321 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Aarhus University Press, Acorus, Acotyledon, Adaptive radiation, Adolf Engler, Agave, Agriculture, Alisma, Alismatales, Alismatid monocots, Aliso, Alliance (taxonomy), Aloe, Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis, Amborella, American Journal of Botany, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Annals of Botany, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Anthesis, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, Aperture (botany), APG III system, APG system, Aptian, Aquatic plant, Araceae, Arecaceae, Arecales, Armen Takhtajan, Arthur Cronquist, Asparagaceae, Asparagales, Asparagus, August Batsch, August W. Eichler, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Austrobaileyales, Autapomorphy, Author citation (botany), Bamboo, Banana, Barley, Barremian, Basal (phylogenetics), Basal angiosperms, Bentham & Hooker system, ..., Biomass, Biomechanics, Body plan, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Bract, Bromeliaceae, Building material, Bulb, Burmanniaceae, Calamus (palm), Calcium oxalate, Cambium, Cambridge University Press, Canna (plant), Cardamom, Carl Christian Mez, Carl Linnaeus, Cataphyll, Ceratophyllum, Cereal, Charles Edwin Bessey, Charles Jacques Édouard Morren, Chloranthaceae, Clade, Cladistics, Cladogram, Class (biology), Columbia University Press, Commelinales, Commelinidae, Commelinids, Cordyline, Corm, Cortex (botany), Cotyledon, Cretaceous, Critically endangered, Crocosmia, Cronquist system, Crop, Crown group, CSIRO, Cucurbitales, Current Opinion (Elsevier), Cyclic flower, Cyperaceae, Dahlgren system, De Candolle system, De Jussieu system, Descriptive botanical names, Dichotomy, Dicotyledon, Dioscorea, Dioscoreales, DNA, Douglas E. Soltis, Dracaena (plant), Early Cretaceous, Eichler system, Eleocharis dulcis, Embryo, Endangered species, Endogeny (biology), Endosperm, Engler system, Epigeal germination, Epiphyte, Eudicots, Evolution, Evolutionary grade, Extinct in the wild, Extinction, Fagales, Family (biology), Flower, Flowering plant, Forage, Fossil, Garlic, Genetic divergence, George Bentham, Gertrud Dahlgren, Ginger, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Glossary of botanical terms, Glossary of leaf morphology, Gondwana, Grain, Ground tissue, Gynoecium, Harvard University Press, Herbaceous plant, Herbert Huber (botanist), Horticulture, Host (biology), Houseplant, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Hypogeal germination, Inflorescence, Insect, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Journal of Plant Sciences, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Iris (plant), IUCN Red List, John Henry Schaffner, John Lindley, John Ray, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Juncaceae, Jurassic, Kåre Bremer, Latin, Leaf, Leek, Lemnoideae, Liliaceae, Liliales, Lilianae, Liliidae, Lilioid monocots, Liliopsida, Lilium, Lineage (evolution), List of root vegetables, Lumpers and splitters, Magnoliids, Maize, Marcello Malpighi, Marine biology, Matthias de l'Obel, Medication, Melanthiales, Meristem, Merosity, Mesangiospermae, Missouri Botanical Garden, Molecular phylogenetics, Monocotyledon, Monophyly, Morphology (biology), Musaceae, Myco-heterotrophy, Mycotroph, Narcissus (plant), Nastic movements, Nature Communications, Near-threatened species, Network science, New Phytologist, Nymphaeaceae, Nymphaeales, Onion, Orchidaceae, Order (biology), Ornamental plant, Outline of life forms, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pandanaceae, Pandanales, Pandanus, Perennial plant, Perianth, Petal, Petiole (botany), Petrosaviaceae, Phaseolus, Phototropism, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Pineapple, Piperaceae, Placentation, Plant development, Plant evolution, Plant life-form, Plant reproductive morphology, Plant stem, Plastid, Poaceae, Poales, Pogonia (plant), Pollen, Potamogeton, Pothoideae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Radicle, Raphide, Raunkiær plant life-form, Reed (plant), Rhizome, Rice, Richard Wettstein, Robert Folger Thorne, Robust statistics, Rolf, Rolf Dahlgren, Root, Royal Society, Royal Society Te Apārangi, RuBisCO, Rye, Santonian, Saponin, Saprotrophic nutrition, Science (journal), Seagrass, Secondary growth, Seed, Seedling, Sensu, Sepal, Sieve tube element, Sister group, Smilax, Species, Species diversity, Stamen, Staminode, Staple food, Stele (biology), Stigma (botany), Stipule, Stolon, Stoma, Storage organ, Subsoil, Suffix, Sugarcane, Sympodial, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Systematics, Takhtajan system, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Taylor & Francis, Tepal, Thorne system, Traditional English pronunciation of Latin, Tricolpate, Trillium, Triuridaceae, Tropicos, Tuber, Tulip, Turmeric, Type (biology), Vascular bundle, Vascular cambium, Vascular plant, Vegetative reproduction, Vicia faba, Vienna, Vine, Vulnerable species, Walter Max Zimmermann, Weimar, Wettstein system, Wheat, Whorl (biology), Whorl (botany), Woody plant, Xylem, Year, Yucca, Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales. 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The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Aarhus University Press (Danish: Aarhus Universitetsforlag) is a commercial Foundation, founded in 1985 by Aarhus University, Denmark.
Acorus is a genus of monocot flowering plants.
Acotyledon is used to refer to seed plants or spermatophytes that lack cotyledons, such as orchids and dodder.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (25 March 1844 – 10 October 1930) was a German botanist.
Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alisma is a genus of flowering plants in the family Alismataceae, members of which are commonly known as water-plantains.
The Alismatales (alismatids) are an order of flowering plants including about 4500 species.
Alismatid monocots (alismatids, basal monocots) is an informal name for a group of early branching (hence basal) monocots, consisting of two orders, the Acorales and Alismatales.
Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research on plant taxonomy and evolutionary botany with a worldwide scope, but with a particular focus on the floristics of the Western United States.
An alliance is an informal grouping used in biological taxonomy.
Aloe, also written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants.
The Amaryllidaceae are a family of herbaceous, mainly perennial and bulbous (rarely rhizomatous) flowering plants in the monocot order Asparagales.
Amaryllis is the only genus in the subtribe Amaryllidinae (tribe Amaryllideae).
Amborella is a monotypic genus of understory shrubs or small trees endemic to the main island, Grande Terre, of New Caledonia.
The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy.
Annals of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, founded in 1887, that publishes research articles, brief communications, and reviews in all areas of botany.
The Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden is a long-established major peer-reviewed journal of botany, established in 1914 by the Missouri Botanical Garden, under the directorship of botanist and phycologist, George Thomas Moore, and still published quarterly by the Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
Anthesis is the period during which a flower is fully open and functional.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.
Apertures are areas on the walls of a pollen grain, where the wall is thinner and/or softer.
The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).
The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy.
The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column.
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
The Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Arecales is an order of flowering plants.
Armen Leonovich Takhtajan or Takhtajian (Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet-Armenian botanist, one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography.
Arthur John Cronquist (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae.
Asparagaceae is a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots.
Asparagales (asparagoid lilies) is an order of plants in modern classification systems such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web.
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
August Johann Georg Karl Batsch (28 October 1761 – 29 September 1802) was a German naturalist.
August Wilhelm Eichler, also known under his Latinized name, Augustus Guilielmus Eichler (22 April 1839 – 2 March 1887), was a German botanist who developed a new system of classification of plants to reflect the concept of evolution.
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle also spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (4 February 17789 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist.
Austrobaileyales is an order of flowering plants, consisting of about 100 species of woody plants growing as trees, shrubs and lianas.
In phylogenetics, an autapomorphy is a distinctive feature, known as a derived trait, that is unique to a given taxon.
In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale (or a chronostratigraphic stage) between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago) and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch (or Lower Cretaceous series). It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage.See Gradstein et al. (2004) or the online geowhen database (link below).
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants.
A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.
The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society is a scientific journal publishing original papers relating to the taxonomy of all plant groups and fungi, including anatomy, biosystematics, cytology, ecology, ethnobotany, electron microscopy, morphogenesis, palaeobotany, palynology and phytochemistry.
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale.
The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.
Burmanniaceae is a family of flowering plants, consisting of 99 species of herbaceous plants in eight genera.
Calamus is a genus of the palm family Arecaceae.
Calcium oxalate (in archaic terminology, oxalate of lime) is a calcium salt of oxalate with the chemical formula CaC2O4(H2O)x, where x can vary.
A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in botany, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cells for plant growth.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canna (or canna lily, although not a true lily) is a genus of 10 species of flowering plants.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Carl Christian Mez (26 March 1866 – 8 January 1944) was a German botanist and university professor.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
In plant morphology, a cataphyll (sometimes also called a cataphyllum, or cataphyll leafJackson, Benjamin, Daydon; A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent; Published by Gerald Duckworth & Co. London, 4th ed 1928) is a reduced, small leaf.
Ceratophyllum is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants including four accepted species in 2016, commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Charles Edwin Bessey (21 May 1845 – 25 February 1915) was an American botanist.
Charles Jacques Édouard Morren (2 December 1833 – 28 February 1886), was a Belgian botanist, professor of botany and director of the Jardin botanique de l'Université de Liège from 1857-1886.
Chloranthaceae is a family of flowering plants (angiosperms), the only family in the order Chloranthales.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Commelinales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants.
Commelinidae is a botanical name at the rank of subclass.
In plant taxonomy, commelinids (originally commelinoids) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots, which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms.
Cordyline is a genus of about 15 species of woody monocotyledonous flowering plants in family Asparagaceae, subfamily Lomandroideae.
A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (perennation).
A cortex is the outermost layer of a stem or root in a plant, or the surface layer or "skin" of the nonfruiting part of the body of some lichens.
A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη ''kotýlē'' "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf." Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Crocosmia (J. E. Planchon, 1851) (montbretia) is a small genus of flowering plants in the iris family, Iridaceae.
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.
The Cucurbitales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons.
Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier.
A cyclic flower is a flower type formed out of a series of whorls; sets of identical organs attached around the axis at the same point.
The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
One of the modern systems of plant taxonomy, the Dahlgren system was published by monocot specialist Rolf Dahlgren in 1975 and revised in 1977, and 1980.
The De Candolle system is a system of plant taxonomy by French (Swiss) botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778−1841).
An early system of plant taxonomy, the de Jussieu System, is of great importance as a starting point of botanical nomenclature at the rank of family, together with Michel Adanson's Familles naturelles des plantes (1763).
Descriptive botanical names are scientific names of groups of plants that are irregular, not being derived systematically from the name of a type genus.
A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.
The Dioscoreales are an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in modern classification systems, such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Douglas Soltis is a Distinguished Professor in the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics & Evolutionary Genetics, (Soltis lab.) Florida Museum of Natural History and Department of Biology at the University of Florida.
Dracaena (derived from the romanized form of the Ancient Greek δράκαινα – drakaina, "female dragon") is a genus of about 120 species of trees and succulent shrubs.
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Eichler system was the first phylogenetic (phyletic) or evolutionary system.
Eleocharis dulcis, the Chinese water chestnut or water chestnut, is a grass-like sedge native to Asia (China, Japan, India, Philippines, etc.), Australia, tropical Africa, and various islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
One of the prime systems of plant taxonomy, the Engler system was devised by Adolf Engler (1844–1930), and is featured in two major taxonomic texts he authored or coauthored.
Epigeal germination is a botanical term indicating that the germination of a plant takes place above the ground.
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
In alpha taxonomy, a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity.
An extinct in the wild (EW) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Forage is a plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.
George Bentham (22 September 1800 – 10 September 1884) was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century".
Gertrud Dahlgren (1931–2009) was a Swedish botanist.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (sometimes Latinized as Johannes Antonius Scopolius) (3 June 1723 – 8 May 1788) was an Italian physician and naturalist.
This glossary of botanical terms is a list of terms relevant to botany and plants in general.
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
The ground tissue of plants includes all tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.
Herbert Franz Josef Huber (1 January 1931 – 1 October 2005) was a German botanist.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices.
Hyacinthoides non-scripta (formerly Endymion non-scriptus or Scilla non-scripta) is a bulbous perennial plant, found in Atlantic areas from north-western Spain to the British Isles, and also frequently used as a garden plant.
Hypogeal germination is a botanical term indicating that the germination of a plant takes place below the ground.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.
The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".
The International Journal of Plant Sciences covers botanical research including genetics and genomics, developmental and cell biology, biochemistry and physiology, morphology and structure, systematics, plant-microbe interactions, paleobotany, evolution, and ecology.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
John Henry Schaffner (1866–1939) was an American botanist and professor at Ohio State University.
John Lindley FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.
John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.
Juncaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the rush family.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Kåre Bremer (born 17 January 1948) is a Swedish botanist and academic.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.
Duckweed, or water lens, are flowering aquatic plants which float on or just beneath the surface of still or slow-moving bodies of fresh water and wetlands.
The lily family, Liliaceae, consists of fifteen genera and about 705 known species (Christenhusz & Byng 2016) of flowering plants within the order Liliales.
Liliales (older name: Lilia) is an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Angiosperm Phylogeny Web system, within the lilioid monocots.
Lilianae (also known as Liliiflorae) is a botanical name, for a superorder (that is, a rank higher than that of order) of flowering plants.
Liliidae is a botanical name at the rank of subclass.
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
Liliopsida Batsch (synonym: Liliatae) is a botanical name for the class containing the family Liliaceae (or Lily Family).
Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers.
An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.
Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.
Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline that has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories.
Magnoliids (or Magnoliidae or Magnolianae) are a group of flowering plants.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Mathias de l'Obel, Mathias de Lobel or Matthaeus Lobelius (1538 – 3 March 1616) was a Flemish physician and botanist who was born in Lille, Flanders, in what is now Nord-Pas de Calais, France, and died at Highgate, London, England.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melanthiales Link (melanthoid lilies) was an order of monocotyledons, whose name and botanical authority is derived by typification from the description of the type family, Melanthiaceae by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in 1829.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Merosity is the number of component parts in each whorl of a plant structure.
Mesangiospermae (core angiosperms) is a group of flowering plants (angiosperms), informally called "mesangiosperms".
The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Musaceae is a family of flowering plants composed of three genera with ca 91 known species, placed in the order Zingiberales.
Myco-heterotrophy (from Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus", ἕτερος heteros, "another", "different" and τροφή trophe, "nutrition") is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis.
A mycotroph is a plant that gets all or part of its carbon, water, or nutrient supply through symbiotic association with fungi.
Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.
Nastic movements are non-directional responses to stimuli (e.g. temperature, humidity, light irradiance), and are usually associated with plants.
Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.
A near-threatened species is a species which has been categorized as "Near Threatened" (NT) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as that may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status.
Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).
New Phytologist is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust by Wiley-Blackwell.
Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly called water lilies.
The Nymphaeales are an order of flowering plants, consisting of three families of aquatic plants, the Hydatellaceae, the Cabombaceae, and the Nymphaeaceae (water lilies).
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to life forms: Life form (also, lifeform) – entity that is living, such as plants (flora) and animals (fauna).
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pandanaceae is a family of flowering plants native to the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, from West Africa through the Pacific.
Pandanales (pandans or screw-pines) is the botanical name for an order of flowering plants placed in the monocot clade in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Angiosperm Phylogeny Web systems.
Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some 750 accepted species.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and the corolla (petals).
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
Petrosaviaceae is a family of flowering plants belonging to a monotypic order, Petrosaviales.
Phaseolus (bean, wild bean) is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica.
Phototropism is the growth of an organism which responds to a light stimulus.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
The Piperaceae, also known as the pepper family, are a large family of flowering plants.
In biology, placentation refers to the formation, type and structure, or arrangement of the placenta.
Plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues.
Plant evolution is the subset of evolutionary phenomena that concern plants.
Plant life-form schemes constitute a way of classifying plants alternatively to the ordinary species-genus-family scientific classification.
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, and includes families of plants such as the grasses, bromeliads, and sedges.
Pogonia is a genus of orchids (family Orchidaceae) belonging to the subfamily Vanilloideae.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Potamogeton is a genus of aquatic, mostly freshwater, plants of the family Potamogetonaceae.
Pothoideae is a subfamily of flowering plants in the Araceae family.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during the process of germination.
Raphides are needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate as the monohydrate or calcium carbonate as aragonite, found in more than 200 families of plants.
The Raunkiær system is a system for categorizing plants using life-form categories, devised by Danish botanist Christen C. Raunkiær and later extended by various authors.
Reed is a common name for several tall, grass-like plants of wetlands.
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Richard Wettstein (30 June 1863 in Vienna – 10 August 1931 in Trins) was an Austrian botanist.
Robust statistics are statistics with good performance for data drawn from a wide range of probability distributions, especially for distributions that are not normal.
Rolf is a male given name and a surname.
Rolf Martin Theodor Dahlgren (7 July 1932 – 14 February 1987) was a Swedish-Danish botanist, professor at the University of Copenhagen from 1973 to his death.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Royal Society Te Apārangi (in full, Royal Society of New Zealand Te Apārangi) is an independent government body in New Zealand providing funding and policy advice in the fields of sciences and the humanities.
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage.
Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species.
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
In botany, secondary growth is the growth that results from cell division in the cambia or lateral meristems and that causes the stems and roots to thicken, while primary growth is growth that occurs as a result of cell division at the tips of stems and roots, causing them to elongate, and gives rise to primary tissue.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.
Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).
Sieve elements are specialized cells that are important for the function of phloem, which is highly organized tissue that transports organic compounds made during photosynthesis.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Smilax is a genus of about 300–350 species, found in the tropics and subtropics worldwide.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Species diversity is the number of different species that are represented in a given community (a dataset).
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
In botany, a staminode is an often rudimentary, sterile or abortive stamen, which means that it does not produce pollen.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
In a vascular plant, the stele is the central part of the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
In botany, stipule (Latin stipula: straw, stalk) is a term coined by LinnaeusConcise English Dictionary Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
In biology, stolons (from Latin stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
A storage organ is a part of a plant specifically modified for storage of energy (generally in the form of carbohydrates) or water.
Subsoil is the layer of soil under the topsoil on the surface of the ground.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
In botany, sympodial growth is a specialized lateral growth pattern in which the apical meristem is terminated and growth is continued by one or more lateral meristems, which repeat the process.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower (collectively the perianth) when these parts cannot easily be divided into two kinds, sepals and petals.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Thorne system of plant classification was devised by the American botanist Robert F. Thorne (1920–2015) in 1968, and he continued to issue revisions over many years (1968–2007).
The traditional English pronunciation of Latin, and Classical Greek words borrowed through Latin, is the way the Latin language was traditionally pronounced by speakers of English until the early 20th century.
"Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons" (which are distinguished from all other flowering plants by their tricolpate pollen structure).
Trillium (trillium, wakerobin, tri flower, birthroot, birthwort) is a genus of perennial flowering plants native to temperate regions of North America and Asia.
Triuridaceae are a family of tropical and subtropical flowering plants, including nine genera with a total of ca 55 known species (Christenhusz & Byng 2016). All members lack chlorophyll and are mycoheterotrophic (obtain food by digesting intracellular fungi, often erroneously called 'saprophytes').
Tropicos is an online botanical database containing taxonomic information on plants, mainly from the Neotropical ecozone (Central, and South America).
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
The vascular cambium is the main growth layer in the stems and roots of many plants, specifically in dicots such as buttercups and oak trees, and gymnosperms such as pine trees.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners.
A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve.
Walter Max Zimmermann (May 9, 1892 – June 30, 1980) was a German botanist and systematist.
Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Wettstein system recognised the following main groups, according to Richard Wettstein's Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik (1901–1924).
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
In biology, a whorl is a cluster of cells or tissue that surrounds another and wraps around another in an expanding circular pattern.
In botany, a whorl or verticil is an arrangement of sepals, petals, leaves, stipules or branches that radiate from a single point and surround or wrap around the stem.
A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yucca is a genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae.
Zingiberaceae or the ginger family is a family of flowering plants made up of about 50 genera with a total of about 1600 known species of aromatic perennial herbs with creeping horizontal or tuberous rhizomes distributed throughout tropical Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.
Dictyogens, Endogen, Endogens, Lilliidae, Monocatyledoni, Monocot, Monocots, Monocotyl, Monocotyledoae, Monocotyledonae, Monocotyledoneae, Monocotyledones, Monocotyledonous, Monocotyledonous Plants, Monocotyledons.