84 relations: Adrenaline, Aldehyde, Alzheimer's disease, Amine, Ammonia, Astrocyte, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism spectrum, Benzylamine, Blood, Brunner syndrome, Catabolism, Catalysis, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Cingulate cortex, Clorgiline, Cofactor (biochemistry), Conduct disorder, Dopamine, Drug, Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Electron transfer, Endothelium, Enzyme, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin-containing amine oxidoreductase, Flavoprotein, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genotype, Globus pallidus, Homovanillic acid, Hydrophobe, Hypertensive emergency, Hypothalamus, Imidazoline receptor, Ketone, Knockout mouse, Liver, Major depressive disorder, Mary Bernheim, Māori people, Melatonin, Metanephrine, Mitochondrion, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase B, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, ..., Monomer, Neophile, Neuron, Norepinephrine, Normetanephrine, Oxidase, Oxidative deamination, Oxygen, Parkinson's disease, Pharmacology, Phenethylamine, Placenta, Platelet, Positron emission tomography, Promoter (genetics), Protein family, Pulmonary circulation, Redox, Schizophrenia, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Striatum, Substance abuse, Sympathetic nervous system, Tobacco, Tryptamine, Tyramine, Tyrosine, Vanillylmandelic acid, Vervet monkey, X chromosome, 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-Methoxytyramine. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Benzylamine is an organic chemical compound with the condensed structural formula C6H5CH2NH2 (sometimes abbreviated as PhCH2NH2 or BnNH2).
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Brunner syndrome is a rare genetic disorder associated with a mutation in the MAOA gene.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
Clorgiline (INN), or clorgyline (BAN), is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) structurally related to pargyline which is described as an antidepressant.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (often referred to as the Dunedin Longitudinal Study) is a long-running cohort study of 1037 people born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Flavin-containing amine oxidoreductases are a family of various amine oxidases, including maize polyamine oxidase (PAO), L-amino acid oxidases (LAO) and various flavin containing monoamine oxidases (MAO).
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major catecholamine metabolite that is produced by a consecutive action of monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase on dopamine.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mary Lilias Christian Bernheim (née Hare; 1902–1997) was a British biochemist best known for her discovery of the enzyme tyramine oxidase, which was later renamed as monoamine oxidase.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Metanephrine (metadrenaline) is a metabolite of epinephrine (adrenaline) created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase on epinephrine.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Neophile or Neophiliac, a term popularised by cult writer Robert Anton Wilson, is a personality type characterized by a strong affinity for novelty.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Normetanephrine is a metabolite of norepinephrine created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase on norepinephrine.
An oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction, especially one involving dioxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor.
Oxidative deamination is a form of deamination that generates α-keto acids and other oxidized products from amine-containing compounds, and occurs largely in the liver and kidney.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of artificial vanilla flavorings and is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
The vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), or simply vervet, is an Old World monkey of the family Cercopithecidae native to Africa.
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA, DOMA) is a metabolite of norepinephrine.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT), also known as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylamine, is a human trace amine that occurs as a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.