117 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Allegory of the Cave, Ancient Greece, Anekantavada, Anthropology, Atheistic existentialism, Axiology, Baruch Spinoza, Bernard Williams, Beyond Good and Evil, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Brian Leiter, Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, Chris Gowans, Christianity, Contemporary philosophy, Cultural relativism, Culture, David Hume, De gustibus non est disputandum, Descriptive ethics, Discourse, Eddie Tabash, Edvard Westermarck, Emotivism, Encyclical, Epistemology, Ethical egoism, Ethical intuitionism, Ethnocentrism, Evolutionary biology, Family, Friedrich Nietzsche, G. E. Moore, Gilbert Harman, Greeks, Group selection, Harvard University Press, Hedonism, Herodotus, Historian, Human sexual activity, Ibn Warraq, India, Inductive reasoning, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Islam, Jainism, Jean-Paul Sartre, ..., Joxe Azurmendi, Judith Jarvis Thomson, Kurt Baier, Lawrence Durrell, Leo Strauss, List of natural phenomena, Macmillan Publishers, Mahavira, Marcello Pera, Meta-ethics, Moral absolutism, Moral nihilism, Moral realism, Moral universalism, Morality, Natural selection, Núria Perpinyà, Nikolai Gogol, Normative ethics, Odyssey, On the Genealogy of Morality, Ontology, Oxford University Press, Panayot Butchvarov, People, Philosopher, Philosophy, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, Positivism, Prentice Hall, Protagoras, R. M. Hare, Raymond Queneau, Religion, Richard Rorty, Russell Blackford, Ruth Benedict, Science, Secular ethics, Simon Blackburn, Social norm, Social science, Sociology, Solipsism, Sub-replacement fertility, The Alexandria Quartet, The Antichrist (book), The Science of Good and Evil, Theory of forms, Toleration, Transcendentalism, Truth, Truth condition, Twilight of the Idols, Universality (philosophy), University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, Utilitarianism, Value theory, Veritatis splendor, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Walter Terence Stace, William Graham Sumner, World view, World War II, Zazie in the Metro. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature".
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
(अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
"Atheistic existentialism" is a kind of existentialism which strongly diverged from the Christian existential works of Søren Kierkegaard and developed within the context of an atheistic world view.
Axiology (from Greek ἀξία, axia, "value, worth"; and -λογία, -logia) is the philosophical study of value.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.
Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche that expands the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, with a more critical and polemical approach.
Bhikkhu Bodhi (born December 10, 1944), born Jeffrey Block, is an American Theravada Buddhist monk, ordained in Sri Lanka and currently teaching in the New York and New Jersey area.
Brian Leiter (born 1963) is an American philosopher and legal scholar who is Karl N. Llewellyn Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Chicago Law School and founder and Director of Chicago's Center for Law, Philosophy & Human Values.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Chris Gowans (born 13 March 1977) is a former Australian rules football player who played for Central District in the South Australian National Football League.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with the professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy.
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
De gustibus non est disputandum, or de gustibus non disputandum est, is a Latin maxim meaning "In matters of taste, there can be no disputes" (literally "about tastes, it should not be disputed/discussed").
Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Edward Tabash is an American lawyer and political and social activist.
Edvard Alexander Westermarck (20 November 1862 – 3 September 1939) was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist.
Emotivism is a meta-ethical view that claims that ethical sentences do not express propositions but emotional attitudes.
An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.
Ethical intuitionism (also called moral intuitionism) is a family of views in moral epistemology (and, on some definitions, metaphysics).
Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
Gilbert Harman (born 1938) is an American philosopher, who taught at Princeton University from 1963 until his retirement in 2017.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an anonymous author critical of Islam.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet.
Judith Jarvis Thomson (born October 4, 1929) is an American moral philosopher.
Kurt Baier (January 26, 1917 – November 7, 2010) was an Austrian moral philosopher who taught for most of his career in Australia and the United States.
Lawrence George Durrell (27 February 1912 – 7 November 1990) was an expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Types of natural phenomena include, but are not limited to, the following: Weather, fog, thunder, tornadoes; biological processes, decomposition, germination; physical processes, wave propagation, erosion; tidal flow, and natural disasters such as electromagnetic pulses, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Marcello Pera (born January 28, 1943.) is an Italian philosopher and politician.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Moral absolutism is an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong.
Moral nihilism (also known as ethical nihilism or the error theory) is the meta-ethical view that nothing is morally right or wrong.
Moral realism (also ethical realism or moral Platonism) is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world (that is, features independent of subjective opinion), some of which may be true to the extent that they report those features accurately.
Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Núria Perpinyà Filella (born 1961) is a Spanish novelist, a playwright and an essayist who works as a professor at the University of Lleida in Catalonia, Spain.
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic (Zur Genealogie der Moral: Eine Streitschrift) is an 1887 book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panayot Butchvarov (Bulgarian: Панайот Бъчваров; born April 2, 1933, in Sofia, Bulgaria) is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Iowa.
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
Richard Mervyn Hare (21 March 1919 – 29 January 2002), usually cited as R. M. Hare, was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983.
Raymond Queneau (21 February 1903 – 25 October 1976) was a French novelist, poet, critic, editor and co-founder and president of Oulipo (Ouvroir de littérature potentielle), notable for his wit and cynical humour.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Russell Blackford is an Australian writer, philosopher, and literary critic, based for many years in Melbourne.
Ruth Fulton Benedict (June 5, 1887September 17, 1948) was an American anthropologist and folklorist.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Secular ethics is a branch of moral philosophy in which ethics is based solely on human faculties such as logic, empathy, reason or moral intuition, and not derived from supernatural revelation or guidance—the source of ethics in many religions.
Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
The Alexandria Quartet is a tetralogy of novels by British writer Lawrence Durrell, published between 1957 and 1960.
The Antichrist (Der Antichrist) is a book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1895.
The Science of Good and Evil: Why People Cheat, Gossip, Care, Share, and Follow the Golden Rule is a 2004 book by Michael Shermer on ethics and evolutionary psychology.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
In semantics and pragmatics, a truth condition is the condition under which a sentence is true.
Twilight of the Idols, or, How to Philosophize with a Hammer (Götzen-Dämmerung, oder, Wie man mit dem Hammer philosophiert) is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche, written in 1888, and published in 1889.
In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Veritatis splendor (Latin: The Splendor of the Truth) is an encyclical by Pope John Paul II.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
Walter Terence Stace (17 November 1886 – 2 August 1967) was a British civil servant, educator, public philosopher and epistemologist, who wrote on Hegel, mysticism, and moral relativism.
William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zazie in the Metro or Zazie (depending on the translation of the original French title Zazie dans le Métro) is a French novel written in 1959 by Raymond Queneau, and his first major success.
Ethical Relativism, Ethical relativism, Ethical relativist, Moral relativist, Moral relativists, Moral relativity, Relative Morality, Relative morality, Relativism in ethics, Relativistic ethics, Religious relativism.