194 relations: Absolute value, Adelaide Steamship Company, Advocacy group, Alcohol monopoly, Alko, Andrew Carnegie, Anti-competitive practices, Aristotle, Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Artificial scarcity, AT&T Corporation, Balochistan, Barriers to entry, Blood diamond, Boston, Boston Red Sox, Business cycle, Cable television, Canal, Capitalism, Capitalism and Freedom, Carnegie Steel Company, Cartel, Chevron Corporation, Coercive monopoly, Comcast, Communication, Commuter rail, Company, Competition (economics), Competition law, Complementary monopoly, Contestable market, Copyright, Cotton, De Beers, De facto standard, Deadweight loss, Demai (Talmud), Demonopolization, Deutsche Telekom, Developing country, Dominant design, Dutch East India Company, East India Company, East Indies, Economic efficiency, Economic equilibrium, Economic surplus, Economies of scale, ..., Elbert Henry Gary, Electric utility, Embrace, extend, and extinguish, Ethiopia, European Commission, European Communities, Exclusive dealing, ExxonMobil, Famine, Flag carrier, Forbes, Framing (social sciences), Free market, Free to Choose, Free trade, French Revolution, Gabelle, Gains from trade, General Court (European Union), Goods, Government-granted monopoly, Greek language, Herfindahl index, History of monopoly, Iarnród Éireann, Indian subcontinent, Indigo dye, Industrial organization, Information technology, Infrastructure, Internet service provider, J. P. Morgan, Jay Gould, Jörg Baten, John D. Rockefeller, Kingdom of France, Law, Lerner index, Liquor Control Board of Ontario, Liquor Distribution Branch, Local-loop unbundling, Long Island, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Rail Road, Major League Baseball, Marginal cost, Marginal revenue, Market (economics), Market power, Market segmentation, Market segmentation index, Mass media, MCI Communications, Merger guidelines, Micromarketing, Microsoft, Milton Friedman, Minimum efficient scale, Mishnah, Monopolistic competition, Monopoly price, Monopoly profit, Monopsony, Monsanto, Multinational corporation, Nassau County, New York, National Football League, Natural monopoly, Network effect, New York (state), New York City, Newcastle, New South Wales, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Oligopoly, Olive oil extraction, Opium, Overhead (business), Patent, Perfect competition, Petroleum, Philadelphia, Politics (Aristotle), Potassium nitrate, Predatory pricing, Price discrimination, Price elasticity of demand, Price gouging, Product bundling, Proposed acquisition of 21st Century Fox, Public service, Public utility, Queens, Rail transport, Ramsey problem, Refusal to deal, Regulation, Regulatory economics, Republic of Ireland, Rockaway, Queens, Sahara, Salt, Salt Commission, Samuel Insull, Service (economics), Silk, Simulations and games in economics education, Société des alcools du Québec, Sodium chloride, South Africa, Spark New Zealand, Sprint Corporation, Standard Oil, State monopoly, State monopoly capitalism, Substitute good, Suffolk County, New York, Supreme Court of the United States, Systembolaget, Tang dynasty, Tariff, Tax, Tea, Telephone, Telephone company, Telkom (South Africa), Thales of Miletus, The New York Times International Edition, The Walt Disney Company, The Wealth of Nations, Trademark, Trust (business), Tying (commerce), U.S. Steel, Unfair competition, United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, United Kingdom, United States, Vínbúð, Vinmonopolet, WarnerMedia, Water industry, Western Union, William Henry Moore (judge), 21st Century Fox. Expand index (144 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.
The Adelaide Steamship Company was formed by a group of South Australian businessmen in 1875.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
An alcohol monopoly is a government monopoly on manufacturing and/or retailing of some or all alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine and spirits.
Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland.
Andrew Carnegie (but commonly or;MacKay, p. 29. November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist.
Anti-competitive practices are business, government or religious practices that prevent or reduce competition in a market (see restraint of trade).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Army & Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES, also referred to as The Exchange) is the retailer on U.S. Army and Air Force installations worldwide.
Artificial scarcity describes the scarcity of items even though either the technology and production, or sharing capacity exists to create a theoretically limitless abundance, as well as the use of laws to create scarcity where otherwise there wouldn't be.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.
Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Capitalism and Freedom is a book by Milton Friedman originally published in 1962 by the University of Chicago Press which discusses the role of economic capitalism in liberal society.
Carnegie Steel Company was a steel producing company primarily created by Andrew Carnegie and several close associates, to manage businesses at steel mills in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area in the late 19th century.
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
In economics and business ethics, a coercive monopoly is a firm that is able to raise prices, and make production decisions, without risk of competition arising to draw away their customers.
Comcast Corporation (formerly registered as Comcast Holdings)Before the AT&T merger in 2001, the parent company was Comcast Holdings Corporation.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
In economics, competition is a condition where different economic firmsThis article follows the general economic convention of referring to all actors as firms; examples in include individuals and brands or divisions within the same (legal) firm.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
In a complementary monopoly is an economic concept.
In economics, the theory of contestable markets, associated primarily with its 1982 proponent William J. Baumol, holds that there are markets served by a small number of firms that are nevertheless characterized by competitive equilibria (and therefore desirable welfare outcomes) because of the existence of potential short-term entrants.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The De Beers Group of Companies is an international corporation that specialises in diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors.
A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).
A deadweight loss, also known as excess burden or allocative inefficiency, is a loss of economic efficiency that can occur when equilibrium for a good or a service is not achieved.
Demai (דְּמַאי, meaning "agricultural produce about which there is a doubt whether it has been properly tithed" is the third tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. It deals with the Jewish legal concept of demai, doubtfully tithed produce, and concerns the laws related to agricultural produce about which it is suspected that certain obligatory tithes have not been properly separated in accordance with requirements specified in the Torah. The tithes in question are ma'aser rishon (the first tithe, for the Levite), terumath ma'aser (the Levite's tithe to the kohen), and ma'aser sheni (the second tithe, for the owner to consume in Jerusalem) or ma'aser ani (the tithe for the poor), depending on the year of the Sabbatical year cycle. The tractate consists of seven chapters and has a Gemara only in the Jerusalem Talmud. There is a Tosefta of eight chapters for this tractate.
Demonopolization means to break up an existing monopoly.
Deutsche Telekom AG (short form in writing only: DT) is a German telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn and by revenue the largest telecommunications provider in Europe.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dominant design is a technology management concept introduced by Utterback and Abernathy in 1975, identifying key technological features that become a de facto standard.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
Economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.
In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change.
In mainstream economics, economic surplus, also known as total welfare or Marshallian surplus (after Alfred Marshall), refers to two related quantities.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Elbert Henry Gary (October 8, 1846 – August 15, 1927) was an American lawyer, county judge and corporate officer.
An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.
"Embrace, extend, and extinguish", also known as "Embrace, extend, and exterminate", is a phrase that the U.S. Department of Justice found was used internally by Microsoft to describe its strategy for entering product categories involving widely used standards, extending those standards with proprietary capabilities, and then using those differences to strongly disadvantage its competitors.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
In competition law, exclusive dealing refers to an arrangement whereby a retailer or wholesaler is ‘tied’ to purchase from a supplier on the understanding that no other distributor will be appointed or receive supplies in a given area.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (1980) is a book and a ten-part television series broadcast on public television by economists Milton and Rose D. Friedman that advocates free market principles.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France that was established during the mid-14th century and lasted, with brief lapses and revisions, until 1946.
In economics, gains from trade are the net benefits to economic agents from being allowed an increase in voluntary trading with each other.
The General Court (EGC) is a constituent court of the Court of Justice of the European Union.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a "de jure monopoly") is a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Herfindahl index (also known as Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, HHI, or sometimes HHI-score) is a measure of the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them.
The history of monopoly pertains to the historical tendency of a successful commercial enterprise to dominate an industry.
Iarnród Éireann, also known as Irish Rail in English, is the operator of the national railway network of Ireland.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).
In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Jason "Jay" Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was a leading American railroad developer and speculator.
Jörg Baten (born 24 June 1965 in Hamburg) is a German economic historian.
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American oil industry business magnate, industrialist, and philanthropist.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The Lerner index, formalized in 1934 by Abba Lerner, describes a firm's market power.
The Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) is a Crown corporation that retails and distributes alcoholic beverages throughout the province of Ontario, Canada.
The Liquor Distribution Branch (LDB), the BC Liquor Distribution Branch, is one of the two governmental bodies responsible for distributing alcoholic beverages and regulating and monitoring the liquor industry in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Local loop unbundling (LLU or LLUB) is the regulatory process of allowing multiple telecommunications operators to use connections from the telephone exchange to the customer's premises.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
Long Island Power Authority, commonly abbreviated as LIPA ("lie-pah"), is a municipal subdivision of the State of New York that owns the electric transmission and distribution system serving all Long Island and a portion of New York City known as the Rockaways.
The Long Island Rail Road, legally known as the Long Island Rail Road Company and often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
In economics, marginal cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
In microeconomics, marginal revenue (R') is the additional revenue that will be generated by increasing product sales by one unit.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost.
Market segmentation is the process of dividing a broad consumer or business market, normally consisting of existing and potential customers, into sub-groups of consumers (known as segments) based on some type of shared characteristics.
Market segmentation index—or the Celli index of market segmentation, named after the Italian economist Gianluca Celli—is a measure of market segmentation.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
MCI Communications Corp. was an American telecommunications company that was instrumental in legal and regulatory changes that led to the breakup of the AT&T monopoly of American telephony and ushered in the competitive long-distance telephone industry.
The Merger guidelines are a set of internal rules promulgated by the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) in conjunction with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
Micromarketing was first referred to in the UK marketing press in November 1988 in respect of the application of geodemographics to consumer marketing.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
In industrial organization, the minimum efficient scale (MES) or efficient scale of production is the lowest point where the plant (or firm) can produce such that its long run average costs are minimized.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such that many producers sell products that are differentiated from one another (e.g. by branding or quality) and hence are not perfect substitutes.
A monopoly price is set by a monopoly.
In economics a monopoly is a firm that lacks any viable competition, and is the sole producer of the industry's product.
In economics, a monopsony (from Ancient Greek μόνος (mónos) "single" + ὀψωνία (opsōnía) "purchase") is a market structure in which only one buyer interacts with many would-be sellers of a particular product.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Nassau County or is a suburban county comprising much of western Long Island in the U.S. state of New York.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Newcastle metropolitan area is the second most populated area in the Australian state of New South Wales and includes most of the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie local government areas.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
An oligopoly (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos) "few" + πωλεῖν (polein) "to sell") is a market form wherein a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers (oligopolists).
Olive oil extraction is the process of extracting the oil present in olive drupes, known as olive oil.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
In business, overhead or overhead expense refers to an ongoing expense of operating a business.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
In economics, specifically general equilibrium theory, a perfect market is defined by several idealizing conditions, collectively called perfect competition.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Predatory pricing, also known as undercutting, is a pricing strategy in which a product or service is set at a very low price with the intention to drive competitors out of the market or to create barriers to entry for potential new competitors.
Price discrimination is a microeconomic pricing strategy where identical or largely similar goods or services are transacted at different prices by the same provider in different markets.
Price elasticity of demand (PED or Ed) is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price when nothing but the price changes.
Price gouging is a pejorative term referring to when a seller spikes the prices of goods, services or commodities to a level much higher than is considered reasonable or fair, and is considered exploitative, potentially to an unethical extent.
In marketing, product bundling is offering several products or services for sale as one combined product or service package.
On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced a bid to acquire 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion in stock.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
The Ramsey problem, or Ramsey–Boiteux pricing, is a Second best policy problem concerning what price a public monopolist or a firm faced with an irremovable revenue constraint should set, in order to maximize social welfare.
Though in general, each business may decide with whom they wish to deal, there are some situations when a refusal to deal may be considered an unlawful anti-competitive practice, if it prevents or reduces competition in a market.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Regulatory economics is the economics of regulation.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Rockaway Peninsula, commonly referred to as The Rockaways or Rockaway, is the name of a peninsula within the New York City borough of Queens on Long Island, New York.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
The Salt Industry Commission was an organization created in 758, during the decline of Tang dynasty China, used to raise tax revenue from the state monopoly of the salt trade, or salt gabelle.
Samuel Insull (November 11, 1859 – July 16, 1938) was a British-born American business magnate; an innovator and investor based in Chicago who greatly contributed to creating an integrated electrical infrastructure in the United States.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
A simulation game is "a game that contains a mixture of skill, chance, and strategy to simulate an aspect of reality, such as a stock exchange".
The Société des alcools du Québec (Quebec Alcohol Corporation), often abbreviated and referred to as SAQ, is a provincial Crown corporation in Quebec responsible for the trade of alcoholic beverages within the province.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Spark New Zealand (formerly Telecom New Zealand) is a New Zealand telecommunications company providing fixed line telephone services, a mobile network, an internet service provider, and a major ICT provider to NZ businesses (through its Spark Digital division).
Sprint Corporation is an American telecommunications company that provides wireless services and is an internet service provider.
Standard Oil Co.
In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.
The theory of state monopoly capitalism (also referred as stamocap) was initially a Marxist doctrine popularised after World War II.
A substitute good is one good that can be used instead of another.
Suffolk County is a suburban county on Long Island and the easternmost county in the U.S. state of New York.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Systembolaget ("the System Company"), colloquially known as systemet ("the system") or bolaget ("the company"), is a government-owned chain of liquor stores in Sweden.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider, or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access.
Telkom SA SOC Ltd. is a wireline and wireless telecommunications provider in South Africa, operating in more than 38 countries across the African continent.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
A trust or corporate trust is a large grouping of business interests with significant market power, which may be embodied as a corporation or as a group of corporations that cooperate with one another in various ways.
Tying (informally, product tying) is the practice of selling one product or service as a mandatory addition to the purchase of a different product or service.
United States Steel Corporation, more commonly known as U.S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe.
Unfair (or disloyal) competition in commercial law is a deceptive business practice that causes economic harm to other businesses or to consumers.
The United Aircraft and Transport Corporation was formed in 1929, when William Boeing of the Boeing firms teamed up with Frederick Rentschler of Pratt & Whitney to form a large, vertically-integrated, amalgamated firm, uniting business interests in all aspects of aviation—a combination of aircraft engine and airframe manufacturer and airline business, to serve all aviation markets, both civil aviation (cargo, passenger, private, air mail) and military aviation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vínbúð (wine shop) is a chain of 46 stores run by the Icelandic alcohol and tobacco monopoly ÁTVR, locally called ríkið (the State).
Vinmonopolet (The Wine Monopoly), symbolized by Ⓥ and colloquially shortened to Polet, is a government-owned alcoholic beverage retailer and the only company allowed to sell beverages containing an alcohol content higher than 4.75% in Norway.
Warner Media, LLC (formerly Time Warner Inc.), doing business as WarnerMedia, is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered in New York City and owned by AT&T.
The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy.
The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.
William Henry (Judge) Moore (1848 – January 11, 1923) was an attorney and financier.
Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc. (stylized as 21st Century Fox) is an American multinational mass media corporation that is based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
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