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Montreal Protocol

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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. [1]

78 relations: Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE), Arbetarbladet, Australia, Bangkok, Beijing, Brian G. Gardiner, British Antarctic Survey, Bromine, Capacity factor, Carbon tetrachloride, Chlorine, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloropentafluoroethane, Cook Islands, Copenhagen, Copenhagen Accord, David L. Downie, Dichlorodifluoromethane, DuPont, Earth Summit, European Union, F. Sherwood Rowland, Federated States of Micronesia, Fluorine, Global warming, Global warming potential, Greenhouse gas, Halley Research Station, Haloalkane, Halomethane, Helsinki, Holy See, Joe Farman, Jon Shanklin, Kigali, Kofi Annan, Kyoto Protocol, List of refrigerants, List of treaties by number of parties, London, Mario J. Molina, Montreal, Nairobi, National Academy of Sciences, Niue, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Ozone depletion, Ozone depletion potential, Ozone layer, Paris Agreement, ..., Paul J. Crutzen, Ralph Cicerone, Refrigerant, Reiner Grundmann, Robert Abplanalp, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, Secretary-General of the United Nations, South Pole, South Sudan, Stephen O. Andersen, Stratosphere, Supranational union, Treaty, Trichlorofluoromethane, Ultraviolet, UNEP OzonAction, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, University of California, Irvine, Vienna, Vienna Conference (1985), Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, World Bank, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane. Expand index (28 more) »

Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE)

Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) is a term adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

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Arbetarbladet

Arbetarbladet (meaning The Worker in English) is a social democratic newspaper published in Gävle, Sweden.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bangkok

Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Brian G. Gardiner

Brian Gerard Gardiner is a retired British meteorologist, formerly working for the British Antarctic Survey.

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British Antarctic Survey

The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs.

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Bromine

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Capacity factor

The net capacity factor is the unitless ratio of an actual electrical energy output over a given period of time to the maximum possible electrical energy output over that period.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chlorofluorocarbon

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Chloropentafluoroethane

Chloropentafluoroethane is a chlorofluorocarbon once used as a refrigerant.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Cook Islands

The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Copenhagen Accord

The Copenhagen Agreement is a document that delegates at the 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to "take note of" at the final plenary on 18 December 2009.

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David L. Downie

David Leonard Downie (born 1961) is an American scholar focusing on international environmental politics and policy.

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Dichlorodifluoromethane

Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

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DuPont

E.

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Earth Summit

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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F. Sherwood Rowland

Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland (June 28, 1927 – March 10, 2012) was an American Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine.

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Federated States of Micronesia

The Federated States of Micronesia (abbreviated FSM and also known simply as Micronesia) is an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosraethat are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Global warming potential

Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Halley Research Station

Halley Research Station, run by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), is a scientific research station on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica.

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Haloalkane

The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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Halomethane

Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, or I).

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Helsinki

Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Joe Farman

Joseph Charles Farman CBE (7 August 193011 May 2013) was a British geophysicist who worked for the British Antarctic Survey.

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Jon Shanklin

Jonathan Shanklin is a meteorologist who has worked at the British Antarctic Survey since 1977.

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Kigali

Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

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List of refrigerants

Chemical refrigerants are assigned an R number which is determined systematically according to molecular structure.

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List of treaties by number of parties

This article contains a list of treaties by number of parties to the treaty.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Mario J. Molina

Mario José Molina-Pasquel Henríquez (born March 19, 1943) is a Mexican chemist reputed for his pivotal role in the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

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Montreal

Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Nairobi

Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Niue

Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone depletion potential

The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of a chemical compound is the relative amount of degradation to the ozone layer it can cause, with trichlorofluoromethane (R-11 or CFC-11) being fixed at an ODP of 1.0.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.

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Paul J. Crutzen

Paul Jozef Crutzen (born 3 December 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.

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Ralph Cicerone

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Footnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags, and the template below.

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Refrigerant

A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Reiner Grundmann

Reiner Grundmann, (born 29 September 1955 near Freudenstadt) is Professor of Science and Technology Studies (STS) at the University of Nottingham and Director of its interdisciplinary STS Research Priority Group.

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Robert Abplanalp

Robert Henry "Bob" Abplanalp, KHS (April 4, 1922 – August 30, 2003) was an American inventor and engineer who invented the modern form of the aerosol valve, the founder of Precision Valve Corporation and a political activist.

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Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion

The Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion is a sequence of reports sponsored by WMO/UNEP.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.

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South Pole

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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Stephen O. Andersen

Stephen Oliver Andersen (born 17 January 1948) is the American Director of Research at the (IGSD) and is also Senior Expert Member of the Montreal Protocol Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) and former TEAP Co-Chair (1989 - 2012).

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Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Supranational union

A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.

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Treaty

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Trichlorofluoromethane

Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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UNEP OzonAction

OzonAction is a branch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) which has its main office in Paris, and is part of UNEP's Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE).

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria.

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University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vienna Conference (1985)

The Vienna Conference was the first international conference on ozone layer depletion.

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Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a Multilateral Environmental Agreement.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).

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1,1,1-Trichloroethane

The organic compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as methyl chloroform, is a chloroalkane.

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1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane

Trichlorotrifluoroethane, also called 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane or CFC-113 is a chlorofluorocarbon.

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1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane

1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane, or R-114, also known as cryofluorane (INN), is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) with the molecular formula ClF2CCF2Cl.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

1987 Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depletion, CFC ban, Halon Ozone Depleting Potential, Kigali Amendment, Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances, Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal protocol, Montréal Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons, Phase-out of hydrofluorocarbons, The Montreal Protocol.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal_Protocol

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