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Index Morphine

Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. [1]

329 relations: Acetic acid, Acetic anhydride, Acetyl group, Acid, Active ingredient, Acute pancreatitis, Addiction, Administrative Controlled Substances Code Number, Agonist, Agonist-antagonist, Alchemy, Alexander Wood (physician), Alkaloid, Allyl group, American Civil War, Amine, Amygdala, Analgesic, Analyte, Anterograde amnesia, Apomorphine, Arginine, Asphyxia, Assay, Attention, Australia, Barbiturate, Bayer, Bentley compounds, Benzene, Benzodiazepine, Benzylisoquinoline, Benzylmorphine, Betäubungsmittelgesetz, Blood–brain barrier, Boiling point, Bone fracture, Brand, Breastfeeding, Buccal space, Buprenorphine, Byzantine Empire, Caffeine, Calcium morphenate, Canada, Cancer, Caudate nucleus, Central nervous system, Chasing the dragon, Chemical synapse, ..., Childbirth, Chirality, Cholecystokinin, Chromatography, Chronic pain, Cocaine, Codeine, Codeinone, Cognition, Cold turkey, Colitis, Constantinople, Constipation, Contraindication, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled Substances Act, Cultivar, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclic flower, Cyclohexane, CYP2D6, Cytochrome P450, Cytokine, Cytoskeleton, Dendritic cell, Depressant, Depression (mood), Desomorphine, Detection limit, Developed country, Dextromethorphan, Dextromoramide, Dextropropoxyphene, Diacetyldihydromorphine, Dihydrocodeine, Dihydroetorphine, Dihydromorphine, Diprenorphine, Dipropanoylmorphine, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dose (biochemistry), Dose–response relationship, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug overdose, Dysphoria, East India Company, Edme Castaing, Endocrine disease, Endorphins, Epidural administration, Ethanol, Ether, Ethylmorphine, Etorphine, Euphoria, Extraction (chemistry), Falling (accident), Fentanyl, First pass effect, France, Friedrich Sertürner, G protein, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genetic engineering, Germany, Glucuronidation, GPCR oligomer, Greenwood Publishing Group, Half-life, Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, Health system, Heroin, Heterocodeine, HIV/AIDS, Hops, Human brain, Hungary, Hydrocodone, Hydrolysis, Hydromorphinol, Hydromorphone, Hydroxy group, Hypogonadism, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Hypoventilation, Immune system, Immunoassay, Immunodeficiency, Infection, Inflammation, Inhalation, Insufflation (medicine), Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, International Narcotics Control Board, Intramuscular injection, Intrathecal administration, Intravenous therapy, Intrinsic activity, Irregular menstruation, Isometric exercise, Istanbul, Itch, Μ-opioid receptor, Japan, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Ketamine, Ketobemidone, L-DOPA, Latex, Laudanum, Levacetylmethadol, Levorphanol, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipophilicity, Lipopolysaccharide, Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, Liver, Loperamide, Luteinizing hormone, Maddox wing, Marginal nucleus of spinal cord, Marketing, Marshall D. Gates Jr., Meconic acid, Medscape, Melting point, Merck Group, Metabolism, Methadone, Methylene group, Methylphenidate, Metopon, Miosis, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Mitochondrion, Modified-release dosage, Molar mass, Morpheus, Morphinan, Morphine-3-glucuronide, Morphine-6-glucuronide, Morus (plant), Myenteric plexus, Myocardial infarction, Nalorphine, Naloxone, Naltrexone, Nausea, Netherlands, Neuroblastoma, Neuropeptide, Neuropsychology, Neutrophil, Niacin, Nicomorphine, Nitric oxide, NMDA receptor antagonist, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Normorphine, Northwestern University, Opiate, Opioid antagonist, Opioid peptide, Opioid receptor, Opioid use disorder, Opioid-induced hyperalgesia, Opium, Opium Law, Oral administration, Oripavine, Osteoporosis, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Paderborn, Pain, Papaver bracteatum, Papaver somniferum, Papaveraceae, Paracelsus, Parkinson's disease, Partial agonist, Pentazocine, Peptide, Periodic Videos, Peristalsis, Pethidine, Phenanthrene, Phenol, Phosphorylation, Physical dependence, Piperidine, Piritramide, Pneumonia, Poppy straw, Pregnancy, Prodrug, Proglumide, Protein Data Bank, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor learning, Psychotomimetic, Pulmonary edema, Putamen, Ranunculales, Receptor antagonist, Rectal administration, Rectum, Refractive index, Restless legs syndrome, Reticuline, Retrograde amnesia, Rey–Osterrieth complex figure, Rhinorrhea, Robert Robinson (organic chemist), Route of administration, Salutaridine, Salutaridine reductase (NADPH), Salutaridine synthase, Salutaridinol, Saturated and unsaturated compounds, Shortness of breath, Side effect, Sigma receptor, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Smoking, Sodium hydroxide, Solid phase extraction, Solubility, Somnolence, Speedball (drug), Sphincter of Oddi, Spinal cord, Stereoselectivity, Subcutaneous injection, Sublingual administration, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance use disorder, Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando, Substituted amphetamine, Switzerland, Syringe, Tachycardia, Tasmania, Tetrahydrofuran, Tetrahydropapaveroline, Thalamus, Thebacon, Thebaine, TLR4, Total synthesis, Total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids, Trade name, Tramadol, Trigeminal nerve, Tripelennamine, Tuberculosis, Tyramine, Tyrosine, UGT2B7, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, University of Maryland Medical Center, University of Rochester, Urine, Valerian (herb), Vomiting, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, White blood cell, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Xerostomia, Yeast, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. Expand index (279 more) »

Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acetic anhydride

Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.

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Acetyl group

In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.

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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Active ingredient

An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active.

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Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).

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Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.

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Administrative Controlled Substances Code Number

Administrative Controlled Substances Code Number (ACSCN) is a number assigned to drugs listed on the schedules created by the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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In pharmacology the term agonist-antagonist or mixed agonist/antagonist is used to refer to a drug which under some conditions behaves as an agonist (a substance that fully activates the receptor that it binds to) while under other conditions, behaves as an antagonist (a substance that binds to a receptor but does not activate and can block the activity of other agonists).

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Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Alexander Wood (physician)

Alexander Wood (10 December 181726 February 1884), was a Scottish physician.

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Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.

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Allyl group

An allyl group is a substituent with the structural formula H2C.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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An analyte, component (in clinical chemistry), or chemical species is a substance or chemical constituent that is of interest in an analytical procedure.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Apomorphine (brand names Apokyn, Ixense, Spontane, Uprima) is a type of aporphine having activity as a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D2-like and, to a much lesser extent, D1-like receptors.

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Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.

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An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.

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Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.

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Bentley compounds

The Bentley compounds are a class of semi-synthetic opioids that were first synthesized by K. W. Bentley by Diels-Alder reaction of thebaine with various dienophiles.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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1-Benzylisoquinoline is a chemical compound, and the structural backbone of many alkaloids with a wide variety of structures, including papaverine, noscapine, codeine, morphine, apomorphine, berberine, protopine, tubocurarine, and sanguinarine.

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Benzylmorphine (Peronine) is a semi-synthetic opioid narcotic introduced to the international market in 1896 and that of the United States very shortly thereafter.

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The Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG), generally meaning Narcotics Law, is the controlled-substances law of Germany.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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Bone fracture

A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.

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A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Buccal space

The buccal space (also termed the buccinator space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial tissue spaces or tissue spaces).

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Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Calcium morphenate

Calcium morphenate is a calcium salt of morphine which is produced by using calcium bases to raise the pH of an aqueous solution of opium alkaloids to around 9.0.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Caudate nucleus

The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chasing the dragon

"Chasing the dragon" is a slang phrase of Cantonese origin from Hong Kong referring to inhaling the vapor from a heated solution of morphine, heroin, oxycodone, opium, or ya ba (a pill containing caffeine and methamphetamine).

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Chemical synapse

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.

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Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.

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Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.

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Chronic pain

Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

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Codeinone is 1/3 as active as codeine as an analgesic but it is an important intermediate in the production of hydrocodone, a painkiller about 3/4 the potency of morphine; as well as of oxycodone.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cold turkey

"Cold turkey" refers to the abrupt cessation of a substance dependence and the resulting unpleasant experience, as opposed to gradually easing the process through reduction over time or by using replacement medication.

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Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.

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Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Cyclic flower

A cyclic flower is a flower type formed out of a series of whorls; sets of identical organs attached around the axis at the same point.

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Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).

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Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.

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A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Desomorphine is a synthetic opioid developed by Roche, with powerful, fast-acting effects, such as sedation and analgesia.

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Detection limit

In analytical chemistry, the detection limit, lower limit of detection, or LOD (limit of detection), is the lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance (a blank value) with a stated confidence level (generally 99%).

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).

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Dextromoramide (Palfium, Palphium, Jetrium, Dimorlin) is a powerful opioid analgesic approximately three times more potent than morphine but shorter acting.

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Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.

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Diacetyldihydromorphine (also known as Paralaudin, dihydroheroin, acetylmorphinol or dihydroxycodeinon) is a potent opiate derivative developed in Germany in 1929 which is rarely used in some countries for the treatment of severe pain such as that caused by terminal cancer, as another form of diamorphine (also commonly known as Heroin).

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Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.

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Dihydroetorphine was developed by K. W. Bentley at McFarlan-Smith in the 1960s and is a potent opioid analgesic, which is used mainly in China.

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Dihydromorphine (Paramorfan, Paramorphan) is a semi-synthetic opioid structurally related to and derived from morphine.

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Diprenorphine (brand name Revivon; former developmental code name M5050), also known as diprenorfin, is a non-selective, high-affinity, weak partial agonist of the μ- (MOR), κ- (KOR), and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) (with equal affinity) that is employed in veterinary medicine as an opioid antagonist.

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Dipropanoylmorphine (Dipropionylmorphine in U.S. English) is an opiate derivative, the 3,6-dipropanoyl ester of morphine.

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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dose (biochemistry)

A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.

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Dose–response relationship

The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Drug overdose

The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.

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Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Edme Castaing

Edme Castaing (1796 – 6 December 1823) was a French physician and is thought to have been the first person to use morphine to commit murder.

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Endocrine disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.

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Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.

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Epidural administration

Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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Ethylmorphine (also known as codethyline, dionine, and ethyl morphine) is an opioid analgesic and antitussive.

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Etorphine (M99) is a semi-synthetic opioid possessing an analgesic potency approximately 1,000–3,000 times that of morphine.

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Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

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Extraction (chemistry)

Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix.

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Falling (accident)

Falling is the second leading cause of accidental death worldwide and is a major cause of personal injury, especially for the elderly.

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Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).

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First pass effect

The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Friedrich Sertürner

Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner (19 June 1783 – 20 February 1841) was a German pharmacist.

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G protein

G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.

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GPCR oligomer

A GPCR oligomer is a protein complex that consists of a small number (ὀλίγοι oligoi "a few", μέρος méros "part, piece, component") of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Harrison Narcotics Tax Act

The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (Ch. 1) was a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates and coca products.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.

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Heterocodeine (6-methoxymorphine) is an opiate derivative, the 6-methyl ether of morphine, and a structural isomer of codeine; it is called "hetero-" because it is the reverse isomer of codeine.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydromorphinol (RAM-320, 14-Hydroxydihydromorphine) is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of morphine, where the 14-position has been hydroxylated and the 7,8- double bond saturated.

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Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally acting pain medication of the opioid class.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).

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Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.

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Insufflation (medicine)

Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.

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Interleukin 10

Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

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Interleukin 12

Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.

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International Narcotics Control Board

The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.

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Intrathecal administration

Intrathecal administration is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is useful in spinal anaesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Intrinsic activity

Intrinsic activity (IA) or efficacy refers to the relative ability of a drug-receptor complex to produce a maximum functional response.

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Irregular menstruation

Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).

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Isometric exercise

Isometric exercise or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements).

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

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Μ-opioid receptor

The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.

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Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

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Ketobemidone, sold under the brand name Ketogan among others, is a powerful opioid painkiller.

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L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.

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Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.

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Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).

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Levacetylmethadol (INN), levomethadyl acetate (USAN), OrLAAM (trade name) or levo-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) is a synthetic opioid similar in structure to methadone.

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Levorphanol (INN; brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS).

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Loperamide, sold under the brand name Imodium among others, is a medication used to decrease the frequency of diarrhea.

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Luteinizing hormone

Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.

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Maddox wing

The Maddox Wing is an instrument utilized by ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists in the measurement of strabismus (misalignment of the eyes; commonly referred to as a squint or lazy eye by the lay person).

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Marginal nucleus of spinal cord

The marginal nucleus of spinal cord, or posteromarginal nucleus, or Substantia Marginalis, Rexed lamina I, is located at the most dorsal aspect of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

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Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.

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Marshall D. Gates Jr.

Marshall D. Gates Jr. (1915–2003) was an American chemist, holding the position of C.F. Houghton Professor of Chemistry at the University of Rochester.

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Meconic acid

Meconic acid, also known as acidum meconicum and poppy acid, is a chemical substance found in certain plants of the Papaveraceae family (poppy) such as Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) and Papaver bracteatum.

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Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Merck Group

Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.

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Methylene group

In organic chemistry, a methylene group is any part of a molecule that consists of two hydrogen atoms bound to a carbon atom, which is connected to the remainder of the molecule by a double bond.

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Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

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Metopon (5-methyldihydromorphone) is an opioid analogue that is a methylated derivative of hydromorphone which was invented in 1929 as an analgesic.

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Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.

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Misuse of Drugs Act 1971

The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Modified-release dosage

Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).

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Molar mass

In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.

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Morpheus is a Greek god of dreams who appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses.

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Morphinan is the prototype chemical structure of a large chemical class of psychoactive drugs, consisting of opiate analgesics, cough suppressants, and dissociative hallucinogens, among others.

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Morphine-3-glucuronide is a metabolite of morphine produced by UGT2B7.

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Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) is a major active metabolite of morphine, and as such is the molecule responsible for much of the pain-relieving effects of morphine and heroin.

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Morus (plant)

Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.

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Myenteric plexus

The myenteric plexus (or Auerbach's plexus) provides motor innervation to both layers of the muscular layer of the gut, having both parasympathetic and sympathetic input (although present ganglionar cell bodies belong to parasympathetic innervation, fibers from sympathetic innervation also reach the plexus), whereas the submucous plexus has only parasympathetic fibers and provides secretomotor innervation to the mucosa nearest the lumen of the gut.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Nalorphine (brand names Lethidrone, Nalline), also known as N-allylnormorphine, is a mixed opioid agonist–antagonist with opioid antagonist and analgesic properties.

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Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.

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Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue. It most frequently starts from one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Symptoms may include bone pain, a lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest, or a painless bluish lump under the skin. Occasionally, neuroblastoma may be due to a mutation inherited from a person's parents. Environmental factors have not been found to be involved. Diagnosis is based on a tissue biopsy. Occasionally it may be found in a baby by ultrasound during pregnancy. At diagnosis, the cancer has usually already spread. The cancer is divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups based on a child's age, cancer stage, and what the cancer looks like. Treatment and outcomes depends on the risk group a person is in. Treatments may include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. Low-risk disease in babies typically has a good outcome with surgery or simply observation. In high-risk disease, chances of long-term survival, however, are less than 40% despite aggressive treatment. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in babies and the third-most common cancer in children after leukemia and brain cancer. About one in every 7,000 children is affected at some time. About 90% of cases occur in children less than 5 years old and it is rare in adults. Of cancer deaths in children, about 15% are due to neuroblastoma. The disease was first described in the 1800s.

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Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

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Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.

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Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Nicomorphine (Vilan, Subellan, Gevilan, MorZet) is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Normorphine is an opiate analogue, the N-demethylated derivative of morphine, that was first described in the 1950s when a large group of N-substituted morphine analogues were characterized for activity.

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Northwestern University

Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.

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Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.

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Opioid antagonist

An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on one or more of the opioid receptors.

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Opioid peptide

Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.

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Opioid receptor

Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.

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Opioid use disorder

Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Opioid-induced hyperalgesia

Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long-term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone.

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Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).

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Opium Law

The Opium Law (or Opiumwet in Dutch) is the section of the Dutch law which covers nearly all psychotropic drugs.

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Oral administration

| name.

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Oripavine is an opiate and the major metabolite of thebaine.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.

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Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

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Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.

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P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy.

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Paderborn is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district.

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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Papaver bracteatum

Papaver bracteatum, also known as the Iranian poppy and Persian poppy and the great scarlet poppy (it is firstly discribed by Dr. N. Saharghi and l. Lalezari nature 213, 1244, 1967 doi:10.1038/2131244a0) is a sturdy hardy perennial poppy with large deep red flowers up to 8 inches (20 cm) diameter on stiff stalks up to 4 feet (1.22 metres) high with a prominent black spot near the base of the petals.

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Papaver somniferum

Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.

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The Papaveraceae are an economically important family of about 42 genera and approximately 775 known species of flowering plants in the order Ranunculales, informally known as the poppy family.

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Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Partial agonist

In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.

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Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.

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Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.

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Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Physical dependence

Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.

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Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.

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Piritramide (R-3365, trade names Dipidolor, Piridolan, Pirium and others) is a synthetic opioid analgesic (narcotic painkiller) that is marketed in certain European countries including: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany and the Netherlands.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Poppy straw

Poppy straw (also known as opium straw, mowed opium straw, crushed poppy capsule, poppy chaff, or poppy husk) is derived from opium poppies (Papaver somniferum) that are harvested when fully mature and dried by mechanical means, minus the ripe poppy seeds.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.

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Proglumide (Milid) is a drug that inhibits gastrointestinal motility and reduces gastric secretions.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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Psychological dependence

Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.

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Psychomotor learning

Psychomotor learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement.

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A drug with psychotomimetic (also known as psychotogenic) actions mimics the symptoms of psychosis, including delusions and/or delirium, as opposed to just hallucinations.

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Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.

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The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).

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Ranunculales is an order of flowering plants.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.

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Rectal administration

Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels,The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Restless legs syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.

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Reticuline is a chemical compound found in a variety of plants including Lindera aggregata, Annona squamosa, and Ocotea fasciculata (also known as Ocotea duckei).

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Retrograde amnesia

Retrograde amnesia (RA) is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.

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Rey–Osterrieth complex figure

The Rey–Osterrieth complex figure test (ROCF) is a neuropsychological assessment in which examinees are asked to reproduce a complicated line drawing, first by copying it freehand (recognition), and then drawing from memory (recall).

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Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.

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Robert Robinson (organic chemist)

Sir Robert Robinson (13 September 1886 – 8 February 1975) was a British organic chemist and Nobel laureate recognised in 1947 for his research on plant dyestuffs (anthocyanins) and alkaloids.

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Route of administration

A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.

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Salutaridine, also known as floripavine, is an alkaloid that is present in the morphinian alkaloid pathway of opium poppy.

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Salutaridine reductase (NADPH)

In enzymology, a salutaridine reductase (NADPH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are salutaridinol and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are salutaridine, NADPH, and H+.

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Salutaridine synthase

In enzymology, a salutaridine synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 4 substrates of this enzyme are (R)-reticuline, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 3 products are salutaridine, NADP+, and H2O.

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Salutaridinol is a modified benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid with the formula C19H23NO4.

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Saturated and unsaturated compounds

In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is a chemical compound that has single bonds.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Side effect

In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.

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Sigma receptor

Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.

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Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Solid phase extraction

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a sample preparation process by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a liquid mixture are separated from other compounds in the mixture according to their physical and chemical properties.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).

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Speedball (drug)

Speedball (or powerball) is a mix of cocaine with heroin or morphine taken intravenously or by insufflation.

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Sphincter of Oddi

The sphincter of Oddi (also hepatopancreatic sphincter or Glisson's sphincter), abbreviated as SO, is a muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through the ampulla of Vater into the second part of the duodenum.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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In chemistry, stereoselectivity is the property of a chemical reaction in which a single reactant forms an unequal mixture of stereoisomers during the non-stereospecific creation of a new stereocenter or during the non-stereospecific transformation of a pre-existing one.

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Subcutaneous injection

A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.

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Sublingual administration

Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Substance use disorder

A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando

The apex of the posterior grey column, one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord, is capped by a V-shaped or crescentic mass of translucent, gelatinous neuroglia, termed the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando (or SGR) (or gelatinous substance of posterior horn of spinal cord), which contains both neuroglia cells, and small nerve cells.

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Substituted amphetamine

Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger (though in modern syringes it's actually a piston) that fits tightly within a cylindrical tube called a barrel.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.

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Tetrahydropapaveroline (norlaudanosoline) is a benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid.

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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Thebacon (INN; pronounced), or dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, is a semisynthetic opioid that is similar to hydrocodone and is most commonly synthesised from thebaine.

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Thebaine (paramorphine), also known as codeine methyl enol ether, is an opiate alkaloid, its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai (Thebes), an ancient city in Upper Egypt.

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Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene.

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Total synthesis

Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.

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Total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids

Synthesis of morphine-like alkaloids in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the natural morphinan class of alkaloids that includes codeine, morphine, oripavine, and thebaine and the closely related semisynthetic analogs buprenorphine, hydrocodone, isocodeine, naltrexone, naloxone, nalbuphine, and oxycodone.

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Trade name

A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym frequently used by companies to operate under a name different from their registered, legal name.

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Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.

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Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.

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Tripelennamine, sold under the brand name Pyribenzamine by Novartis, is a drug that is used as an antipruritic and first-generation antihistamine.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.

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Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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UGT2B7 (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-2B7) is a phase II metabolism isoenzyme found to be active in the liver, kidneys, epithelial cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract and also has been reported in the brain.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Maryland Medical Center

The University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) is a teaching hospital with 757 beds based in Baltimore, Maryland, that provides the full range of health care to people throughout Maryland and the Mid-Atlantic region.

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University of Rochester

The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Valerian (herb)

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is an important metabolite of the major brain neurotransmitter, dopamine.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphine

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