197 relations: Adrenaline, Agoraphobia, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Amfepramone, Amiflamine, Amineptine, Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Amphetamine, Antidepressant, Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, Antihistamine, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Atomoxetine, Atypical depression, Avoidant personality disorder, Ayahuasca, Banisteriopsis caapi, Befloxatone, Benmoxin, Benzodiazepine, Benzphetamine, Bifemelane, Binding selectivity, Biology of depression, Bipolar disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Brofaromine, Brompheniramine, Bulimia nervosa, Bupropion, Butriptyline, Caroxazone, Catabolism, Cathine, Cathinone, Chlorphenamine, Cimoxatone, Clomipramine, Cocaine, Cough medicine, Curcumin, CX157, Cyclobenzaprine, Deamination, Decongestant, Desipramine, Desvenlafaxine, ..., Dextroamphetamine, Dextromethorphan, Dextropropoxyphene, Dietary supplement, Dopamine, Dopaminergic cell groups, Dosulepin, Doxepin, Drug class, Drug interaction, Duloxetine, Dysthymia, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Ephedrine, Eprobemide, Ergine, Ergoline, Esuprone, Fentanyl, Food and Drug Administration, Harmaline, Harmine, Hydracarbazine, Hydrazine, Hydrazine (antidepressant), Hypericum perforatum, Hypertensive crisis, Hysteroid dysphoria, Imipramine, Inositol, Iproclozide, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Ketamine, Levomethamphetamine, Linezolid, Lisdexamfetamine, Lofepramine, Lysergamides, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Major depressive disorder, Maprotiline, Mazindol, MDMA, Mebanazine, Medication, Melatonin, Mepivacaine, Mescaline, Methadone, Methamphetamine, Methemoglobinemia, Methylene blue, Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, Methylphenidate, Metralindole, Migraine, Milnacipran, Minaprine, Moclobemide, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase B, Monoamine releasing agent, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Nefazodone, Nialamide, Nicotine, Nomifensine, Norepinephrine, Nortriptyline, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Octamoxin, Opioid, Panic disorder, Parkinson's disease, Passiflora incarnata, Patient, Peganum harmala, Pemoline, Pethidine, Phencyclidine, Phendimetrazine, Phenelzine, Phenethylamine, Pheniprazine, Pheniramine, Phenoxypropazine, Phentermine, Phenylephrine, Pirlindole, Pivhydrazine, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Potentiator, Preventive healthcare, Propylhexedrine, Protein isoform, Protriptyline, Pseudoephedrine, Psilocin, Psilocybin, Psychiatric Times, Psychosis, Rasagiline, Reboxetine, Reuptake inhibitor, Rhodiola rosea, Ribbon diagram, S-Adenosyl methionine, Safinamide, Safrazine, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Selegiline, Sercloremine, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Sibutramine, Social anxiety disorder, Stimulant, Substance dependence, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Substrate (chemistry), Sympathomimetic drug, Tetracyclic antidepressant, Tetrindole, Theanine, Tobacco, Toloxatone, Trace amine, Tramadol, Tranylcypromine, Trazodone, Treatment-resistant depression, Trichotillomania, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trimipramine, Tryptamine, Tryptophan, Tyramine, United States, Venlafaxine, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, 2C-B, 4-Methylaminorex. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
Amfepramone is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that is used as an appetite suppressant.
Amiflamine (FLA-336) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), thereby being a RIMA, and, to a lesser extent, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), as well as a serotonin releasing agent (SRA).
Amineptine, sold under the brand name Survector among others, is an atypical antidepressant of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) family.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Amoxapine, sold under the brand name Asendin among others, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA), though it is often classified as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is a condition that can occur following the interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Atypical depression, or depression with atypical features as it has been known in the DSM IV, is depression that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes major depression or dysthymia but is characterized by improved mood in response to positive events.
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a Cluster C personality disorder.
Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.
Banisteriopsis caapi, also known as ayahuasca, caapi or yagé, is a South American liana of the family Malpighiaceae.
Befloxatone (MD-370,503) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A.
Benmoxin (trade names Neuralex, Nerusil), also known as mebamoxine, is an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzphetamine (brand name Didrex) is a substituted amphetamine used short-term along with a doctor-approved, reduced-calorie diet, exercise, and behavioral program for weight loss.
Bifemelane (INN) (Alnert, Celeport), or bifemelane hydrochloride (JAN), also known as 4-(O-benzylphenoxy)-N-methylbutylamine, is an antidepressant and cerebral activator that is widely used in the treatment of cerebral infarction patients with depressive symptoms in Japan, and in the treatment of senile dementia as well.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
Scientific studies have found that numerous brain areas show altered activity in patients suffering from depression, and this has encouraged advocates of various theories that seek to identify a biochemical origin of the disease, as opposed to theories that emphasize psychological or situational causes.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brofaromine (proposed brand name Consonar) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) discovered by Ciba-Geigy.
Brompheniramine (Bromfed, Dimetapp, Bromfenex, Dimetane, BPN, Lodrane), commonly marketed as its salt brompheniramine maleate, is an antihistamine drug of the propylamine (alkylamine) class.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Butriptyline, sold under the brand name Evadyne among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that has been used in the United Kingdom and several other European countries for the treatment of depression but appears to no longer be marketed.
Caroxazone (Surodil, Timostenil) is an antidepressant which was formerly used for the treatment of depression but is now no longer marketed.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Cathine, also known as -norpseudoephedrine and (+)-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant.
Cathinone (also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Cimoxatone (MD 780515) is a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA).
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants.
CX157 (proposed trade name TriRima, formerly Tyrima) is a selective and reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA).
Cyclobenzaprine, sold under the brand name Flexeril among others, is a muscle relaxer medication used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
Desipramine, sold under the brand name Norpramin and Pertofrane among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
Desvenlafaxine (brand name: Pristiq, Desfax, Ellefore), also known as O-desmethylvenlafaxine, is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class developed and marketed by Wyeth (now part of Pfizer).
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopaminergic cell groups are collections of neurons in the central nervous system that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Dosulepin, also known as dothiepin and sold under the brand name Prothiaden among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Eprobemide (INN) is a pharmaceutical drug that was used as an antidepressant in Russia (under the brand name Бефол/Befol).
Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) and d-lysergamide, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi.
Ergoline derivatives comprise a diverse group of chemical compounds whose structural skeleton is the alkaloid ergoline.
Esuprone is an experimental drug candidate being investigated as an antidepressant.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Harmaline is a fluorescent psychoactive indole alkaloid from the group of harmala alkaloids and beta-carbolines.
Harmine, also known as telepathine, is a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds.
Hydracarbazine is a pyridazine that has found use as an antihypertensive agent.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
The hydrazine antidepressants are a group of non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) which were discovered and initially marketed in the 1950s and 1960s.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110—sometimes termed malignant or accelerated hypertension) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis, as blood pressure at this level confers a high risk of complications.
Hysteroid dysphoria is a name given to repeated episodes of depressed mood in response to feeling rejected.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
Iproclozide (trade names Sursum, Sinderesin) is an irreversible and selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine chemical class that was used as an antidepressant, but has since been discontinued.
Iproniazid (Marsilid, Rivivol, Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class.
Isocarboxazid (Marplan, Marplon, Enerzer) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class used as an antidepressant.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
LevomethamphetamineOther names include l-methamphetamine, levodesoxyephedrine, l-desoxyephedrine, levmetamfetamine (INN and USAN).
Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-'''lys'''ine-'''dex'''tro'''amphetamine''') is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.
Lofepramine, sold under the brand names Gamanil, Lomont, and Tymelyt among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.
Amides of lysergic acid are collectively known as lysergamides.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Maprotiline, sold under the brand name Ludiomil among others, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA) that is used in the treatment of depression.
Mazindol (brand names Mazanor, Sanorex) is a stimulant drug which is used as an appetite suppressant.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Mebanazine (trade name Actomol) is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine chemical class that was previously used as an antidepressant in the 1960s, but has since been withdrawn due to hepatotoxicity.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Mepivacaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methemoglobinemia is a condition caused by elevated levels of methemoglobin in the blood.
Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye.
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a stimulant of the cathinone class which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI).
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Metralindole (Inkazan) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) which was investigated in Russia as a potential antidepressant.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Milnacipran (trade names Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia. It is not approved for the clinical treatment of major depressive disorder in the USA, but it is in other countries.
Minaprine (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand names Brantur, Cantor) is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant drug that was used in France for the treatment of depression until it was withdrawn from the market in 1996 because it caused convulsions.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene.
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.
Nialamide (Niamid, Niamide, Nuredal, Surgex) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class that was used as an antidepressant.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nomifensine (Merital, Alival) is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, i.e. a drug that increases the amount of synaptic norepinephrine and dopamine available to receptors by blocking the dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nortriptyline, sold under the brand names Allegron, Aventyl, Noritren, Nortrilen, and Pamelor among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used to treat clinical depression.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Octamoxin (trade names Ximaol, Nimaol), also known as 2-octylhydrazine, is an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class that was used as an antidepressant in the 1960s but is now no longer marketed.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Passiflora incarnata, commonly known as maypop, purple passionflower, true passionflower, wild apricot, and wild passion vine, is a fast-growing perennial vine with climbing or trailing stems.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Peganum harmala, commonly called esfand, wild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, harmel, or aspand (among other similar pronunciations and spellings), is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae.
Pemoline is a stimulant drug of the 4-oxazolidinone class.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phendimetrazine (Bontril, Adipost, Anorex-SR, Appecon, Melfiat, Obezine, Phendiet, Plegine, Prelu-2, Statobex) is a stimulant drug of the morpholine chemical class used as an appetite suppressant.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Pheniprazine (INN; also known as amphethydrazine and amphetamine hydrazide; brand names Catron and Cavodil) is an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine chemical class that was used as an antidepressant in the 1960s.
Pheniramine (INN, trade name Avil, among others) is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria.
Phenoxypropazine (trade name Drazine) is an irreversible and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine family.
Phentermine (contracted from phenyl-tertiary-butylamine), also known as α,α-dimethylphenethylamine, is a psychostimulant drug of the substituted amphetamine chemical class, with pharmacology similar to amphetamine.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Pirlindole (Lifril, Pyrazidol) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) which was developed and is used in Russia as an antidepressant.
Pivhydrazine (trade name Tersavid), also known as pivalylbenzhydrazine and pivazide, is an irreversible and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine family.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In clinical terms, a potentiator is a reagent that enhances sensitization of an antigen.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Propylhexedrine, sold under the brand names Benzedrex and Obesin among others, is a nasal decongestant, appetite suppressant, and psychostimulant medication.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Protriptyline, sold under the brand name Vivactil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), specifically a secondary amine, indicated for the treatment of depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
Psychiatric Times is a medical trade publication written for an audience involved in the profession of psychiatry.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Rasagiline (Azilect, TVP-1012, N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B used as a monotherapy to treat symptoms in early Parkinson's disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases.
Reboxetine, sold under the brand name Edronax among others, is a drug of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) class, marketed as an antidepressant by Pfizer for use in the treatment of major depression, although it has also been used off-label for panic disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Rhodiola rosea (commonly golden root, rose root, roseroot, Aaron's rod, Arctic root, king's crown, lignum rhodium, orpin rose) is a perennial flowering plant in the family Crassulaceae.
Ribbon diagrams, also known as Richardson diagrams, are 3D schematic representations of protein structure and are one of the most common methods of protein depiction used today.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
Safinamide (INN; brand name Xadago) is a drug used as an add-on treatment for Parkinson's disease during "off" episodes; it has multiple modes of action, including the inhibition of monoamine oxidase B. See for updates.
Safrazine (Safra) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class that was introduced as an antidepressant in the 1960s, but has since been discontinued.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Sercloremine (CGP-4718A), usually as the hydrochloride salt, is a drug which was developed in the 1980s and was formerly under investigation as an antidepressant, but was never marketed.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) are a class of antidepressants that were first introduced starting in the 1970s.
Tetrindole was a drug candidate that functions by reversibly inhibiting monoamine oxidase A; it was first synthesized in Moscow in the early 1990s.
Theanine, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Toloxatone (Humoryl) is an antidepressant launched in 1984 in France for the treatment of depression.
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
Trichotillomania (TTM), also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Trimipramine, sold under the brand name Surmontil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine.
2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family.
4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR, 4-MAX) is a stimulant drug of the 2-amino-5-aryloxazoline class that was first synthesized in 1960 by McNeil Laboratories.
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