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Index Morality

Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. [1]

174 relations: Abortion, Agnosticism, Amorality, Anti-realism, Antony Flew, Apologetics, Appeal to tradition, Aristotelianism, Atheism, Barbara Stoler Miller, Belief, Bible, Biological specificity, Book of Exodus, Buddhism, Buddhist ethics, Carol Gilligan, Categorical imperative, Celia Green, Chabad.org, Christian ethics, Christianity, Cistercians, Code of conduct, Concept, Conformity, Consequentialism, Conservatism, Convention (norm), Cooperation, Correlation and dependence, CounterPunch, Crime, Criminology, Culture, David Hume, Denmark, Deontological ethics, Descriptive ethics, Divine command theory, Divorce, Egalitarianism, Elliot Turiel, Empathy, Empress Dowager Cixi, Ethical dilemma, Ethical naturalism, Ethical non-naturalism, Ethical subjectivism, Ethics, ..., Ethics of care, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary psychology, Fons Trompenaars, Freethought, Georges Chapouthier, Golden Rule, Good, Good and evil, Gossip, Graded absolutism, Gregory S. Paul, Group selection, Halakha, Hinduism, Hominidae, Humanism, Humanity (virtue), Hypocrisy, Id, ego and super-ego, Ideal observer theory, Ideology, Immanuel Kant, Immorality, Inbreeding, Incest taboo, Inclusive fitness, Index of ethics articles, Ingroups and outgroups, Intention, Interdependence, International Society for Justice Research, Islam, Islamic ethics, Jean Decety, Jean Piaget, Jonathan Haidt, Judaism, Kindness, Lawrence Kohlberg, Liberalism, Love, Macmillan Publishers, Martin Hoffman, Maternal bond, Meta-ethics, Monotheism, Moral character, Moral development, Moral nihilism, Moral panic, Moral psychology, Moral realism, Moral universalism, Mordechai Nisan, Mores, Murder, Nationalism, New Testament, Noam Chomsky, Non-cognitivism, Nontheism, Norman Geisler, Normative, Normative ethics, Old Testament, Ontology, Outline of ethics, Pan Books, Pantheism, Patriotism, Philosophy, Philosophy Now, Piety, Politics, Port, Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prosocial behavior, Psychoanalysis, Psychopathy, Reciprocity (evolution), Religion, Religion and divorce, Religious Studies (journal), Reputation, Richard Dawkins, Robert D. Putnam, Roberto Andorno, Self-licensing, Selfishness, Sigmund Freud, Sikhism, Simon Blackburn, Slavery, Social actions, Social norm, Social Psychological and Personality Science, Social psychology, Sociobiology, Sociocultural evolution, Sweden, Synonym, Tanakh, Temporoparietal junction, The God Delusion, The Moral Landscape, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, The Science of Good and Evil, Theory of mind, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, United States, Universal prescriptivism, Utilitarianism, Value (ethics), Value theory, Vampire bat, Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, Virtue, Walter Terence Stace, Westermarck effect, William Damon, World view, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (124 more) »


Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Amorality is an absence of, indifference towards, or disregard for morality.

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In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.

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Antony Flew

Antony Garrard Newton Flew (11 February 1923 – 8 April 2010) was an English philosopher.

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Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.

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Appeal to tradition

Appeal to tradition (also known as argumentum ad antiquitatem, appeal to antiquity, or appeal to common practice) is an argument in which a thesis is deemed correct on the basis that it is correlated with some past or present tradition.

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Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Barbara Stoler Miller

Barbara Stoler Miller (August 8, 1940 – April 19, 1993) was a scholar of Sanskrit literature.

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Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Book of Exodus

The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buddhist ethics

Buddhist ethics are traditionally based on what Buddhists view as the enlightened perspective of the Buddha, or other enlightened beings such as Bodhisattvas.

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Carol Gilligan

Carol Gilligan (born November 28, 1936) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics.

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Categorical imperative

The categorical imperative (kategorischer Imperativ) is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

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Celia Green

Celia Elizabeth Green (born 26 November 1935) is a British writer on philosophical skepticism and psychology.

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Chabad.org is the flagship website of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement.

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Christian ethics

Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.

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Code of conduct

A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the social norms, religious rules and responsibilities of, and or proper practices for, an individual.

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Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.

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Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.

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Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Convention (norm)

A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.

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Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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CounterPunch is a magazine published six times per year in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical attitude".

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Deontological ethics

In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.

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Descriptive ethics

Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality.

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Divine command theory

Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action's status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God.

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Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Elliot Turiel

Elliot Turiel (born 1938) is an American psychologist and Chancellor’s Professor at the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

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Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.

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Ethical dilemma

An ethical dilemma or ethical paradox is a decision-making problem between two possible moral imperatives, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable.

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Ethical naturalism

Ethical naturalism (also called moral naturalism or naturalistic cognitivistic definism) is the meta-ethical view which claims that: Reductive naturalism.

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Ethical non-naturalism

Ethical non-naturalism is the meta-ethical view which claims that.

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Ethical subjectivism

Ethical subjectivism is the meta-ethical view which claims that.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ethics of care

The ethics of care (alternatively care ethics or EoC) is a normative ethical theory that holds that moral action centers on interpersonal relationships and care or benevolence as a virtue.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Fons Trompenaars

Alfonsus (Fons) Trompenaars (born 1953, Amsterdam) is a Dutch-French organizational theorist, management consultant, and author in the field of cross-cultural communication.

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Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.

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Georges Chapouthier

Georges Chapouthier (born 27 March 1945 in Libourne) is a French neuroscientist and philosopher.

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Golden Rule

The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.

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In its most general context, the concept of good denotes that conduct which is to be or should be preferred when posed with a choice between a set of possible actions.

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Good and evil

In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.

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Gossip is idle talk or rumor, especially about the personal or private affairs of others; the act is also known as dishing or tattling.

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Graded absolutism

Graded absolutism is a theory of moral absolutism in Christian ethics which resolves the objection to absolutism that in moral conflicts we are obligated to opposites.

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Gregory S. Paul

Gregory Scott Paul (born December 24, 1954) is an American freelance researcher, author and illustrator who works in paleontology, and more recently has examined sociology and theology.

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Group selection

Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humanity (virtue)

Humanity is a virtue associated with basic ethics of altruism derived from the human condition.

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Hypocrisy is the contrivance of a false appearance of virtue or goodness, while concealing real character or inclinations, especially with respect to religious and moral beliefs; hence in a general sense, hypocrisy may involve dissimulation, pretense, or a sham.

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Id, ego and super-ego

The id, ego, and super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.

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Ideal observer theory

Ideal observer theory is the meta-ethical view which claims that.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Immorality is the violation of moral laws, norms or standards.

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Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.

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Incest taboo

An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between closely related persons.

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Inclusive fitness

In evolutionary biology, inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. D. Hamilton in 1964.

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Index of ethics articles

This Index of ethics articles puts articles relevant to well-known ethical (right and wrong, good and bad) debates and decisions in one place - including practical problems long known in philosophy, and the more abstract subjects in law, politics, and some professions and sciences.

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Ingroups and outgroups

In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.

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Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future.

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Interdependence is the mutual reliance between two or more groups.

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International Society for Justice Research

The International Society for Justice Research is an interdisciplinary scholarly scientific organization dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of justice and the related phenomena of morality and ethics.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic ethics

Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century.

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Jean Decety

Jean Decety is an American and French neuroscientist specializing in developmental neuroscience, affective neuroscience, and social neuroscience.

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Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.

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Jonathan Haidt

Jonathan David Haidt (born October 19, 1963) is an American social psychologist and Professor of Ethical Leadership at New York University's Stern School of Business.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kindness is a behavior marked by ethical characteristics, a pleasant disposition, and concern and consideration for others.

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Lawrence Kohlberg

Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) was an American psychologist best known for his theory of stages of moral development.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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Martin Hoffman

Martin L. Hoffman is an American psychologist, a professor emeritus of clinical and developmental psychology at New York University.

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Maternal bond

A maternal bond is the relationship between a mother and her child.

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Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Moral character

Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities.

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Moral development

Moral Development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood.

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Moral nihilism

Moral nihilism (also known as ethical nihilism or the error theory) is the meta-ethical view that nothing is morally right or wrong.

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Moral panic

A moral panic is a feeling of fear spread among a large number of people that some evil threatens the well-being of society.

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Moral psychology

Moral psychology is a field of study in both philosophy and psychology.

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Moral realism

Moral realism (also ethical realism or moral Platonism) is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world (that is, features independent of subjective opinion), some of which may be true to the extent that they report those features accurately.

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Moral universalism

Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.

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Mordechai Nisan

Mordechai Nisan is an Israeli professor member of the World Zionist Organization and scholar of Middle East Studies at the Rothberg International School of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

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Mores (sometimes; from Latin mōrēs,, plural form of singular mōs, meaning "manner", "custom", "usage", "habit") was introduced from English into American English by William Graham Sumner (1840–1910), an early U.S. sociologist, to refer to social norms that are widely observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others.

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Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Non-cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences do not express propositions (i.e., statements) and thus cannot be true or false (they are not truth-apt).

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Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God or gods.

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Norman Geisler

Norman Leo Geisler (born July 21, 1932) is a Christian systematic theologian and philosopher.

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Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.

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Normative ethics

Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Outline of ethics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ethics: Ethics – major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life.

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Pan Books

Pan Books is a publishing imprint that first became active in the 1940s and is now part of the British-based Macmillan Publishers, owned by the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group of Germany.

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Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.

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Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy Now

Philosophy Now is a bimonthly philosophy magazine sold from news-stands and book stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada; it is also available on digital devices, and online.

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In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue that may include religious devotion, spirituality, or a mixture of both.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Prosocial behavior

Prosocial behavior, or "voluntary behavior intended to benefit another", is a social behavior that "benefit other people or society as a whole", "such as helping, sharing, donating, co-operating, and volunteering".

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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.

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Reciprocity (evolution)

Reciprocity in evolutionary biology refers to mechanisms whereby the evolution of cooperative or altruistic behaviour may be favoured by the probability of future mutual interactions.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion and divorce

The relationship between religion and divorce is complicated and varied.

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Religious Studies (journal)

Religious Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.

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Reputation or image of a social entity (a person, a social group, or an organization) is an opinion about that entity, typically as a result of social evaluation on a set of criteria.

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Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.

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Robert D. Putnam

Robert David Putnam (born January 9, 1941) is an American political scientist.

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Roberto Andorno

Roberto Andorno is Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law, University of Zurich (Switzerland).

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Self-licensing (aka moral self-licensing, moral licensing, licensing effect, moral credential effect) is a term used in social psychology and marketing to describe the subconscious phenomenon whereby increased confidence and security in one’s self-image or self-concept tends to make that individual worry less about the consequences of subsequent immoral behavior and, therefore, more likely to make immoral choices and act immorally.

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Selfishness is being concerned excessively or exclusively, for oneself or one's own advantage, pleasure, or welfare, regardless of others.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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Simon Blackburn

Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Social actions

In sociology, social action, also known as "Weberian social action", refers to an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agents').

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social Psychological and Personality Science

Social Psychological and Personality Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research in social and personality psychology.

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Social psychology

Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

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Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.

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Sociocultural evolution

Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Temporoparietal junction

The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is an area of the brain where the temporal and parietal lobes meet, at the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure.

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The God Delusion

The God Delusion is a 2006 best-selling non-fiction book by English biologist Richard Dawkins, a professorial fellow at New College, Oxford and former holder of the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford.

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The Moral Landscape

The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values is a book by Sam Harris published in 2010.

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn, published by Oxford University Press.

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The Science of Good and Evil

The Science of Good and Evil: Why People Cheat, Gossip, Care, Share, and Follow the Golden Rule is a 2004 book by Michael Shermer on ethics and evolutionary psychology.

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Theory of mind

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Universal prescriptivism

Universal prescriptivism (often simply called prescriptivism) is the meta-ethical view which claims that, rather than expressing propositions, ethical sentences function similarly to imperatives which are universalizable—whoever makes a moral judgment is committed to the same judgment in any situation where the same relevant facts obtain.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Value theory

Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.

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Vampire bat

Vampire bats are bats whose food source is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy.

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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a part of the prefrontal cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.

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Walter Terence Stace

Walter Terence Stace (17 November 1886 – 2 August 1967) was a British civil servant, educator, public philosopher and epistemologist, who wrote on Hegel, mysticism, and moral relativism.

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Westermarck effect

The Westermarck effect, or reverse sexual imprinting, is a hypothetical psychological effect through which people who live in close domestic proximity during the first few years of their lives become desensitized to sexual attraction.

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William Damon

William Damon (born in Brockton, Massachusetts) is a Professor of Education at the Stanford Graduate School of Education, Director of the Stanford Center on Adolescence, and senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morality

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