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Morphology (linguistics)

Index Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. [1]

81 relations: Adjective, Affix, Agglutinative language, Agreement (linguistics), Allomorph, Analogy, Andrey Korsakov, August Schleicher, Bound and unbound morphemes, Charles F. Hockett, Chinese language, Chukchi language, Classical Chinese, Clitic, Comparison (grammar), Compound (linguistics), Concatenation, Consonant, Context (language use), Declension, Distributed morphology, English language, English personal pronouns, Fusional language, Gloss (annotation), Grammar, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Greek language, History of India, Inflection, Intonation (linguistics), Isolating language, Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, Joan Bybee, Kwak'wala, Kwakwaka'wakw, Latin, Lemma (morphology), Leonard Bloomfield, Lexeme, Lexicology, Lexicon, Linguistics, ..., Literacy, Marker (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphological typology, Morphophonology, Noun phrase, Orthography, Part of speech, Pāṇini, Phoneme, Phonology, Phonotactics, Phrase structure grammar, Plural, Polysynthetic language, Prefix, Prosody (linguistics), Root (linguistics), Sanskrit, Small caps, Standard Chinese, Stress (linguistics), Suffix, Syntactic pivot, Syntax, Turkish language, Vowel, Word formation, Word order, Word stem. Expand index (31 more) »

Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Affix

In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Agreement (linguistics)

Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.

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Allomorph

In linguistics, an allomorph is a variant form of a morpheme, that is, when a unit of meaning varies in sound without changing the meaning.

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Analogy

Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.

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Andrey Korsakov

Andrey Konstantinovich Korsakov (October 30, 1916 – 2007) was an eminent Russian and Ukrainian linguist and language philosopher who specialised in the grammar of the English language and is considered a father of Grammar School in Ukraine.

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August Schleicher

August Schleicher (19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German linguist.

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Bound and unbound morphemes

In morphology, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the most basic unit of meaning) that can appear only as part of a larger word; a free morpheme or unbound morpheme is one that can stand alone or can appear with other morphemes in a lexeme.

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Charles F. Hockett

Charles Francis Hockett (January 17, 1916 – November 3, 2000) was an American linguist who developed many influential ideas in American structuralist linguistics.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chukchi language

Chukchi is a Chukotko–Kamchatkan language spoken by the Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.

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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.

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Clitic

A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Comparison (grammar)

Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Concatenation

In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Context (language use)

In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind.

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Declension

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Distributed morphology

In generative linguistics, Distributed Morphology is a theoretical framework introduced in 1993 by Morris Halle and Alec Marantz.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English personal pronouns

The personal pronouns in English take various forms according to number, person, case and natural gender.

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Fusional language

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.

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Gloss (annotation)

A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.

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Grammar

In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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Isolating language

An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.

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Jan Baudouin de Courtenay

Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) was a Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.

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Joan Bybee

Joan Lea Bybee (previously: Hooper; born 11 February 1945 in New Orleans, Louisiana) is an American linguist and professor emerita at the University of New Mexico, having served as president of the Linguistic Society of America in 2004.

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Kwak'wala

Kwak'wala, also written as Kwak̓wala, previously known as Kwakiutl, is the indigenous language spoken by the Kwakwaka'wakw (which means "those who speak Kwak'wala").

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Kwakwaka'wakw

The Kwakiutl (natively Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw "Kwak'wala-speaking peoples") are a Pacific Northwest Coast Indigenous people.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lemma (morphology)

In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).

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Leonard Bloomfield

Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 – April 18, 1949) was an American linguist who led the development of structural linguistics in the United States during the 1930s and the 1940s.

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Lexeme

A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.

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Lexicology

Lexicology is the part of linguistics that studies words.

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Lexicon

A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Marker (linguistics)

In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word, phrase, or sentence.

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Morpheme

A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

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Morphological typology

Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.

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Morphophonology

Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Noun phrase

A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.

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Orthography

An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Part of speech

In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.

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Pāṇini

(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.

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Phoneme

A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Phonotactics

Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Phrase structure grammar

The term phrase structure grammar was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky as the term for grammar studied previously by Emil Post and Axel Thue (Post canonical systems).

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Polysynthetic language

In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).

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Prefix

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Small caps

In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Syntactic pivot

The syntactic pivot is the verb argument around which sentences "revolve" in a given language.

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Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Word formation

In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word.

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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Word stem

In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.

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Lexeme-based morphology, Lexical morphology, Linguistic morphology, Morpheme-based morphology, Morpho-syntax, Morphology (language), Morphology (syntax), Morphology linguistics, Morphology of language, Morphosyntactic, Morphosyntactical, Morphosyntax, Word form, Word-based morphology.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphology_(linguistics)

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