society, Society of St. John the Evangelist, Solemn vow, Solomon Islands, Starets, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Swami, Tabalia, Temple, Thailand, Theosis (Eastern Christian theology), Theravada, Tilaka, Time (magazine), Tirthankara, Tonsure, Trappists, Trisagion, United Kingdom, Vaishnavism, Vajrayana, Valaam Monastery, Vanaprastha, Vanuatu, Vedic period, Vinaya, Vow, Vrindavan, Western world, World, Zen. Expand index (163 more) » « Shrink index
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
The Acharanga Sutra (First book c. 5th-4th century BCE; Second book c. 2nd-1st century BCE) is the first of the twelve Angas, part of the agamas (religious texts) which were compiled based on the teachings of Mahavira.
In Indian religions and society, an acharya (IAST) is a preceptor or instructor in religious matters; founder, or leader of a sect; or a highly learned person or a title affixed to the names of learned people.
Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.
Amelungsborn Abbey, also Amelunxborn Abbey (Kloster Amelungsborn) near Negenborn and Stadtoldendorf, in the Landkreis of Holzminden in the Weserbergland, was the second oldest Cistercian foundation in Lower Saxony, Germany, after Walkenried Abbey.
An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world", from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire") is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
The terms Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, and Catholic Anglicanism refer to people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.
Father Arthur Carl Kreinheder, C.S.C. (October 1, 1905 - October 13, 1989) was an American Lutheran Benedictine monk and founder of a Lutheran religious order, The Congregation of the Servants of Christ.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
The Ashta Mathas of Udupi (Kannada: ಉಡುಪಿಯ ಅಷ್ಟ ಮಠಗಳು) are a group of eight mathas or Hindu monasteries established by Madhvacharya, the preceptor of the Dvaita school of Hindu thought.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
Östanbäck Monastery is a Lutheran Benedictine monastery for men in the Church of Sweden, located outside Sala in Sweden.
The Śvētāmbara (श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara.
Terapanth is a religious sect of Śvētāmbara Jainism.
Begging (also panhandling or mendicancy) is the practice of imploring others to grant a favor, often a gift of money, with little or no expectation of reciprocation.
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.
Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
Brahmacharya (Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य) is a concept within Indian religions that literally means "going after Brahman".
The Breviary (Latin: breviarium) is a book in many Western Christian denominations that "contains all the liturgical texts for the Office, whether said in choir or in private." Historically, different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary and Isabella Breviary, although eventually the Roman Breviary became the standard within the Roman Catholic Church.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Canons regular are priests in the Western Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.
The Carthusian Order (Ordo Cartusiensis), also called the Order of Saint Bruno, is a Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics.
The white or black cassock, or soutane, is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, among others.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church.
Cenobitic (or coenobitic) monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life.
As currently used, the terms Chapter Mass (for chapters of canons) and Conventual Mass (for most other houses of religious) refer to the Mass celebrated by and for a community of priests or for a community of priests and brothers or sisters.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.
A choir, also sometimes called quire, is the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and church choir.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religions that some or all members of the clergy be unmarried.
A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat; it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform.
The College of the Resurrection, popularly known as Mirfield, is an Anglo-Catholic theological college of the Church of England in Mirfield, West Yorkshire, England.
The Community of the Resurrection (CR) is an Anglican religious community for men in England.
The cowl (from the Latin cuculla, meaning "a hood") is an item of clothing consisting of a long, hooded garment with wide sleeves.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
The degrees of Eastern Orthodox monasticism are the stages an Eastern Orthodox monk or nun passes through in their religious vocation.
The Desert Fathers (along with Desert Mothers) were early Christian hermits, ascetics, and monks who lived mainly in the Scetes desert of Egypt beginning around the third century AD.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Digambara ("sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara (white-clad).
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Dvaita Vedanta (द्वैत वेदान्त) is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity, poverty (or perfect charity), and obedience.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as (Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition, Bengali Vaishnavism, or Chaitanya Vaishnavism) is a Vaishnava religious movement inspired by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534) in North India. "Gauḍīya" refers to the Gauḍa region (present day Bengal/Bangladesh) with Vaishnavism meaning "the worship of Vishnu or Krishna". Its theological basis is primarily that of the Bhagavad Gītā and Bhāgavata Purāṇa as interpreted by early disciples of Chaitanya such as Sanātana Gosvāmin, Rūpa Gosvāmin, Jīva Gosvāmin, Gopala Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmin, and others. The focus of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is the devotional worship (bhakti) of Radha and Krishna, and their many divine incarnations as the supreme forms of God, Svayam Bhagavan. Most popularly, this worship takes the form of singing Radha and Krishna's holy names, such as "Hare", "Krishna" and "Rama", most commonly in the form of the Hare Krishna (mantra), also known as kirtan. The movement is sometimes referred to as the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, referring to its traditional origins in the succession of spiritual masters (gurus) believed to originate from Brahma. It classifies itself as a monotheistic tradition, seeing the many forms of Vishnu or Krishna as expansions or incarnations of the one Supreme God, adipurusha.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Grihastha (Sanskrit: gr̥hastha) literally means "being in and occupied with home, family" or "householder".
Guadalcanal (indigenous name: Isatabu) is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the nation of Solomon Islands, located in the south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia.
depending on the context means "string, thread, or strand", or "virtue, merit, excellence", or "quality, peculiarity, attribute, property".
The Hail Mary, also commonly called the Ave Maria (Latin) or Angelic Salutation, is a traditional Catholic prayer asking for the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus.
Acharya Hemachandra was a Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Hermann Georg Jacobi (11 February 1850 – 19 October 1937) was an eminent German Indologist.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
Hesychasm is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
A Hierodeacon (Greek: Ἱεροδιάκονος, Ierodiákonos; Slavonic: Ierodiakón), sometimes translated "deacon-monk", in Eastern Orthodox Christianity is a monk who has been ordained a deacon (or deacon who has been tonsured monk).
A hieromonk (Greek: Ἱερομόναχος, Ieromonachos; Slavonic: Ieromonakh, Ieromonah), also called a priestmonk, is a monk who is also a priest in the Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholicism.
In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.
The icon corner, or red corner, (εικονοστάσι and Krásnyj úgol - meaning red, bright-shining, or beautiful corner) is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christians. The analogous concept in Western Christianity is the home altar.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Ini Kopuria (died 1945), a police officer from Maravovo, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands formed the Melanesian Brotherhood in 1925.
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.
Into Great Silence (Die große Stille) is a documentary film directed by Philip Gröning that was released in 2005.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
The Jesus Prayer (or The Prayer) is a short formulaic prayer esteemed and advocated especially within the Eastern churches: "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner." The prayer has been widely taught and discussed throughout the history of the Orthodox Church.
Saint John Climacus (Ἰωάννης τῆς Κλίμακος; Ioannes Climacus), also known as John of the Ladder, John Scholasticus and John Sinaites, was a 6th-7th-century Christian monk at the monastery on Mount Sinai.
John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.
Kalaripayattu (pronounced Kalarippayatt) is a martial art and fighting system, which originated as a style in North Malabar, Kerala, Southern India.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
A katholikon or catholicon (καθολικόν) or sobor (Slavonic: съборъ) refers to one of three things in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Khorloogiin Choibalsan (Хорлоогийн Чойбалсан, (February 8, 1895 – January 26, 1952) was the Communist leader of the Mongolian People's Republic and Marshal (general chief commander) of the Mongolian armed forces from the 1930s until his death in 1952. His rule marked the first and last time in modern Mongolian history that an individual had complete political power. Sometimes referred to as "the Stalin of Mongolia", Choibalsan oversaw Soviet-ordered purges in the late 1930s that resulted in the deaths of an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Mongolians. Most of the victims were Buddhist clergy, intelligentsia, political dissidents, ethnic Buryats and Kazakhs and other "enemies of the revolution." His intense persecution of Mongolia's Buddhists brought about their near complete extinction in the country. Although Choibalsan's devotion to Joseph Stalin helped preserve his country's fledgling independence during the early years of the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR), it also bound Mongolia closely to the Soviet Union. Throughout his rule, Mongolia's economic, political and military ties to the USSR deepened, infrastructure and literacy rates improved and international recognition of Mongolia's independence expanded, especially after World War II.
The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used.
Klobuk of Patriarch Philaret of Moscow (1619-33), Kremlin museum A klobuk is an item of clerical clothing worn by Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic monastics and bishops, especially in the Russian tradition.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
A kshullak (or kshullaka, lit. small or junior) is a junior Digambar Jain monk.
Acharya Kundakunda is a revered Digambara Jain monk and philosopher.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In the past, the term lay brother was used within some Catholic religious institutes to distinguish members who were not ordained from those members who were clerics (priests and seminarians).
In Christianity, Lectio Divina (Latin for "Divine Reading") is a traditional Benedictine practice of scriptural reading, meditation and prayer intended to promote communion with God and to increase the knowledge of God's Word.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Littlemore is a district and civil parish in Oxford, England.
The Liturgy of the Hours (Latin: Liturgia Horarum) or Divine Office (Latin: Officium Divinum) or Work of God (Latin: Opus Dei) or canonical hours, often referred to as the Breviary, is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer".
Loccum Abbey (Kloster Loccum) is a Lutheran monastery in the town of Rehburg-Loccum, Lower Saxony, near Steinhude Lake.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Madhvācārya (ಮಧ್ವಾಚಾರ್ಯ;; CE 1238–1317), sometimes anglicised as Madhva Acharya, and also known as Purna Prajña and Ananda Teertha, was a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the Dvaita (dualism) school of Vedanta.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Manchán, Mainchín, Manchéne and a variety of other spellings may refer to.
Mainstream is current thought that is widespread.
A mantle (translit; Church Slavonic: мантия, mantiya) is an ecclesiastical garment in the form of a very full cape that extends to the floor, joined at the neck, that is worn over the outer garments.
Martial arts films are a subgenre of action films, which feature numerous martial arts fights between characters.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
The Melanesian Brotherhood is an Anglican religious community of men in simple vows based primarily in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea.
Melanesians are the predominant indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Monahan, and close variants, is a name of Gaelic origin, derived from manachán, a diminutive of Manach Monachus, a monk.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
A Murti (Sanskrit: मूर्ति, IAST: Mūrti) literally means any form, embodiment or solid object, and typically refers to an image, statue or idol of a deity or person in Indian culture.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most significant mantra in Jainism.
In the Hebrew Bible, a nazirite or nazarite is one who voluntarily took a vow described in.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
A novice is a person or creature who is new to a field or activity.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Ocimum tenuiflorum (synonym Ocimum sanctum), commonly known as holy basil, tulasi (sometimes spelled thulasi) or tulsi, is an aromatic perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Order of Lutheran Franciscans is a religious order affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
The origins of Asian martial arts are diverse and scattered, having roots in various regions of Asia.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford is a village in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paryaya is a religious ritual which takes place every alternate year in Sri Krishna Matha (Krishna Temple) of Udupi.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
In Theravada Buddhism, the Patimokkha is the basic code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for fully ordained monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis).
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Philokalia (φιλοκαλία "love of the beautiful, the good", from φιλία philia "love" and κάλλος kallos "beauty") is "a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters" of the Eastern Orthodox Church mystical hesychast tradition.
A postulant (from postulare, to ask) was originally one who makes a request or demand; hence, a candidate.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
A prayer rope (κομποσκοίνι - komboskini; чётки - chotki (most common term) or вервица - vervitsa (literal translation); misbaḥa; Romanian: metanii / metanier; Serbian: бројаница / brojanica - broyanitsa; броеница - broyenitsa; Coptic: ⲙⲉⲕⲩⲧⲁⲣⲓⲁ - mequetaria/mequtaria) is a loop made up of complex woven knots formed in a cross pattern, usually out of wool or silk.
The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church founded in Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church (for similar but different rules among Eastern Catholics see Eastern Catholic Church) are those of bishop, presbyter (more commonly called priest in English), and deacon.
Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.
A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.
Priory of St Wigbert (Priorat Sankt Wigberti) is an ecumenical Benedictine monastery for men, belonging to the Lutheran Church of Thuringia.
Radha Raman (or Radharamana) is a famous image of Radha Krishna worshiped in Hinduism.
A razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving.
A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions.
A refectory table is a highly elongated table used originally for dining in monasteries in Medieval times.
Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges").
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.
Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.
The Rule of Saint Benedict (Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910.
A sadhu (IAST: (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled saddhu, is a religious ascetic, mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism and Jainism who has renounced the worldly life.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Sallekhana (IAST), also known as Samlehna, Santhara, Samadhi-marana or Sanyasana-marana; is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism.
A sāmaṇera (Pali); Sanskrit śrāmaṇera, is a novice male monastic in a Buddhist context.
In Hinduism, a sampradaya (Sanskrit: सम्प्रदाय IAST) can be translated as ‘tradition’, 'spiritual lineage' or a ‘religious system’.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Sannyasa is the life stage of renunciation within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages known as ashramas, with the first three being Brahmacharya (bachelor student), Grihastha (householder) and Vanaprastha (forest dweller, retired).
Sādhana (Sanskrit साधन), literally "a means of accomplishing something", is a generic term coming from the yogic tradition and it refers to any spiritual exercise that is aimed at progressing the sādhaka towards the very ultimate expression of his or her life in this reality.
The scapular (from Latin scapulae, "shoulders") is a Christian garment suspended from the shoulders.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
A sewing needle for hand-sewing is a long slender tool with a pointed tip at one end and a hole or eye at the other.
The Shaolin Monastery, also known as the Shaolin Temple, is a Chan ("Zen") Buddhist temple in Dengfeng County, Henan Province, China.
A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while the wearer is doing various activities.
The sikha or shikha (शिखा; IAST: śikhā; "crest"; Hindi चोटी (choTi)) means flame, powerful, ray of light, peak of a mountain.
A Skete (from Coptic ϣⲓ(ϩ)ⲏⲧ via Greek σκήτη) is a monastic community in Eastern Christianity that allows relative isolation for monks, but also allows for communal services and the safety of shared resources and protection.
A skufia (also skufiya, skoufia or skoufos; σκούφια or σκούφος) is an item of clerical clothing worn by Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic monastics (in which case it is black) or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor (in which case it is usually red or purple).
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
The Society of St John the Evangelist (SSJE) is an Anglican religious order for men.
In Catholic canon law, a solemn vow is a vow ("a deliberate and free promise made to God about a possible and better good") that the Church has recognized as such.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
A starets (p; fem. стáрица) is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery who functions as venerated adviser and teacher.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
In Hinduism, a swami (svāmī), sometimes abbreviated sw., is an ascetic or yogi who has been initiated into the religious monastic order, founded by some religious teacher.
Tabalia is the name of the Mother House of the Melanesian Brotherhood (MBH) on northeastern Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Theosis, or deification, is a transformative process whose aim is likeness to or union with God, as taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
In Hinduism, the tilaka (तिलक) is a mark worn usually on the forehead, sometimes other parts of the body such as neck, hand or chest.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
The Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO: Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae) is a Catholic religious order of cloistered contemplative monastics who follow the Rule of St. Benedict.
The Trisagion (Τρισάγιον "Thrice Holy"), sometimes called by its opening line Agios O Theos, is a standard hymn of the Divine Liturgy in most of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
The Valaam Monastery, or Valamo Monastery is a stauropegic Orthodox monastery in Russian Karelia, located on Valaam, the largest island in Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe.
Vanaprastha (वनप्रस्थ) literally means "giving up worldly life".
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
A vow (Lat. votum, vow, promise; see vote) is a promise or oath.
Vrindavan is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.