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Montreal Protocol

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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. [1]

67 relations: Attribution of recent climate change, Australia, Bangkok, Beijing, Brian G. Gardiner, British Antarctic Survey, Bromine, Carbon tetrachloride, Chlorine, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloropentafluoroethane, Cook Islands, Copenhagen, David L. Downie, Dichlorodifluoromethane, DuPont, Earth Summit, European Union, Fluorine, Frank Sherwood Rowland, Global-warming potential, Greenhouse gas, Haloalkane, Halomethane, Helsinki, Holy See, Joe Farman, Jon Shanklin, Kofi Annan, Kyoto Protocol, List of refrigerants, List of treaties by number of parties, London, Mario J. Molina, Montreal, Nairobi, National Academy of Sciences, Niue, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Paul J. Crutzen, Ralph J. Cicerone, Refrigerant, Reiner Grundmann, Robert Abplanalp, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, Secretary-General of the United Nations, South Sudan, Stratosphere, ..., Supranational union, Treaty, Trichlorofluoromethane, Ultraviolet, UNEP OzonAction, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, University of California, Irvine, Vienna, Vienna Conference (1985), Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, World Bank, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane. Expand index (17 more) »

Attribution of recent climate change

Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent changes observed in the Earth's climate, commonly known as 'global warming'.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Bangkok

Bangkok is the capital and the most populous city of Thailand.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.

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Brian G. Gardiner

Brian Gerard Gardiner is a retired British meteorologist, formerly working for the British Antarctic Survey.

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British Antarctic Survey

The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs.

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Bromine

Bromine (from βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "strong-smelling" or "stench") is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane (also recognized by the IUPAC), carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR), is the organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chlorofluorocarbon

A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Chloropentafluoroethane

Chloropentafluoroethane is a chlorofluorocarbon once used as a refrigerant.

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Cook Islands

The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København), historically known as the capital of the Denmark-Norway union, is the capital and most populated city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,263,698 and a metropolitan population of 1,992,114.

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David L. Downie

David Leonard Downie (born 1961) is an American scholar focusing on international environmental politics and policy.

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Dichlorodifluoromethane

Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

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DuPont

E.

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Earth Summit

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, and Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Frank Sherwood Rowland

Frank Sherwood Rowland (June 28, 1927 – March 10, 2012) was an American Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine.

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Global-warming potential

Global-warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.

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Haloalkane

The haloalkanes (also known, as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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Halomethane

Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, or I).

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Helsinki

Helsinki (Helsingfors) is the capital and largest city of Finland.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Sancta Sedes) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Bishop of Rome—the Pope.

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Joe Farman

Joseph Charles Farman CBE (7 August 193011 May 2013) was a British geophysicist who worked for the British Antarctic Survey.

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Jon Shanklin

Jonathan Shanklin is a meteorologist who has worked at the British Antarctic Survey since 1977.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.

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List of refrigerants

Chemical refrigerants are assigned an R number which is determined systematically according to molecular structure.

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List of treaties by number of parties

This article contains a list of treaties by number of parties to the treaty.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Mario J. Molina

Mario José Molina-Pasquel Henríquez (born March 19, 1943) is a Mexican-born chemist and one of the most prominent precursors to the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

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Montreal

Montreal (Montréal) is a city in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Nairobi

Nairobi is the capital and largest city of Kenya.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private non-profit organization in the United States.

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Niue

Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand within the triangle formed by Tonga to the west, Samoa to the north, and the Cook Islands to the east.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield refers to a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

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Paul J. Crutzen

Paul Jozef Crutzen (born December 3, 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.

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Ralph J. Cicerone

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Footnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags, and the template below.

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Refrigerant

A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Reiner Grundmann

Reiner Grundmann, (born 29 September 1955 near Freudenstadt) is Professor of Science and Technology Studies (STS) at the University of Nottingham and Director of its interdisciplinary STS Research Priority Group.

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Robert Abplanalp

Robert Henry "Bob" Abplanalp, KHS (April 4, 1922 – August 30, 2003) was an American inventor and engineer who invented the modern form of the aerosol valve, the founder of Precision Valve Corporation and a political activist.

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Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion

The Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion is a sequence of reports sponsored by WMO/UNEP.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in northeastern Africa that gained its independence from Sudan in 2011.

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Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Supranational union

A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.

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Treaty

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Trichlorofluoromethane

Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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UNEP OzonAction

OzonAction is a branch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) which has its main office in Paris, and is part of UNEP's Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE).

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish/Portuguese acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria.

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University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, California, and one of the 10 general campuses in the University of California (UC) system.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vienna Conference (1985)

The Vienna Conference was the first international conference on ozone layer depletion.

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Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a Multilateral Environmental Agreement.

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World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, also known as norflurane (INN), is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential.

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1,1,1-Trichloroethane

The organic compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as methyl chloroform, is a chloroalkane.

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1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane

Trichlorotrifluoroethane, also called 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane or CFC-113 is a chlorofluorocarbon.

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1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane

1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane, or R-114, also known as cryofluorane (INN), is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) with the molecular formula ClF2CCF2Cl.

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Redirects here:

1987 Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depletion, CFC ban, Halon Ozone Depleting Potential, Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances, Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal protocol, Montréal Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, The Montreal Protocol.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal_Protocol

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