72 relations: Adaptive immune system, Agranulocyte, Amoeba, Antibody, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen presentation, Arachidonic acid, Azurophilic granule, Blood, Blood cell, Blood film, Bone marrow, CCL2, CCL7, CD14, CD16, CD4, Cellular differentiation, Chemokine, Complement system, Complete blood count, Cords of Billroth, Cushing's syndrome, Cytokine, Cytoplasm, Dendritic cell, Foam cell, Formyl peptide receptor 1, Granulocyte, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Granuloma, Haematopoiesis, Hematopoietic stem cell, Human, Immune disorder, Immune system, Inflammation, Influenza, Innate immune system, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 4, Interleukin-1 family, Leukopenia, Leukotriene B4, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Monoblast, Monocytopenia, Monocytosis, Myeloid tissue, ..., N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine, Necrosis, Neutrophil, Opsonin, Optical microscope, Phagocyte, Phagocytosis, Red blood cell, Red pulp, Sarcoidosis, Sepsis, Spleen, Stress (biology), Systemic inflammation, T cell, T helper cell, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Vacuolization, Vertebrate, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), White blood cell, 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Expand index (22 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Agranulocytes, also known as mononuclear leukocytes, are white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.
Antigen presentation describes a vital immune process which is essential for T cell immune response triggering.
Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).
An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
For the ICAO airport code see Candle Lake Airpark, for the diradical compound see Dichlorocarbene. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) is a small cytokine known as a chemokine that was previously called monocyte-chemotactic protein 3 (MCP3).
CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) is a human gene.
CD16, also known as FcγRIII, is a cluster of differentiation molecule found on the surface of natural killer cells, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes and macrophages.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
The Cords of Billroth (also known as splenic cords or red pulp cords) are found in the red pulp of the spleen between the sinusoids, consisting of fibrils and connective tissue cells with a large population of monocytes and macrophages.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Foam cells are the fat-laden M2 macrophages that serve as the hallmark of early stage atherosclerotic lesion formation.
Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1, FPR1 receptor, fMet-Leu-Phe receptor 1, FMLP receptor 1, or N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptor 1) is a cell surface receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) gene.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine.
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
An immune disorder is a dysfunction of the immune system.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a leukotriene involved in inflammation.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Monoblasts are normally found in bone marrow and do not appear in the normal peripheral blood.
Monocytopenia is a form of leukopenia associated with a deficiency of monocytes.
Monocytosis is an increase in the number of monocytes circulating in the blood.
Myeloid tissue, in the bone marrow sense of the word myeloid (myelo- + -oid), is tissue of bone marrow, of bone marrow cell lineage, or resembling bone marrow, and myelogenous tissue (myelo- + -genous) is any tissue of, or arising from, bone marrow; in these senses the terms are usually used synonymously, as for example with chronic myeloid/myelogenous leukemia.
N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or N-formyl-met-leu-phe) is a N-formylated tripeptide and sometimes simply referred to as chemotactic peptide is a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotactic factor and is also a macrophage activator. FMLP is the prototypical representative of the N-fomylated oligopeptide family of chemotactic factors. These oligopeptides are known to be, or mimic the actions of, the N-formyl oligopeptides that are (a) released by tissue bacteria, (b) attract and activate circulating blood leukocytes by binding to specific G protein coupled receptors on these cells, and (c) thereby direct the inflammatory response to sites of bacterial invasion. FMLP is involved in the innate immunity mechanism for host defense against pathogens. FMLP led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of FMLP receptors that have complimentary and/or opposing effects on inflammatory responses as well as many other activities, and helped define the stimulus-response coupling mechanisms by which diverse chemotactic factors and their G protein coupled receptors induce cellular function.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The red pulp of the spleen is composed of connective tissue known also as the cords of Billroth and many splenic sinuses that are engorged with blood, giving it a red color.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Chronic systemic inflammation (SI) is the result of release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from immune-related cells and the chronic activation of the innate immune system.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.
Vacuolization is the formation of vacuoles within or adjacent to cells, and, in dermatopathology, often refers to the basal cell-basement membrane zone area.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid.