316 relations: Ablation, Acceleration, Alan Bean, Alan Shepard, Alexey Leonov, Alfvén wave, Ansari X Prize, Antwerp, Apollo 10, Apollo 11, Apollo 11 missing tapes, Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, Apollo 8, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, Apollo program, Apsis, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Arthur C. Clarke, Associated Press, Astrobotic Technology, Atlas (rocket family), Atlas V, Atmosphere, Atmospheric entry, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Attitude control, Baikonur, Ballistic missile, Balloon (aeronautics), Blitzkrieg, Boiling, Buzz Aldrin, Cadmium, Cassini–Huygens, Centaur (rocket stage), Central Intelligence Agency, Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2, Chang'e 1, Chang'e 3, Chang'e 4, Chang'e 5, ..., Charles Duke, Collier's, Coordinated Universal Time, Cosmic dust, David Scott, Delta II, Delta-v, Descartes Highlands, Deterrence theory, Direct ascent, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Edgar Mitchell, Electric beacon, Empiricism, Escape velocity, Eugene Cernan, Eugene Merle Shoemaker, Europa (moon), European Space Agency, Extravehicular activity, Far side of the Moon, First on the Moon (disambiguation), Fobos-Grunt, Fox News, Fra Mauro formation, Free-return trajectory, Freon, G-force, G. Madhavan Nair, Geiger–Müller tube, Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, Gill (lunar crater), Google Lunar X Prize, GRAIL, Gravity well, H-alpha, Hadley–Apennine, Hakuto, Harrison Schmitt, Heliocentric orbit, Hiten, Huygens (spacecraft), Image resolution, Indian Space Research Organisation, Infrared, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Internal structure of the Moon, Invasion of Poland, Ionization chamber, James E. Webb, James Irwin, Jet aircraft, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John F. Kennedy, John Young (astronaut), Joule, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter, Kinetic energy, Kosmos (satellite), LADEE, Laser, Latitude, Launch vehicle, LCROSS, Le Monnier (crater), List of Apollo astronauts, List of artificial objects on the Moon, List of cosmonauts, List of spacecraft called Sputnik, Longitude, Luna 1, Luna 10, Luna 11, Luna 12, Luna 13, Luna 14, Luna 15, Luna 16, Luna 17, Luna 18, Luna 19, Luna 2, Luna 20, Luna 21, Luna 22, Luna 23, Luna 24, Luna 3, Luna 4, Luna 5, Luna 6, Luna 7, Luna 8, Luna 9, Luna E-8 No.201, Luna programme, Luna-Glob, Lunar Escape Systems, Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, Lunar mare, Lunar orbit rendezvous, Lunar Orbiter 1, Lunar Orbiter 2, Lunar Orbiter 3, Lunar Orbiter 4, Lunar Orbiter 5, Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, Lunar Prospector, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Lunar rover, Lunar Roving Vehicle, Lunokhod 1, Lunokhod 2, Lunokhod programme, Lyndon B. Johnson, Magnetometer, Magnetosphere, Mare Crisium, Mare Fecunditatis, Mare Imbrium, Mare Tranquillitatis, Mariner program, Mars, Mass concentration (astronomy), Micrometeorite, Milliradian, Missile, Missile gap, Molniya-M, Moon, Moon Impact Probe, Moon rock, Mutual assured destruction, N1 (rocket), NASA, National Geographic, National Space Science Data Center, Neil Armstrong, Nikita Khrushchev, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Oceanus Procellarum, Paddle wheel, Parachute, Parking orbit, Particle detector, Peak of eternal light, Pete Conrad, PGM-17 Thor, Phobos (moon), Phobos 2, Photoresistor, Pioneer 0, Pioneer 1, Pioneer 2, Pioneer 3, Pioneer 4, Pioneer P-1, Pioneer P-3, Pioneer P-30, Pioneer P-31, Pioneer program, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political system, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Proton (rocket family), Puli Space Technologies, R-7 Semyorka, Radar, Radiation, Ranger 1, Ranger 2, Ranger 3, Ranger 4, Ranger 5, Ranger 6, Ranger 7, Ranger 8, Ranger 9, Ranger program, Reconnaissance, Remote sensing, Retroreflector, Retrorocket, RM-81 Agena, Robert H. Goddard, Robot, Robotic spacecraft, Rocket, Rocket launch, Rubidium, S-IVB, Sample-return mission, Satellite, Saturn, Saturn V, Scintillation counter, Seismometer, SELENE, Sergei Korolev, Shackleton (crater), Sinus Medii, Slow-scan television, SM-65 Atlas, SMART-1, Soft landing (rocketry), Solar panel, Solar System, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 7K-L1, Space exploration, Space Race, Space rendezvous, Spacecraft, Spacecraft propulsion, Speed, Sputnik 1, Sterilization (microbiology), Sundman (crater), Surveyor 1, Surveyor 2, Surveyor 3, Surveyor 4, Surveyor 5, Surveyor 6, Surveyor 7, Surveyor program, Tartu Observatory, Taurus–Littrow, Telescope, The New York Times, The Times of India, Thermonuclear weapon, Third World, Third-party evidence for Apollo Moon landings, Thor-Able, Titan (moon), TNT, TNT equivalent, Tycho (lunar crater), United States, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Congress, V-2 rocket, Vacuum, Van Allen radiation belt, Voskhod programme, Vostok programme, Wernher von Braun, William Safire, Willy Ley, World War II, Yuri Gagarin, Yutu (rover), Zond 4, Zond 5, Zond 6, Zond 7, Zond 8, Zond program. 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Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Alan LaVern Bean (March 15, 1932 – May 26, 2018) was an American naval officer and naval aviator, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut; he was the fourth person to walk on the Moon.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.
In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring force provided by an effective tension on the magnetic field lines.
The Ansari X Prize was a space competition in which the X Prize Foundation offered a US$10,000,000 prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, and the second (after Apollo 8) to orbit the Moon.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
The Apollo 11 missing tapes were those that were recorded from Apollo 11's slow-scan television (SSTV) telecast in its raw format on telemetry data tape at the time of the first moon landing in 1969 and subsequently lost.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon.
Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.
Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon and the first to land in the lunar highlands.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.
The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.
The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) comprised a set of scientific instruments placed by the astronauts at the landing site of each of the five Apollo missions to land on the Moon following Apollo 11 (Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17).
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was formed to develop the U.S. Army's first large ballistic missile.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Astrobotic Technology is an American privately held company that is developing space robotics technology for planetary missions.
Atlas is a family of American missiles and space launch vehicles.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Baikonur (translit; translit), formerly known as Leninsk (also, see Tyuratam), is a city of republic significance in Kazakhstan on the Northern bank of the Syr Darya river, rented and administered by the Russian Federation.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and Command Pilot in the United States Air Force.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Centaur has been designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chandrayaan-1 (lit: Moon vehicle) was India's first lunar probe.
Chandrayaan-2 (lang; lit: Moon-vehicle) is India's second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1.
Chang'e 1 was an unmanned Chinese lunar-orbiting spacecraft, part of the first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.
Chang'e 3 is an unmanned lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA), incorporating a robotic lander and China's first lunar rover.
Chang'e 4 is a planned Chinese lunar exploration mission, to be launched in December 2018, that will incorporate an orbiter, a robotic lander and rover.
Chang'e 5 is an unmanned Chinese lunar exploration mission currently under development, forecast for a Moon landing in 2019 after being postponed by the failure in 2017 of the Long March 5 launch vehicle.
Charles Moss "Charlie" Duke Jr. (born October 3, 1935), (Brig Gen, USAF, Ret.), is an American former astronaut, retired U.S. Air Force officer and test pilot.
Collier's was an American magazine, founded in 1888 by Peter Fenelon Collier.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932) (Col, USAF, Ret.) is an American engineer, former NASA astronaut, retired U.S. Air Force officer and former test pilot.
Delta II is an expendable launch system, originally designed and built by McDonnell Douglas.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
The Descartes Highlands is an area of lunar highlands located on the near side that served as the landing site of the American Apollo 16 mission in early 1972.
Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
Direct ascent is a method of landing a spacecraft on the Moon or another planet directly, without first assembling the vehicle in Earth orbit, or carrying a separate landing vehicle into orbit around the target body.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Edgar Dean "Ed" Mitchell (September 17, 1930 – February 4, 2016) was a United States Navy officer and aviator, test pilot, aeronautical engineer, ufologist and NASA astronaut.
In navigation, an electric beacon (or electromagnetic beacon) is a kind of beacon, a device which marks a fixed location and allows direction finding equipment to find relative bearing, the direction to the beacon.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
Eugene Andrew Cernan (March 14, 1934 – January 16, 2017) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, electrical engineer, aeronautical engineer, and fighter pilot.
Eugene Merle Shoemaker (April 28, 1928 – July 18, 1997), also known as Gene Shoemaker, was an American geologist and one of the founders of the field of planetary science.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
The far side of the Moon (sometimes figuratively known as the dark side of the Moon) is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from Earth.
First on the Moon may refer to.
Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt (Фобос-Грунт, literally "Phobos-Ground") was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
The Fra Mauro formation (or Fra Mauro Highlands) is a selenological formation on the near side of Earth's Moon that served as the landing site for the American Apollo 14 mission in 1971.
A free-return trajectory is a trajectory of a spacecraft traveling away from a primary body (for example, the Earth) where gravity due to a secondary body (for example, the Moon) causes the spacecraft to return to the primary body without propulsion (hence the term free).
Freon is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company, which uses it for a number of halocarbon products.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle abbreviated as GSLV, is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
Gill is a lunar impact crater that is located near the southeastern limb of the Moon.
The Google Lunar XPRIZE (GLXP), sometimes referred to as Moon 2.0, was a 2007–2018 inducement prize space competition organized by the X Prize Foundation, and sponsored by Google.
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) was an American lunar science mission in NASA's Discovery Program which used high-quality gravitational field mapping of the Moon to determine its interior structure.
A gravity well or gravitational well is a conceptual model of the gravitational field surrounding a body in space – the more massive the body, the deeper and more extensive the gravity well associated with it.
H-alpha (Hα) is a specific deep-red visible spectral line in the Balmer series with a wavelength of 656.28 nm in air; it occurs when a hydrogen electron falls from its third to second lowest energy level.
Hadley–Apennine is a region on the near side of Earth's Moon that served as the landing site for the American Apollo 15 mission, the fourth manned landing on the Moon and the first of the "J-missions", in July 1971.
Google Lunar X PRIZE, July 15, 2013 or formerly is a Japanese team competing in an international lunar probe contest.
Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is an American geologist, retired NASA astronaut, university professor, former U.S. senator from New Mexico, and the most recent living person to have walked on the Moon.
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.
The Hiten Spacecraft (ひてん), given the English name Celestial Maiden and known before launch as MUSES-A (Mu Space Engineering Spacecraft A), part of the MUSES Program, was built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan and launched on January 24, 1990.
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
Image resolution is the detail an image holds.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
Having a mean density of 3,346.4 kg/m³, the Moon is a differentiated body, being composed of a geochemically distinct crust, mantle, and planetary core.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906 – March 27, 1992) was an American government official who served as the second administrator of NASA from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968.
James Benson "Jim" Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) (Col, USAF) was an American astronaut, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and a United States Air Force pilot.
A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Watts Young (September 24, 1930 – January 5, 2018) was an American astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Kosmos (Ко́смос,, Cosmos) is a designation given to a large number of satellites operated by the Soviet Union and subsequently Russia.
The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a NASA lunar exploration and technology demonstration mission.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was a robotic spacecraft operated by NASA.
Le Monnier is the remnant of a lunar impact crater that has been partly inundated by lava flows.
Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly in the Apollo manned lunar landing program.
This is a partial listing of artificial materials on the Lunar surface.
This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
Sputnik (Спутник, Russian for "satellite" or "fellow traveler") is a spacecraft launched under the Soviet space program.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
Luna 10 (E-6S series) was a 1966 Soviet Luna program, robotic spacecraft mission, also called Lunik 10.
Luna 11 (E-6LF series) was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna program.
Luna 12 (E-6LF series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 12.
Luna 13 (E-6M series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 14 (E-6LS series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program run by the Soviet Union.
Luna 15 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Luna programme.
Luna 16, also known as Lunik 16, was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program.
Luna 17 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 17.
Luna 18, part of the Ye-8-5 series, was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 19 (a.k.a. Lunik 19) (E-8-LS series), was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 2 (E-1A series) or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.
Luna 20 was the second of three successful Soviet lunar sample return missions.
Luna 21 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission, and its spacecraft, of the Luna program, also called Lunik 21, in 1973.
Luna 22 (Ye-8-LS series) was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 22.
Luna 23 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.
Luna 3, or E-2A No.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme.
Luna 4, or E-6 No.4 was a Soviet spacecraft launched as part of the Luna program to attempt the first soft landing on the Moon.
Luna 5, or E-6 No.10, was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft intended to land on the Moon as part of the Luna programme.
Luna 6, or E-6 No.7 was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft which was intended to perform a landing on the Moon as part of the Luna program.
Luna 7 (E-6 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 7.
Luna 8 (E-6 series), also known as Lunik 8, was a lunar space probe of the Luna program.
Luna 9 (Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.
Luna E-8 No.201, also known as Luna Ye-8 No.201, and sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1969A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1969.
The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
Luna-Glob (Луна-Глоб, meaning Lunar sphere) is a Moon exploration programme by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) meant to progress toward the creation of a fully robotic lunar base.
Lunar Escape Systems (LESS) were a series of emergency vehicles designed for never-flown long-duration Apollo missions.
The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging experiment measures the distance between Earth and the Moon using laser ranging.
The lunar maria (singular: mare) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions.
Lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) is a key concept for efficiently landing humans on the Moon and returning them to Earth.
The Lunar Orbiter 1 unmanned robotic spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, was the first American spacecraft to orbit the Moon.
The Lunar Orbiter 2 robotic spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, was designed primarily to photograph smooth areas of the lunar surface for selection and verification of safe landing sites for the Surveyor and Apollo missions.
The Lunar Orbiter 3 was a spacecraft launched by NASA in 1967 as part of the Lunar Orbiter Program.
Lunar Orbiter 4 was an unmanned U.S. spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, designed to orbit the Moon, after the three previous orbiters had completed the required needs for Apollo mapping and site selection.
Lunar Orbiter 5, the last of the Lunar Orbiter series, was designed to take additional Apollo and Surveyor landing site photography and to take broad survey images of unphotographed parts of the Moon's far side.
The Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP) is a completed program of robotic spacecraft missions which NASA has used to prepare for future human spaceflight missions to the Moon by 2010.
Lunar Prospector was the third mission selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon in an eccentric polar mapping orbit.
A lunar rover or Moon rover is a space exploration vehicle (rover) designed to move across the surface of the Moon.
The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or lunar rover is a battery-powered four-wheeled rover used on the Moon in the last three missions of the American Apollo program (15, 16, and 17) during 1971 and 1972.
Lunokhod 1 (Луноход, moon walker in Russian; Аппарат 8ЕЛ № 203, vehicle 8ЕЛ№203) was the first of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program.
Lunokhod 2 (Луноход-2, moon walker) was the second of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of the Lunokhod programme.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Mare Crisium (the "Sea of Crises") is a lunar mare located in the Moon's Crisium basin, just northeast of Mare Tranquillitatis.
Mare Fecunditatis (the "Sea of Fecundity" or "Sea of Fertility") is a lunar mare which is 840 km in diameter.
Mare Imbrium (Latin for "Sea of Showers" or "Sea of Rains") is a vast lava plain within the Imbrium Basin on the Moon and is one of the larger craters in the Solar System.
Mare Tranquillitatis (Latin for Sea of Tranquility or Sea of Tranquillity (see spelling differences)) is a lunar mare that sits within the Tranquillitatis basin on the Moon.
The Mariner program was a 10-mission program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
In astronomy and astrophysics, a mass concentration (or mascon) is a region of a planet or moon's crust that contains a large positive gravitational anomaly.
A micrometeorite is essentially a micrometeoroid that has survived entry through Earth's atmosphere.
A milliradian, often called a mil or mrad, is an SI derived unit for angular measurement which is defined as a thousandth of a radian (0.001 radian).
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
The missile gap was the Cold War term used in the US for the perceived superiority of the number and power of the USSR's missiles in comparison with its own (a lack of military parity).
The Molniya-M (Молния, meaning "lightning"), designation 8K78M, was a Russian (previously Soviet) carrier rocket derived from the R-7 Semyorka ICBM.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The Moon Impact Probe (MIP) developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), India's national space agency, was a lunar probe that was released by ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 lunar remote sensing orbiter which in turn was launched, on 22 October 2008, aboard a modified version of ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.
Moon rock or lunar rock is rock that is found on the Earth's moon, or lunar material collected during the course of human exploration of the Moon.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Space Science Data Center serves as the permanent archive for NASA space science mission data.
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Oceanus Procellarum (Latin for "Ocean of Storms") is a vast lunar mare on the western edge of the near side of the Moon.
A paddle wheel is a form of waterwheel or impeller in which a number of paddles are set around the periphery of the wheel.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
A peak of eternal light (PEL) is a hypothetical point on the surface of an astronomical body that is always in sunlight.
Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr. (June 2, 1930 – July 8, 1999), (Captain, USN), was an American NASA astronaut, aeronautical engineer, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and during the Apollo 12 mission became the third man to walk on the Moon.
Thor was the first operational ballistic missile deployed by the U.S. Air Force (USAF).
Phobos (systematic designation) is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos.
Phobos 2 was the last space probe designed by the Soviet Union.
A photoresistor (or light-dependent resistor, LDR, or photo-conductive cell) is a light-controlled variable resistor.
Pioneer 0 (also known as Thor-Able 1) was a failed United States space probe that was designed to go into orbit around the Moon, carrying a television camera, a micrometeorite detector and a magnetometer, as part of the first International Geophysical Year (IGY) science payload.
On October 11, 1958, Pioneer 1 became the first spacecraft launched by NASA, the newly formed space agency of the United States.
Pioneer 2 was the last of the three project Able space probes designed to probe lunar and cislunar space.
Pioneer 3 was a spin stabilized spacecraft launched at 05:45:12 UTC on 6 December 1958 by the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency in conjunction with the NASA, using a Juno II rocket.
Pioneer 4 was an American spin-stabilized unmanned spacecraft launched as part of the Pioneer program on a lunar flyby trajectory and into a heliocentric orbit making it the first probe of the United States to escape from the Earth's gravity.
Pioneer P-1 was a failed mission in the Pioneer program.
Pioneer P-3 (also known as Atlas-Able 4 or Pioneer X) was intended to be a lunar orbiter probe, but the mission failed shortly after launch.
Pioneer P-30 (also known as Atlas-Able 5A, or Pioneer Y) was intended to be a lunar orbiter probe, but the mission failed shortly after launch on September 25, 1960.
Pioneer P-31 (also known as Atlas-Able 5B or Pioneer Z) was intended to be a lunar orbiter probe, but the mission failed shortly after launch.
The Pioneer program is a series of United States unmanned space missions that were designed for planetary exploration.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
Puli Space Technologies (named after the puli, a small Hungarian dog breed) is a Hungarian company established by individuals in June 2010 in order to take part in Google Lunar X Prize Challenge and other competitions, and further to facilitate development of space industry in Hungary, to promote scientific thinking and encourage students to choose scientific careers.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Ranger 1 was a prototype spacecraft launched as part of the Ranger program of unmanned space missions.
Ranger 2 was a flight test of the Ranger spacecraft system of the NASA Ranger program designed for future lunar and interplanetary missions.
Ranger 3 was a space exploration mission conducted by NASA to study the Moon.
Ranger 4 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to crashing upon the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft.
Ranger 5 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to impacting on the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft.
Ranger 6 was a lunar probe in the Ranger program, a robotic spacecraft series launched by NASA in the early and mid-1960s to obtain the first close-up images of the Moon's surface.
Ranger 7 was the first space probe of the United States to successfully transmit close images of the lunar surface back to Earth.
Ranger 8 was a lunar probe in the Ranger program, a robotic spacecraft series launched by NASA in the early-to-mid-1960s to obtain the first close-up images of the Moon's surface.
Ranger 9 was a Lunar probe, launched in 1965 by NASA.
The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
A retroreflector (sometimes called a retroflector or cataphote) is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a minimum of scattering.
A retrorocket (short for retrograde rocket) is a rocket engine providing thrust opposing the motion of a vehicle, thereby causing it to decelerate.
The RM-81 Agena was an American rocket upper stage and satellite bus which was developed by Lockheed initially for the canceled WS-117L reconnaissance satellite program.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket launch is the takeoff phase of the flight of a rocket.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
The S-IVB (sometimes S-4B, always pronounced "ess four bee") was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB.
A sample-return mission is a spacecraft mission with the goal of collecting and returning with tangible samples from an extraterrestrial location to Earth for analysis.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.
SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer), better known in Japan by its nickname, was the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft following the Hiten probe.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
Shackleton is an impact crater that lies at the south pole of the Moon.
Sinus Medii ("Central Bay") is a small lunar mare.
Slow Scan television (SSTV) is a picture transmission method used mainly by amateur radio operators, to transmit and receive static pictures via radio in monochrome or color.
The SM-65 Atlas was the first operational intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by the United States and the first member of the Atlas rocket family.
SMART-1 was a Swedish-designed European Space Agency satellite that orbited around the Moon.
A soft landing is any type of aircraft, rocket or spacecraft-lander landing that does not result in damage to/the destruction of the vehicle or anything on board.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Sundman is a lunar impact crater that lies just past the western limb of the Moon.
Surveyor 1 was the first lunar soft-lander in the unmanned Surveyor program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, United States).
Surveyor 2 was to be the second lunar lander in the unmanned American Surveyor program to explore the Moon.
Surveyor 3 was the third lander of the American uncrewed Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 4 was the fourth lunar lander in the American unmanned Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 5 was the fifth lunar lander of the American unmanned Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 6 was the sixth lunar lander of the American unmanned Surveyor program that reached the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 7 was the seventh and last lunar lander of the American unmanned Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
The Surveyor program was a NASA program that, from June 1966 through January 1968, sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon.
The Tartu Observatory (Tartu Observatoorium) is the largest astronomical observatory in Estonia.
Taurus–Littrow is a lunar valley located on the near side at the coordinates.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Third-party evidence for Apollo Moon landings is evidence, or analysis of evidence, about Moon landings that does not come from either NASA or the U.S. government (the first party), or the Apollo Moon landing hoax theorists (the second party).
The Thor-Able was an American expendable launch system and sounding rocket used for a series of re-entry vehicle tests and satellite launches between 1958 and 1960.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
Tycho is a prominent lunar impact crater located in the southern lunar highlands, named after the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
The Voskhod programme (Восхо́д,, Ascent or Dawn) was the second Soviet human spaceflight project.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
William Lewis Safir (December 17, 1929 – September 27, 2009), better known as William SafireSafire, William (1986).
Willy Otto Oskar Ley (October 2, 1906 – June 24, 1969) was a German-American science writer, spaceflight advocate, and historian of science who helped to popularize rocketry, spaceflight, and natural history in both Germany and the United States.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Yutu is an unmanned lunar rover that formed part of the Chinese Chang'e 3 mission to the Moon.
Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight.
Zond 5, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was an unmanned spacecraft that in September 1968 became the second ship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth.
Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit.
Zond 7, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, the first truly successful test of L1, was launched towards the Moon from a mother spacecraft (69-067B) on a mission of further studies of the Moon and circumlunar space, to obtain color photography of Earth and the Moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems.
Zond 8, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched from an Earth orbiting platform, Tyazheliy Sputnik, towards the Moon.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.
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