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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
The federal city of Moscow, Russia is divided into twelve administrative okrugs, which are in turn subdivided into districts (raions).
PJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ПАО "Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
Aleksandr Konstantinovich Petrov (also Alexander or Alexandre) (Александр Константинович Петров) (born 17 July 1957 in Prechistoye, Yaroslavl Oblast) is a Russian animator and animation director.
Aleksey Vladimirovich Batalov (Алексе́й Влади́мирович Бата́лов; 20 November 1928 – 15 June 2017) was a Soviet and Russian actor acclaimed for his portrayal of noble and positive characters.
Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.
Alexander Alexandrovich Bashilov (Александр Александрович Башилов) (August 31, 1777 in Hlukhiv - December 31, 1847 in Moscow) was a Russian general officer of Napoleonic Wars period, later engaged in urban planning of Moscow and its suburbs.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (also Aleksandr Ivanovič Gercen, Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander Mikhailovich Ovechkin (p; born 17 September 1985), often referred to as the Great Eight or Ovi, is a Russian professional ice hockey winger and captain of the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Alexander Mikhailovich Prokhorov (born Alexander Michael Prochoroff, Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Про́хоров; 11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was an Australian born Russian physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин; –) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Alexander Nikolayevich Sokurov, PAR (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Соку́ров; born 14 June 1951) is a Russian filmmaker.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; or 1730 –) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero.
Alexey Viktorovich Shchusev (Алексе́й Ви́кторович Щу́сев; – 24 May 1949) was an acclaimed Russian and Soviet architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalin's Empire Style.
Alfred Garrievich Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, Alfred Garrievich Shnitke; November 24, 1934 – August 3, 1998) was a Soviet and German composer.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Alla Borisovna Pugacheva (Алла Борисовна Пугачёва; sometimes transcribed in English as Pugachova,; born 15 April 1949), is а Soviet and Russian musical performer.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Aloisio the New, known in Russian as Aleviz Novyi or Aleviz Fryazin, was an Italian Renaissance architect invited by Ivan III to work in Moscow.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Andrei Alexandrovich Mironov (Андре́й Алекса́ндрович Миро́нов; March 7, 1941 - August 16, 1987) was a Soviet theatre and film actor who played lead roles in some of the most popular Soviet films, such as The Diamond Arm, Beware of the Car and Twelve Chairs.
Andrei Rublev (p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428 in Moscow) is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos.
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.
Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (p; 4 April 1932 – 29 December 1986) was a Russian filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director.
Andronikov Monastery of the Saviour (Андро́ников монасты́рь, Спа́со-Андро́ников монасты́рь, or Андро́ников Нерукотво́рного Спа́са монасты́рь) is a former monastery on the left bank of the Yauza River in Moscow, consecrated to the Holy Image of Saviour Not Made by Hands and containing the oldest extant (i.e. outside the Kremlin) building in Moscow.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
Aram Il'yich Khachaturian (Ара́м Ильи́ч Хачатуря́н; Արամ Խաչատրյան, Aram Xačatryan;; 1 May 1978) was a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor.
Arbat Street (Russian), mainly referred to in English as the Arbat, is a pedestrian street about one kilometer long in the historical centre of Moscow, Russia.
Arbatskaya (Арба́тская) is a station on the Arbatsko–Pokrovskaya line of the Moscow Metro.
Arena Khimki («Арена Химки») is a football stadium in Khimki, Moscow Region, Russia.
Giorgio Armani S.P.A. is an Italian fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures, distributes and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Bob Briner, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
AZLK (АЗЛК - Автомобильный завод имени Ленинского Комсомола in Russian, Avtomobilny Zavod imeni Leninskogo Komsomola) was a Soviet and Russian automobile manufacturer (Moscow), the maker of the Moskvitch brand.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams.
Bandy World Cup is played in Sweden in the beginning of the bandy season every year, in autumn.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Banja Luka (Бања Лука) or Banjaluka (Бањалука), is the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity.
The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to "constitution", implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment of constitution.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Kulikovo (Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.
The Bauman Moscow State Technical University, BMSTU (Московский государственный технический университет им.), sometimes colloquially referred to as the Bauman School or Baumanka (Ба́уманка) is a public technical university (Polytechnic) located in Moscow, Russia.
Baumanskaya (Бауманская) is a station on the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line of the Moscow Metro, named after the revolutionary Nikolai Bauman.
Beeline (Билайн), earlier Bee Line GSM (Би Лайн GSM) is a telecommunications brand by company PJSC VimpelCom, founded in Russia.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Bely Gorod (p, "White City") is the central core area of Moscow, Russia beyond the Kremlin and Kitay-gorod.
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG since 1998.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bolshaya Koltsevaya line (Большая кольцевая линия), literally Large Circle Line, designated Line 11 is a rapid transit line of the Moscow Metro.
The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (|p|æ|s|t|ər|ˌ|n|æ|k) (29 January 1890 - 30 May 1960) was a Soviet Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
The Boulevard Ring (Бульва́рное кольцо́; transliteration: Bulvarnoye Koltso) is Moscow's second centremost ring road (the first is formed by the Central Squares of Moscow running along the former walls of Kitai-gorod).
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Historically, Buddhism was incorporated into Russian lands in the early 17th century.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (Була́т Ша́лвович Окуджа́ва; ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was a Soviet and Russian poet, writer, musician, novelist, and singer-songwriter of Georgian-Armenian ancestry.
Bulgari (stylized as BVLGARI) is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, and hotels.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo (Бульвар Дмитрия Донского) is a Moscow Metro station in the Severnoye Butovo District, South-Western Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia.
The Burj Khalifa (برج خليفة, Arabic for "Khalifa Tower"; pronounced), known as the Burj Dubai before its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Carousel or Carousel International is a Russian television channel dedicated to children and youth.
Carsharing or car sharing (AU, NZ, CA, & US) or car clubs (UK) is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred metres southwest of the Kremlin.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church in Russia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Central Administrative Okrug, or Tsentralny Administrativny Okrug (Центра́льный администрати́вный о́круг, Tsentralny administrativny okrug), is one of the twelve administrative okrugs of Moscow, Russia, located within the Kamer-Kollezhny Bank.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
Central Economic Region (Центра́льный экономи́ческий райо́н, Tsentralny ekonomichesky rayon) is one of twelve economic regions of Russia.
The Central Federal District (p) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
Central Moscow Hippodrome, founded in 1834 in Moscow, is the largest horse racing track in Russia.
Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City.
The CEV Champions League, or CEV DenizBank Volleyball Champions League is the top official competition for men's volleyball clubs of Europe and takes place every year.
A chandelier (also known as girandole, candelabra lamp, or least commonly suspended lights) is a branched ornamental light fixture designed to be mounted on ceilings or walls.
Channel One (p, literally First Channel) is the first television channel to broadcast in the Russian Federation.
Charter of the City of Moscow (Устав города Москвы) is the basic law of the federal city and capital of Russia, Moscow.
Chelsea Football Club is a professional football club in London, England, that competes in the Premier League.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese or Han people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in Russia is by some estimates the largest religion in the country, with nearly 50% of the population identifying as Christian.
The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
City Duma (Городская дума) is the parliament/legislative branch of power of in the Russian Empire and contemporary Russian cities, and before the entry into force of the new administrative-territorial division in 2009, in all the cities of Latvia.
The City Hall and City Duma (Здание Правительства Москвы) would have been the new home for the Moscow government and assembly (duma).
The terms city limit and city boundary refer to the defined boundary or border of a city.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.
Clifford J. Levy (born June 15, 1967, New Rochelle, New York) is an investigative journalist for The New York Times.
Moscow has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, sometimes hot, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters.
The CN Tower (Tour CN) is a concrete communications and observation tower located in the downtown core of the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The coat of arms of Moscow depicts a horseman with a spear in his hand slaying a basilisk and is identified with Saint George and the Dragon.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
In geometry, two or more objects are said to be concentric, coaxal, or coaxial when they share the same center or axis.
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
The Copper Coin Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1662 (Медный бунт, Московское восстание 1662 года) was a major riot in Moscow, which took place on.
Cosmonauts Alley (аллея Космонавтов) is a wide avenue in northern Moscow leading to the Russian Museum of Cosmonautics and the Monument to the Conquerors of Space.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
Daniil Aleksandrovich (Russian: Даниил Александрович) (1261 – 4 March 1303) was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky and forefather of all the Grand Dukes of Moscow.
Danilov Monastery (also Svyato-Danilov Monastery or Holy Danilov Monastery; Данилов монастырь, Свято-Данилов монастырь in Russian) is a walled monastery on the right bank of the Moskva River in Moscow.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Delovoy Tsentr (Деловой центр, eng:Business Center) is a temporarily closed station of the Moscow Metro's Kalininsko–Solntsevskaya line that opened on 31 January 31, 2014 and closed on 24 February 2018.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The word diorama can either refer to a 19th-century mobile theatre device, or, in modern usage, a three-dimensional full-size or miniature model, sometimes enclosed in a glass showcase for a museum.
Disney Channel Russia is a television channel which began broadcasting in Russia and other CIS countries.
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.
Dmitry Alexandrovich (ca. 1250–1294) was Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1276 until 1281 and then from 1283 until 1293.
Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (p; October 17, 1577 - April 30, 1642), a Rurikid prince, led Russian forces against Polish-Lithuanian invaders in 1611-1612 towards the end of the Time of Troubles.
Domashny or Domashniy (Домашний, literally: "Home Channel", "Domestic Channel") is a TV Network which targets female viewers aged 25–60.
Domenico Gilardi (Доменико Жилярди, 1785–1845), was an Italian architect who worked primarily in Moscow, Russia in Neoclassicist style.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
Donskoy Monastery (Донско́й монасты́рь) is a major monastery in Moscow, founded in 1591 in commemoration of Moscow's deliverance from the threat of an invasion by the Crimean Khan Kazy-Girey.
Dozhd (a), also known as TV Rain, is a Russian independent television channel.
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Dyakovo culture (Дьяковская культура, from the excavated site at Dyakovo - Дьяково) is an Iron Age culture which occupied a significant part of the Upper Volga, Valday and Oka River area.
Dynamo Moscow (Дина́мо-Москва́) is a Russian sports club from Moscow which was founded in 1923.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland to the Urals, the East European Plain encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and much of the European portion of Russia and reaches north into Finland." — Britannica. predominantly by Russian scientists, or historically the Sarmatic Plain) is a vast interior plain extending east of the North/Central European Plain, and comprising several plateaus stretching roughly from 25 degrees longitude eastward.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Echo of Moscow (Э́хо Москвы́, Ekho Moskvy) is a Russian radio station based in Moscow, broadcasting in many Russian cities, some of the former-Soviet republics (through partnerships with local radio stations), and via the Internet.
Russia is divided into twelve economic regions (экономи́ческие райо́ны, ekonomicheskiye rayony, sing. ekonomichesky rayon)—groups of federal subjects sharing the following characteristics.
Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eldar Alexandrovich Ryazanov (Эльда́р Алекса́ндрович Ряза́нов; 18 November 1927 – 30 November 2015) was a Soviet and Russian film director and screenwriter whose popular comedies, satirizing the daily life of the Soviet Union and Russia, are celebrated throughout the former Soviet Union.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
Elektrichka (p; електри́чка, elektrychka) is a Soviet and Eastern bloc commuter (regional) mostly suburban electrical multiple unit passenger train.
Elektrozavodskaya (Электрозаводская) is a Moscow Metro station on the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line.
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).
An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (UK, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa, Nigeria) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Ensenada is a coastal city in Mexico, the third-largest in Baja California.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
Europa Plus is Russia's first and most popular commercial radio station, owned by the European Media Group.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Cup is an annual bandy club competition between teams from Europe.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2009 was the 54th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
Facadism, façadism (or façadomy) refers to an architectural and construction practice where the facade of a building was designed or constructed separately from the rest of a building.
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
Muzeon Park of Arts (formerly the Park of the Fallen Heroes or Fallen Monument Park) is a park outside the Krymsky Val building in Moscow shared by the modern art division of Tretyakov Gallery and Central House of Artists.
The Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture, 3200 BC–2300 BC, is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture into Russia.
FC Chertanovo Moscow («Чертаново» (Москва)) is a Russian football team from Moscow.
Football Club Dynamo Kyiv is a Ukrainian professional football club based in Kiev.
FC Dynamo Moscow (Dinamo Moscow, FC Dinamo Moskva, Дина́мо Москва́) is a Russian football club based in Khimki, Moscow Oblast.
FC Lokomotiv Moscow (FC Lokomotiv Moskva, Футбо́льный клуб "Локомоти́в" Москва́,, Locomotive) is a Russian football club based in Moscow.
FC Spartak Moscow (Футбольный клуб «Спартак» Москва) is a Russian professional football club from Moscow.
Football Club Torpedo Moscow (ФК "Торпедо" Москва, FK Torpedo Moskva) is a Russian football club based in Moscow that was founded in 1930 and currently plays in the Russian Professional Football League.
The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).
A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
The Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii, common abbreviation: Совфед (Sovfed) or Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.
The Federation Towers (translit) is a complex of two skyscrapers built on the 13th lot of the Moscow International Business Center (MIBC) in Moscow, Russia.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The Filyovskaya line (Филёвская ли́ния), or Line 4, is a line of the Moscow Metro.
The Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Financial University) (Russian: Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации) earlier known as "Moscow Institute of Economics and Finance" (1919–1946), "Moscow Finance Institute" (1946–1990), "State Finance Academy" (1991–1992) or "Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation" (1992–2010), is a federal state-funded institution of higher professional education located in Moscow, Russia.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of North-West Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.
The 1812 Fire of Moscow broke out on 14 September 1812, when Russian troops and most of the remaining residents abandoned the city of Moscow just ahead of Napoleon's vanguard troops entering the city after the Battle of Borodino.
The flag of Moscow, in the Russian Federation, is a dark red banner of arms charged as the arms of the city in the centre.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The foreign relations of the Russian Federation is the policy of the government of Russia by which it guides the interactions with other nations, their citizens and foreign organizations.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Pyatnitsa! (Пятница!, literally Friday!) is Russian federal entertainment channel.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Fyodor Savelyevich Kon (Фёдор Саве́льевич Ко́нь; fl. 1585–1600) was a 16th-century Russian military engineer and architect, the builder of Smolensk Kremlin (1597–1602) and the Bely Gorod fortification ring of Moscow (1585–1593).
The S.N. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex is a clinical and research ophthalmological center in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1988 by Russian eye surgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
The Garden Ring, also known as the "B" Ring (Садо́вое кольцо́, кольцо́ "Б"; transliteration: Sadovoye Koltso), is a circular ring road avenue around central Moscow, its course corresponding to what used to be the city ramparts surrounding Zemlyanoy Gorod in the 17th century.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
The Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography (Всероссийский государственный университет кинематографии имени С.А.Герасимова, meaning All-Russian State University of Cinematography named after S. A. Gerasimov), a.k.a. VGIK, is a film school in Moscow, Russia.
Statistics for German World War II military casualties are divergent and contradictory.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure (p) is a central park in Moscow, named after Maxim Gorky.
The Government of Moscow (Правительство Москвы) is the highest executive body of state authority of Moscow.
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Grand Kremlin Palace (Большой Кремлёвский дворец; Bolshoy Kremlyovskiy Dvorets), also translated Great Kremlin Palace, was built from 1837 to 1849 in Moscow, Russia on the site of the estate of the Grand Princes, which had been established in the 14th century on Borovitsky Hill.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Stand on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between the forces of Akhmat, Khan of the Great Horde, and the Grand Prince Ivan III of Muscovy in 1480, which ended when the Tatars departed without conflict. It is seen in Russian historiography as the end of Tatar rule over Moscow.Michael Khodarkovsky, Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800, (Indiana University Press, 2002), 80.
The Greater Ring of the Moscow Railway (Большое кольцо Московской железной дороги) is the common name for a system of connector lines between the railways that radiate from Moscow.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
GUM (ГУМ, pronounced, an abbreviation of r, literally "Main Universal Store") is the main department store in many cities of the former Soviet Union, known as State Department Store (r) during the Soviet era.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Haute couture (French for "high sewing" or "high dressmaking" or "high fashion") is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing.
Haute cuisine (French: literally "high cooking") or grande cuisine refers to the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
HC CSKA Moscow (ЦСКА Москва, Центральный Спортивный Клуб Армии, Central Sports Club of the Army, Moscow) is a Russian professional ice hockey club that plays in the Tarasov Division in the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).
HC Dynamo Moscow (ХК Дина́мо Москва́) is a Russian professional ice hockey club based in Moscow.
HC Spartak Moscow (ХК Спартак Москва, Spartak Moskva) is a professional ice hockey team based in Moscow, Russia.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).
A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions.
hare krishno Hinduism has been spread in Russia primarily due to the work of missionaries from the Vaishnava Hindu organization International Society for Krishna Consciousness and by itinerant Swamis from India and small communities of Indian immigrants.
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
A horseshoe is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hyperboloid structures are architectural structures designed using a hyperboloid in one sheet.
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (1st MSMU) is a medical higher educational institution in the Russian Federation.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Ice Palace Krylatskoye is a sports venue in Moscow, and indoor ice arena for speed skating and bandy.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
Illegal immigration to Russia/Soviet Union has been ongoing since the Great Depression.
Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.
Public Joint Stock Company Ilyushin Aviation Complex, operating as Ilyushin (Ilyushin) (Илью́шин) or Ilyushin Design Bureau, is a Russian aircraft manufacturer and design bureau, founded by Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany.
P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems (Институт физических проблем имени П. Л. Капицы РАН) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP; Russian Институт теоретической и экспериментальной физики) is a multi-disciplinary research center located in Moscow, Russia.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia, encompassing somewhere between 7% and 15% of all Russians.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Ivan I Daniilovich Kalita (Russian: Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́; 1288 – 31 March 1340 or 1341Basil Dmytryshyn, Medieval Russia:A source book, 850-1700, (Academic International Press, 2000), 194.) was Grand Duke of Moscow from 1325 and Vladimir from 1332.
Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.
Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov (Ива́н Миха́йлович Се́ченов;, Tyoply Stan (now Sechenovo) near Simbirsk, Russia –, Moscow), was a Russian physiologist, named by Ivan Pavlov as "The Father of Russian physiology".
Izmaylovsky Park or Izmaylovo Park is one of the largest parks in Moscow, Russia.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jelgava (Mitau; see also other names) is a city in central Latvia about southwest of Riga with about 63,000 inhabitants.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kaluga Oblast (Калу́жская о́бласть, Kaluzhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The Kaluzhsko–Rizhskaya line (Калу́жско-Ри́жская ли́ния) is a line of the Moscow Metro, that originally existed as two separate radial lines, Rizhskaya and Kaluzhskaya opened in 1958 and 1962, respectively.
Kaspersky Lab (/kæˈspɜːrski/; Russian: Лаборатория Касперского, Laboratoriya Kasperskogo) is a multinational cybersecurity and anti-virus provider headquartered in Moscow, Russia and operated by a holding company in the United Kingdom.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazan Cathedral Казанский собор, formally known as the "Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan", is a Russian Orthodox church located on the northeast corner of Red Square in Moscow, Russia.
Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (// ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.–May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Khimki (p) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 30 kilometres northwest of central Moscow.
Khodynka Field (Ходынское поле, Khodynskoye pole) is a large open space in the north-west of Moscow, at the beginning of the present day Leningradsky Prospect.
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (ГКНПЦ им. М. В. Хру́ничева in Russian) is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Kitay-gorod (p), also referred to as the Great Possad (Великий Посад) in the 16th-17th centuries, is a cultural and historical area within the central part of Moscow in Russia, defined by the remnants of now almost entirely razed fortifications, narrow streets and very densely built cityscape.
Kiyevskaya (Киевская) is a station on the Filyovskaya line of the Moscow Metro (though it was originally part of the Arbatsko–Pokrovskaya line).
Kiyevskaya (Ки́евская) is a Moscow Metro station in the Dorogomilovo District, Western Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.
Kolomna (p) is an ancient city of Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka Rivers, (by rail) southeast of Moscow.
The Koltsevaya line (Кольцева́я ли́ния, Circle line), (Line 5), is a metro line of the Moscow Metro.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
Komsomolskaya (Комсомо́льская) is a Moscow Metro station in the Krasnoselsky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
Konrad Wolf (20 October 1925 – 7 March 1982) was an East German film director.
Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov (Russian: Константин Степанович Мельников; – November 28, 1974) was a Russian architect and painter.
Konstantin Sergeievich Stanislavski (né Alexeiev; p; 7 August 1938) was a seminal Russian theatre practitioner.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kremlin Armoury,Officially called the "Armou/ory Chamber" but also known as the cannon yard, the "Armou/ory Palace", the "Moscow Armou/ory", the "Armou/ory Museum", and the "Moscow Armou/ory Museum" but different from the Kremlin Arsenal.
The Kremlin Cup (Кубок Кремля) is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts.
The Krivichs (Kryvichs) (Крывічы, Kryvičý,; p) was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
The Kurchatov Institute (Hациональный исследовательский центр "Курчатовский Институт" (since 2010) i.e. (Russia's) National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"; 1991-2010: Роcсийский научный центр "Курчатовский Институт". — Russian Scientific Centre "Kurchatov Institute") is Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy.
Kuskovo (Куско́во) was the summer country house and estate of the Sheremetev family.
Kutuzovsky Prospekt (Куту́зовский проспе́кт) is a major radial avenue in Moscow, Russia, named after Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, leader of Russian field army during the French invasion of Russia.
Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (Кузьма́ (Козьма́) Ми́нин; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, Кузьма́ Ми́нич Заха́рьев Сухору́кий; died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early 17th century.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
The L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a research institution, located in the small town of Chernogolovka near Moscow (there is also a subdivision in Moscow).
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
NPO Lavochkin (НПО Лавочкина, OKB-301, also called Lavochkin Research and Production Association or shortly Lavochkin Association, LA) is a Russian aerospace company.
Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Ла́зарь Моисе́евич Кагано́вич; – 25 July 1991) was a Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Leningradsky Prospekt (Ленингра́дский проспе́кт), or Leningrad Avenue, is a major arterial avenue in Moscow, Russia.
Lev Davidovich Landau (22 January 1908 - April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.
Lev Ivanovich Yashin (Лев Ива́нович Я́шин, 22 October 1929 – 20 March 1990), nicknamed the "Black Spider" or the "Black Panther", was a Soviet professional footballer, widely regarded as the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the sport.
Limoges (Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a partial list of bridges of Moscow, Russia, including existing rail, road and foot bridges over Moskva River, Moskva Canal, Vodootvodny Canal within the MKAD beltway limits and the bridges over Yauza River downstream from Rostokino.
In 2015 there were more than 600 churches from different Christian denominations in Moscow.
This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 as of the 2010 Census. These numbers are the population within the limits of the city/town proper, not the urban area or metropolitan area figures. The list excludes the city of Sevastopol and the cities/towns of the Republic of Crimea, as those were not a part of the 2010 Census, are a subject of an unresolved dispute between Russia and Ukraine, and are considered to be a part of Ukraine by the majority of the international community. The city of Zelenograd (a part of the federal city of Moscow) and the municipal cities/towns of the federal city of St. Petersburg are also excluded, as they are not enumerated in the 2010 Census as stand-alone localities.
This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.
This article lists the most populous cities in the world defined according to a concept of city proper.
This is a list of diplomatic missions in Russia.
This is a list of the largest cities in Europe ranked according to population within their city limits.
Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.
This list of metro systems includes electrified rapid transit train systems worldwide.
One concept which measures the world's largest cities is that of the metropolitan area, which is based on the concept of a labor market area and is typically defined as an employment core (an area with a high density of available jobs) and the surrounding areas that have strong commuting ties to the core.
This is a list of major tourist attractions in the Russian city of Moscow.
These are lists of the world's most expensive cities for expatriate employees (not residents), according to the Mercer, ECA International and Xpatulator.com cost-of-living surveys.
This is a list of museums in Moscow, the capital city of Russia.
This is a list of Russian billionaires based on an annual assessment of wealth and assets compiled and published by Forbes magazine in 2017.
This is a list of shopping malls in Moscow, Russia.
This list of tallest buildings in the world ranks skyscrapers by height.
This is a list of tallest freestanding structures in the world past and present.
This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Little Ring of the Moscow Railways (MK MZD, Малое кольцо Московской Железной Дороги), is a orbital railway in Moscow.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
Lobnoye mesto (Лобное место) is a 13-meter-long stone platform situated on Red Square in Moscow in front of Saint Basil's Cathedral.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Losiny Ostrov National Park (Национальный парк "Лосиный Остров", literally - Elk (Moose) Island) is the first national park of Russia.
Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017.
Lyudmila Georgievna Zykina (Людми́ла Гео́ргиевна Зы́кина) (10 June 1929 – 1 July 2009) was a national folk singer of Russia.
M-Radio (М-Радио) is a Russian Moscow-based radio station.
The M10 is a federal highway in Russia connecting the country's two largest cities, Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
Mail.Ru Group, ООО (commonly referred to as Mail.Ru) is a Russian Internet company.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Manezhnaya (p, Manege Square) is a large pedestrian open space in the Tverskoy District, at the heart of Moscow.
The David N. Dinkins Municipal Building, originally the Municipal Building and then the Manhattan Municipal Building, at 1 Centre Street in Manhattan, New York City, is a 40-story building built to accommodate increased governmental space demands after the 1898 consolidation of the city's five boroughs.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Marat Mubinovich Safin (p, Марат Мөбин улы Сафин; born 27 January 1980) is a Russian politician and retired professional tennis player.
Marco Ruffo as known as Marco Fryazin (Марк Фрязин, Марко Фрязин and Марко Руффо in Russian) was an Italian architect active in Moscow in the 15th century.
Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (p; 31 August 1941) was a Russian and Soviet poet.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management).
Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov (Матве́й Фёдорович Казако́в, 1738 – 7 November 1812) was a Russian Neoclassical architect.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.
Maya Mikhailovna Plisetskaya (Ма́йя Миха́йловна Плисе́цкая; 20 November 1925 – 2 May 2015) was a Soviet ballet dancer, choreographer, ballet director, and actress, who held in post-Soviet times Spanish and Lithuanian citizenship.
Mayakovskaya (Маяковская), is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya Line, in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow.
Maybach Motorenbau is a defunct German car manufacturer that today exists as a sub-brand of Mercedes-Benz.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
The Mayor of the City of Moscow is head of the executive branch of the political system in Moscow, the Government of Moscow.
A megacity is a very large city, typically with a total population in excess of 10 million people.
MegaFon (МегаФон), previously known as North-West GSM, is the second largest mobile phone operator Kommersant and the third largest telecom operator in Russia.
The Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics (Russian Музей космонавтики, also known as the Memorial Museum of Astronautics (in English) or Memorial Museum of Space Exploration) is a museum in Moscow, Russia, dedicated to space exploration.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
Metrowagonmash (ОАО "Метровагонмаш") is an engineering company in Mytishchi, Russia.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mezhdunarodnaya (Междунаро́дная - International) is a northern terminus of one of the 2 branches of the Filyovskaya Line of the Moscow Metro.
MFK Dinamo Moscow oblast (МФК Дина́мо Москвовская область) is a Russian futsal club based in Moscow oblast.
Michael I of Russia (Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов, Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov) became the first Russian Tsar of the House of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.
Mikhail Yaroslavich (Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – 22 November 1318), also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1314 and again from 1315–1318.
Mikhail Dmitrievitch Prokhorov (p; born 3 May 1965) is a Russian billionaire, politician, and owner of the American basketball team the Brooklyn Nets.
Mikhail Vartanov (Михаил Вартанов., Միքայել Վարդանով, Mikhaïl Vartanov b. February 21, 1937, RSFSR, Soviet Union, now Russian Federation, d. December 31, 2009, Hollywood, California) was a film director, cinematographer, documentarian, essayist, photographer and artist who developed a style of documentary filmmaking termed the “direction of undirected action.” His reputation as one of the most important cinematographers, documentarians and intellectuals of his generation was cemented by such influential documentary films as The Seasons of the Year, Parajanov: The Last Spring, and a series of essays including The Unmailed Letters.
Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (Rossiyskaya samoletostroitel'naya korporatsiya "MiG") is a Russian aerospace joint stock company.
Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant (Московский вертолётный завод им.) is a Russian designer and producer of helicopters headquartered in Tomilino.
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The Monument to the Conquerors of Space (p) was erected in Moscow in 1964 to celebrate achievements of the Soviet people in space exploration.
In linguistics, morphological leveling or paradigm leveling is the generalization of an inflection across a paradigm or between words.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Moscow 24 (Москва 24) is a Russian 24-hour TV channel, a part of the "Moscow Media" Incorporated editorial office of Moscow media sources and referred to All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (VGTRK).
The Moscow Art Theatre (or MAT; Московский Художественный академический театр (МХАТ), Moskovskiy Hudojestvenny Akademicheskiy Teatr (МHАТ)) is a theatre company in Moscow.
Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) (Московский авиационный институт) founded in 1930 is one of several major engineering higher education establishments in Moscow.
Belorussky railway terminal (Белору́сский вокза́л) is a passenger terminal at the Moscow–Passenger–Smolenskaya railway station (Москва́-Пассажирская-Смоле́нская, also known as Moskva-Smolenskaya) of the Moscow Railway.
The Tsytsin Main Moscow Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences was founded in April 1945, and claims itself to be the largest botanical garden in Europe.
Moscow Cathedral Mosque (Московская соборная мечеть., Moskovskaya sobornaya mechet) is the main mosque of Moscow, Russia.
Moscow Central Bus Terminal is a bus terminal in Moscow for long-range and intercity passenger buses with daily overturn of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40% of long-range bus routes in Moscow.
The Moscow Central Circle or MCC (Московское центральное кольцо, МЦК), designated Line 14 or just Encircle Line (Окружная линия) and marked in a strawberry red/white color is a orbital urban/metropolitan rail line that encircles historical Moscow.
Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoi Boulevard, or Nikulin's Circus, is located on Tsvetnoi Boulevard in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow.
The Moscow City Duma (Московская городская дума, Moskovskaya Gorodskaya Duma) is the Russian regional parliament in Moscow, the unicameral City Duma (city council, a local parliament) of the Russian capital city of Moscow.
The Moscow Conservatory, also officially Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory (Московская государственная консерватория им.) is an educational music institution located in Moscow, Russia.
Moscow Domodedovo Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Московский Физико-Технический институт), known informally as PhysTech (Физтех), is a Russian university, originally established in Soviet Union.
The Moscow International Business Centre (MIBC) (r), also known as “Moscow City” (r), is a commercial district in central Moscow, Russia.
The Moscow International Performing Arts Centre was officially opened on September 28, 2003 with the debut of a new orchestra, the National Philharmonic of Russia under musical director Vladimir Spivakov.
Kazansky railway terminal (Каза́нский вокза́л, Kazansky vokzal) also known as Moscow Kazansky railway station (Москва́-Каза́нская, Moskva-Kazanskaya) is one of nine railway terminals in Moscow, situated on the Komsomolskaya Square, across the square from the Leningradsky and Yaroslavsky stations.
Kiyevsky railway terminal (Ки́евский вокза́л, Kievskiy vokzal) also known as Moscow Kiyevskaya railway station (Москва́-Ки́евская, Moskva-Kievskaya) is one of the nine railway terminals of Moscow, Russia.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Kursky railway terminal (Ку́рский вокза́л, Kursky vokzal), also known as Moscow Kurskaya railway station (Москва́-Ку́рская, Moskva-Kurskaya), is one of the nine railway terminals in Moscow.
Moscow Leningradsky railway terminal (Ленинградский вокзал, Leningradsky vokzal) also known as Moscow Passazhirskaya station (Москва-Главная-Пассажирская) is the oldest of Moscow's nine railway terminals.
The Moscow Manege (a) is a large oblong building which gives its name to the vast Manege Square, which was cleared in the 1930s and lies adjacent to the more famous Red Square.
The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.
Moscow metropolitan area (Московская агломерация) or Moscow capital region (Московский столичный регион) is the largest metropolitan area in Russia and Europe, with population of about 16,170,000.
The Moscow Millionaire Fair held in Moscow, Russia is an annual fair for Russian millionaires.
The Moscow Monorail (Московский монорельс) is a long monorail line located in the North-Eastern Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia.
Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Paveletsky station (Павелецкий вокзал) is one of Moscow's nine main railway stations.
The Moscow Automobile Ring Road (Московская кольцевая автомобильная дорога, Moskovskaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga), or MKAD (МКАД), is a ring road encircling the parts of the City of Moscow, the capital of Russia.
Rizhsky station (Рижский вокзал, Rizhsky vokzal, Riga station) is one of the nine main railway stations in Moscow, Russia.
Savyolovsky station (Савёловский вокза́л, Savyolovsky vokzal), alternatively spelled Savyolovskiy, Savelovsky or Savelovskiy, is one of the nine main railway stations in the Maryina roshcha District of Moscow.
The title Moscow State Circus is used for a variety of circuses.
Moscow State Institute of International Relations (Московский государственный институт международных отношений (Университет) МИД России, often abbreviated as MGIMO University, MGIMO (МГИМО)) is an academic institution run by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, which is considered the most elite university in Russia.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
The Moscow uprising of 1648 (Russian: Соляной бунт, Московское восстание 1648), sometimes known as the salt riot, started because of the government's replacement of different taxes with a universal salt tax for the purpose of replenishing the state treasury after the Time of Troubles.
The Moscow uprising of 1682, also known as the Streltsy uprising of 1682 (Стрелецкий бунт), was an uprising of the Moscow Streltsy regiments that resulted in supreme power devolving on Sophia Alekseyevna (the daughter of the late Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich and of his first wife Maria Miloslavskaya).
Moscow Yaroslavsky railway station (Ярославский вокзал) – is one of the nine main railway stations in Moscow.
The Moscow Zoo (Московский зоопарк) is a zoo founded in 1864 by professor-biologists, K.F. Rulje, S.A. Usov and A.P. Bogdanov, from the Moscow State University.
Moscow is a hamlet in East Ayrshire in Scotland.
Mosfilm (Мосфильм, Mosfil’m) is a film studio that is among the largest and oldest in the Russian Federation and in Europe.
Moskovskiye Vedomosti (p; Moscow News) was Russia's largest newspaper by circulation before it was overtaken by Saint Petersburg dailies in the mid-19th century.
The Moskva River (река Москва, Москва-река, Moskva-reka) is a river of western Russia.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
"Moya Moskva" (Моя Москва, "My Moscow") is the anthem of the city of Moscow since 1995.
Mozgawa is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Pińczów, within Pińczów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland.
Mstislav Leopoldovich "Slava" Rostropovich (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopol'dovič Rostropovič,; 27 March 192727 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian cellist and conductor.
MTS (Mobile TeleSystems) is the largest mobile operator in Russia and CIS with over 102.4 million subscribers as of 31 December 2009.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myachkovo Airport (Аэропорт Мячково) is an airport in Moscow Oblast, Russia located 31 km southeast of Moscow.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nashe Radio (Наше Радио, Our Radio, pronounced nush-eh) is a Russian Rock music radio station.
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Национальный исследовательский ядерный университет "МИФИ" / НИЯУ МИФИ or МИФИ) is one of the most recognized technical universities in Russia.
The National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE, Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», НИУ ВШЭ) is one of the leading and largest universities in Russia.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Neglinnaya River (p), also known as Neglinka, Neglinna, Neglimna (Неглинка, Неглинна, Неглимна), is a 7.5-km long underground river in the central part of Moscow and a tributary of the Moskva River.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neskuchny Garden (Неску́чный сад; literally meaning "not boring" or "merry") is the oldest park in Moscow, Russia.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Arbat Avenue (Но́вый Арба́т) is a major street in Moscow running west from Arbat Square on the Boulevard Ring to Novoarbatsky Bridge on the opposite bank of the Moskva River.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.
Nikita Sergeyevich Mikhalkov (Ники́та Серге́евич Михалко́в; born 21 October 1945) is a Russian filmmaker, actor, and head of the Russian Cinematographers' Union.
Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov,; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a Soviet secret police official under Joseph Stalin who was head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, during the most active period of the Great Purge. Having presided over mass arrests and executions during the Great Purge, Yezhov eventually fell from Stalin's favour and power. He was arrested, confessed to a range of anti-Soviet activity, later claiming he was tortured into making these confessions, and was executed in 1940. By the beginning of World War II, his status within the Soviet Union had become that of enemy of the people.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (or Semenov), (Никола́й Никола́евич Семёнов; – 25 September 1986) was a Russian/Soviet physicist and chemist.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Noon (also midday or noon time) is 12 o'clock in the daytime, as opposed to midnight.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The North River Terminal or Rechnoy Vokzal (Речной вокзал, meaning "River Station"), is one of two passenger terminals of river transport in Moscow.
"Nouveau riche" (French: 'new rich') is a term, usually derogatory, to describe those whose wealth has been acquired within their own generation, rather than by familial inheritance.
Novaya Gazeta (p) is a Russian newspaper well known in its country for its critical and investigative coverage of Russian political and social affairs.
The Novgorod First Chronicle (Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471 is the most ancient extant chronicle of the Novgorod Republic.
Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (Новоде́вичий монасты́рь, Богоро́дице-Смоле́нский монасты́рь), is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow.
Novokuznetskaya (Новокузнецкая) is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya Line.
Novoslobodskaya (Новослобо́дская) is a Moscow Metro station in the Tverskoy District of the Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
Novospassky Monastery (New monastery of the Saviour, Новоспасский монастырь) is one of the fortified monasteries surrounding Moscow from the south-east.
NPO Energomash “V.
NTV (Cyrillic: НТВ) is a Russian television channel that was launched as a subsidiary of Vladimir Gusinsky's company.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Oka (Ока́) is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Byzantine Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría), also often known by the Latin names Magna Bulgaria) and Patria Onoguria ("Onogur land"), was a 7th Century state formed by the Onogur Bulgars on the western Pontic Steppe (modern southern Ukraine and south-west Russia). Great Bulgaria was originally centred between the Dniester and lower Volga. The original capital was Phanagoriaon the Taman peninsula between the Black and Azov seas. In the mid-7th century, Great Bulgaria expanded west to include Avar territory and was centered in Poltava. During the late 7th century, however, an Avar-Slavic alliance in the west, and Khazars in the east, defeated the Bulgars and the Great Bulgaria disintegrated. Successor states included Volga Bulgaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.
Oleg Vladimirovich Deripaska (Оле́г Влади́мирович Дерипа́ска; born January 2, 1968) is a Russian oligarch aluminium magnate and philanthropist.
Olimpiysky (Olympic Stadium) (known locally as the Olimpiski) is an indoor arena, located in Moscow, Russia.
An onion dome (луковичная глава, lúkovichnaya glavá; compare лук, luk, "onion") is a dome whose shape resembles an onion.
The Order of Victory (translit) was the highest military decoration awarded for World War II service in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
Ostafyevo International Business Airport (Международный аэропорт бизнес-авиации «Остафьево») is a "B" class international airport, located to the south of Moscow Ring Road in Novomoskovsky administrative okrug of Moscow.
Ostankino Palace is a former summer residence and private opera theatre of Sheremetev family, originally situated several kilometres to the north from Moscow but now a part of the North-Eastern Administrative Okrug of Moscow.
Ostankino Tower (Останкинская телебашня, Ostankinskaya telebashnya) is a television and radio tower in Moscow, Russia, owned by the Moscow branch of unitary enterprise Russian TV and Radio Broadcasting Network.
Otkritie Arena (p) is a multi-purpose stadium in Moscow, Russia.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Park Pobedy (Парк Победы – Victory Park) is a station of the Moscow Metro in the city's Dorogomilovo District.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' (Патриарх Московский и всея Руси Patriarkh Moskovskij i vseja Rusi), also known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
Pavel Mikhaylovich Tretyakov (Па́вел Миха́йлович Третьяко́в; December 27, 1832 – December 16, 1898) was a Russian businessman, patron of art, collector, and philanthropist who gave his name to the Tretyakov Gallery and Tretyakov Drive in Moscow.
Pazardzhik (Пазарджик) is a city situated along the banks of the Maritsa river, Southern Bulgaria.
PBC CSKA Moscow (ПБК ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian professional basketball team based in Moscow, Russia.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Peretz (Rus. for pepper) is a Russian federal television channel.
Throughout the history of the Soviet Union (1922–1991), there were periods where Soviet authorities suppressed and persecuted various forms of Christianity to different extents depending on State interests.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Petersburg – Channel 5 or simply known as Channel Five (1938-1986 as Leningrad Television, 1987-2004 as Saint Petersburg Television), is a television channel based in St. Petersburg, Russia, also known simply as Channel 5 (Петербург–Пятый канал).
PFC Central Sport Club of the Army Moscow (Профессиональный футбольный клуб – ЦСКА) is a Russian professional football club.
Pietro Antonio Solari (Latin:Petrus Antonius Solarius)Z.
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Российский экономический университет имени Г.В. Плеханова.) is a public research university in Moscow.
Pleven (Плевен) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria.
Ploshchad Revolyutsii (Пло́щадь Револю́ции) is one of the most famous stations of the Moscow Metro, in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow.
Podgorica (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Подгорица,, lit. " below Gorica ") is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.
Pokrovsky Hills (Покровские Холмы) is a gated community in the north-west part of Moscow, Russia.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The political status of Crimea is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia.
Poljot (Полёт, literally meaning "flight"), is a brand of Soviet/Russian wristwatches, produced since 1964 by the First Moscow Watch Factory (Первый Московский Часовой Завод, ПМЧЗ, Perviy Moskovskiy Chasovoy Zavod).
The Polytechnic Museum (Политехнический музей) is one of the oldest science museums in the world, located in Moscow that emphasizes the progress of Russian and Soviet technology and science, as well as modern inventions and developments.
The Porsche Cayenne is a mid-size luxury crossover sport utility vehicle produced by the German manufacturer Porsche since 2002, with North American sales beginning in 2003.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
Prada S.p.A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in leather handbags, travel accessories, shoes, ready-to-wear, perfumes and other fashion accessories, founded in 1913 by Mario Prada.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The President of the State of Palestine is the head of the State of Palestine.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
Presnensky District (Пре́сненский райо́н), commonly called Presnya (Пре́сня), is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
Profsoyuznaya (Профсоюзная) is a station on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line of the Moscow Metro.
Protestants in Russia constitute between 0.5 and 1.5%US State Department Religious Freedom Report on Russia, 2006 (i.e. 700,000 - 2 million adherents) of the overall population of the country.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
Public Television of Russia (PTR, Общественное Телевидение России - Obshchestvennoye Televideniye Rossii - OTR), a Russian television station, started broadcasting on 19 May 2013.
The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts (Музей изобразительных искусств им., also known as ГМИИ) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa or Peter Kapitza (Russian: Пётр Леони́дович Капи́ца, Romanian: Petre Capiţa (– 8 April 1984) was a leading Soviet physicist and Nobel laureate, best known for his work in low-temperature physics.
Radio Maximum is a Russian radio station, specializing in pop and rock music.
Radio Rossii (Радио России, Radio of Russia) is the primary public radio station in Russia.
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.
Ramallah (رام الله) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority.
Rambler (Рамблер) is a Russian search engine and one of the biggest Russian web portals.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rasht (رشت; Rəsht; also Romanized as Resht and Rast, and often spelt Recht in French and older German manuscripts) is the capital city of Gilan Province, Iran.
RBK TV (РБК) is the first (and so far only) 24-hour business news television channel in Russia.
RC Lokomotiv Moscow is a professional Russian rugby football club based in Moscow, which from 2010 will field teams in both rugby league and rugby union.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.
Religion in Russia is very diversified.
REN TV (РЕН ТВ) is one of the largest private federal TV channels in Russia.
The Republic of Crimea (or; Республика Крым, Respublika Krym, Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym, Къырым Джумхуриети, Qirim Cumhuriyeti) is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula.
Registration in the Russian Federation is the system that records the residence and internal migration of Russian citizens.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Reynosa is a border city in the northern part of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Richmond Park, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, was created by Charles I in the 17th century as a deer park.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
Roman Arkadyevich Abramovich (Russian: Рома́н Арка́дьевич Абрамо́вич,; Hebrew: רומן אברמוביץ'; born 24 October 1966) is a Russian-Israeli billionaire businessman, investor, and politician.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rostelecom (ОАО «Ростелеком») is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
RU.TV is a Russian music TV channel.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
Professional Rugby League (Профессиональная регбийная лига) is the premier rugby union competition in Russia.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Ruselectronics (Roselectronica), is a Russian state-owned holding company founded in 1997.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russia-1 (Россия-1) is a state-owned Russian television channel first aired on 22 March 1951 as Programme One in the Soviet Union.
Russia-2 (Россия-2) was a Russian television channel operated by VGTRK.
Russia-24 (Россия-24) is a state-owned Russian-language news channel from Russia.
Russia-K (translit) is a Russian television network, broadcasting culture and arts-oriented shows.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Russian ballet (Ballet russe) is a form of ballet characteristic of or originating from Russia.
The Russian Bandy Super League (Чемпионат России по хоккею с мячом — Суперлига), is a professional bandy league in Russia, the top division of Russian bandy.
The Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да) was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002.
The Russian Chess Championship has taken various forms.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian famine of 1601–1603 was Russia's worst famine in terms of proportional effect on the population, killing perhaps two million people, a third of the Russian people.
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Федеральная служба государственной статистики, Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki) (also known as Rosstat) is the governmental statistics agency in Russia.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Football Championship (Чемпионат России по футболу, Chempionat Rossii po Futbolu), or Russian Football Premier League (Российская футбольная премьер-лига), is the top division professional association football league in Russia.
The Professional Football League (Первенство Профессиональной футбольной лиги), formerly the Russian Second Division is the third level of Russian professional football.
JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZhD; ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (ОАО «РЖД») tr. OAO Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (OAO RZhD)) is a Russian fully state-owned vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
The Russian State Library (Российская государственная библиотека) is the national library of Russia, located in Moscow.
The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Muscovy and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate during the 16th century over the region around Volga River.
The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
RZD Arena («РЖД Арена») is a football stadium in Moscow, Russia.
The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (Собор Василия Блаженного, Sobor Vasiliya Blazhennogo), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is a church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Savyolovskaya (Савёловская), alternatively transliterated Savelovskaya, is a station on Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line of the Moscow Metro.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Scandinavians are people belonging to the various ethnic groups native to Scandinavia: Always included based on a genetic definition are.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.
Sergei Parajanov (Սերգեյ Փարաջանով; Серге́й Ио́сифович Параджа́нов; სერგო ფარაჯანოვი; Сергій Йо́сипович Параджа́нов; sometimes spelled Paradzhanov or Paradjanov; January 9, 1924 – July 20, 1990) was a Soviet film director and artist of Armenian descent who made significant contributions to Soviet cinematography through Ukrainian, Georgian, and Armenian cinema.
Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff (28 March 1943) was a Russian pianist, composer, and conductor of the late Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular in the Romantic repertoire.
Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin (Серге́й Миха́йлович Брин; born August 21, 1973) is a Russian-born American computer scientist and internet entrepreneur.
Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov (Серге́й Ви́кторович Лавро́в,; born 21 March 1950) is a Russian diplomat and politician; he is currently the Foreign Minister of Russia, in office since 2004.
Sergey Vladimirovich Mikhalkov (Серге́й Влади́мирович Михалко́в; − 27 August 2009) was a Soviet and Russian author of children's books and satirical fables who had the opportunity to write the lyrics of his country's national anthem on three different occasions, spanning almost 60 years.
Sergey Semyonovich Sobyanin (Серге́й Семёнович Собя́нин; born 21 June 1958) is a Russian politician.
The Serpukhovsko–Timiryazevskaya line (Line 9), sometimes colloquially referred to as Grey Line (серая линия), is a line of the Moscow Metro.
The Setun is a river in the west of Moscow and the largest tributary of the Moskva River in Moscow.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Seven Sisters (lit) are a group of seven skyscrapers in Moscow designed in the Stalinist style.
A share taxi (also called shared taxi) is a mode of transport which falls between a taxicab and a bus.
The Shchusev State Museum of Architecture is a national museum of Russian Architecture located in Moscow the capital of Russia and also a research centre to study and promote the architectural and urban heritage.
Sheremetyevo International Airport (p) is an international airport located in Molzhaninovsky District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia, northwest of central Moscow.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Moscow in 1382 was a battle between Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde, and the Muscovite forces.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
Simonov Monastery (Симонов монастырь) in Moscow was established in 1370 by monk Feodor, a nephew and disciple of St Sergius of Radonezh.
SkyTeam is an airline alliance.
Slava Moscow is a Russian rugby union club from Moscow.
The Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery, is a modern Pagan religion.
Slavonski Brod (literally Slavonian Crossing), commonly shortened to simply Brod, is a city in eastern Croatia, near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A sloboda (p) was a kind of settlement in the history of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (Со́фья Васи́льевна Ковале́вская), born Sofia Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya (– 10 February 1891), was a Russian mathematician who made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics.
Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components.
The Sokolnicheskaya line (Соко́льническая ли́ния) (Line 1; Red Line) is a line of the Moscow Metro.
Sokolniki Park, named for the falcon hunt of the Grand Dukes of Muscovy formerly conducted there, is located in the eponymous Sokolniki District of Moscow.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South River Terminal is one of two passenger river terminals in Moscow.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sparrow Hills (Воробьёвы го́ры), formerly known as Lenin Hills (Ле́нинские го́ры) between 1935 and 1999, is a hill on the right bank of the Moskva River and one of the highest points in Moscow, reaching a height of, or above the river level.
The Spasskaya Tower (Spasskaya Bashnya), translated as 'Saviour Tower', is the main tower on the eastern wall of the Moscow Kremlin which overlooks the Red Square.
"Spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) also known as "Spiritual but not affiliated" (SBNA) is a popular phrase and initialism used to self-identify a life stance of spirituality that takes issue with organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
Star Alliance is one of the world's largest global airline alliances.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
The State Historical Museum (Russian: Государственный исторический музей, Gosudarstvenny istoricheskiy muzyey) of Russia is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Steklov Institute of Mathematics or Steklov Mathematical Institute (Математический институт имени В.А.Стеклова) is a premier research institute based in Moscow, specialized in mathematics, and a part of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Stolichnaya (Столичная, also known as Stoli) is a vodka made of wheat and rye grain.
Strogino (Строгино́) is a Moscow Metro station in the Strogino District, North-Western Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
STS (from Сеть Телевизионных Станций, Set' Televizionnykh Stantsiy, Network of television stations) is a commercial television station based in Moscow, Russia.
A student exchange program is a program in which students from a secondary school or university study abroad at one of their institution's partner institutions.
The Sukharev Tower (Сухарева башня) was a Moscow landmark until its destruction by the Soviet authorities in 1934.
The JSC Sukhoi Company (ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, and designs both civilian and military aircraft.
The Supreme Privy Council of Imperial Russia, founded on 19 February 1726 and operative until 1730, originated as a body of advisors to Empress Catherine I.
Suzdal (p) is a town and the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamenka River, north of the city of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast.
Sviatoslav Olgovich (Святослав Ольгович; died February 14, 1164) was the Prince of Novgorod (1136–1138); Novgorod-Seversky (1139); Belgorod Kievsky (1141–1154); and Chernigov (1154–1164).
Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (born August 8, 1927 – June 2, 2000) was a Russian ophthalmologist, politician, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
t.A.T.u. (Тату) were a Russian music duo that consisted of Lena Katina and Julia Volkova.
Taganskaya (Тага́нская) is a station on the Koltsevaya line of the Moscow Metro.
The Taipei 101 / TAIPEI 101, formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center – is a landmark supertall skyscraper in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tatlin’s Tower, or the project for the Monument to the Third International (1919–20),Honour, H. and Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art.
A technology company (often tech company) is a type of business entity that focuses primarily on the development and manufacturing of technology.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Television is the most popular medium in Russia, with 74% of the population watching national television channels routinely and 59% routinely watching regional channels.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Irony of Fate, or Enjoy Your Bath! (Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!, literally: The Irony of Fate, or With A Light Steam; trans. Ironiya sudby, ili S lyogkim parom!) is a 1976 Soviet romantic comedy television film directed by Eldar Ryazanov.
The Moscow News, which began publication in 1930, is Russia's oldest English-language newspaper.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
State University of Management is a university in Moscow.
The Stone Flower Fountain (Fontan Kamennyj tsvetok) stands in the so-called "Industrial Square" of the Exhibition of Economic Achievements (VDNH) in Moscow, Russia.
The World's Billionaires is an annual ranking by documented net worth of the world's wealthiest billionaires compiled and published in March annually by the American business magazine Forbes.
The Third Ring Road, or The Third Ring, (Тре́тье тра́нспортное кольцо́, or Тре́тье кольцо́; transliteration: Tretye Transportnoye Koltso, or Tretye Koltso) is a beltway around central Moscow, Russia, located between the Garden Ring in the city centre and the Moscow Ring Road (MKAD).
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
Tiffany & Company (known colloquially as Tiffany or Tiffany's) is an American luxury jewelry and specialty retailer, headquartered in New York City.
The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Timiryazevskaya (Тимиря́зевская) is a station on the Serpukhovsko–Timiryazevskaya line of the Moscow Metro.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
TNT (Means: Your New Television. ТНТ, Твоё Новое Телевидение, Tvoyo Novoye Televideniye, or Television of new Millennium (ТНТ, Телевидение нового тысячелетия, Televideniye Novogo Tisyachelyetiya)) is a Russian federal TV channel founded in 1997 and considered one of the five most popular TV channels in Russia.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East.
The State Tretyakov Gallery (Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya; abbreviated ГТГ, GTG) is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world.
Tretyakov Drive is a short street with boutiques and shops with many luxury goods located in Kitai-gorod in Moscow and known as one of the most expensive shopping areas in the world.
The third and the oldest surviving Triumphal Arch in Moscow was built in 1829–34 on Tverskaya Gate Square to Joseph Bové's designs in order to commemorate Russia's victory over Napoleon.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
As of 2012 there were around 300 cities or metropolitan areas where trolleybuses were operated,Webb, Mary (ed.) (2012).
The Tsar Cannon (Царь-пушка, Carj-puška) is a large early modern period artillery piece (known as a bombarda in Russian) on display on the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Tsaritsyno (p) is a palace museum and park reserve in the south of Moscow.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.
TV Centre (TV Tsentr; formerly abbreviated as ТВЦ, TVC or ТВЦ-Москва, TVC-Moskva - "TVC Moscow") is a state-run Russia TV station with the fourth largest coverage area in Russia, after Channel One, Russia-1 and NTV.
TV-3 is a Russian television channel focused on entertainment.
Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.
Tverskaya Street (p), known between 1935 and 1990 as Gorky Street (улица Горького), is the main radial street in Moscow.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
Ulitsa Sergeya Eyzensteyna (Улица Сергея Эйзенштейна, Sergei Eisenstein Street) is the eastern terminus of the Moscow Monorail.
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Universitet (Университе́т, University), named after nearby Moscow State University, is a station on the Moscow Metro's Sokolnicheskaya Line.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail systems providing passenger service within and around urban or suburban areas.
The USSR anti-religious campaign (1921–1928) was a campaign of anti-religious persecution against churches and believers by the Soviet government following the initial anti-religious campaign during the Russian Civil War.
The USSR Chess Championship was played from 1921 to 1991.
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03.
Uzhhorod (Užhorod,; Ungvár) is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary.
Uzkoe (Узкое) is a historic estate in the southwestern part of Moscow.
Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Vasily Makarovich Shukshin (Васи́лий Мака́рович Шукши́н; 25 July 1929 – 2 October 1974) was a Soviet/Russian actor, writer, screenwriter and movie director from the Altay region who specialized in rural themes.
VC CSKA Moscow was a Russian volleyball club.
Vystavka Dostizheniy Narodnogo Khozyaystva (VDNKh) (Выставка достижений народного хозяйства, ВДНХ,, lit. Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy) is a permanent general purpose trade show and amusement park in Moscow, Russia.
VEB Arena («ВЭБ-Арена»), known as Arena CSKA due to UEFA sponsorship regulations, is a multi-use stadium in Khodynka Field, Moscow, Russia, that was completed in 2016.
Vedomosti (p, "The Record") is a Russian-language business daily published in Moscow.
Velobike (Велобайк) is a bicycle sharing system run by the city of Moscow, Russia.
Vera Frantsevna Menchik (Вера Францевна Менчик; Věra Menčíková; 16 February 1906 – 27 June 1944) was a British-Czechoslovak-Russian chess player who gained renown as the world's first women's chess champion.
Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, ForMemRS (Вита́лий Ла́заревич Ги́нзбург; 4 October 1916 – 8 November 2009) was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences and one of the fathers of the Soviet hydrogen bomb.
Vkhutemas (p, acronym for Высшие художественно-технические мастерские Vysshiye Khudozhestvenno-Tekhnicheskiye Masterskiye "Higher Art and Technical Studios") was the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, replacing the Moscow Svomas.
Vladimir Rostislavovich Gardin (Влади́мир Ростисла́вович Га́рдин) (born Vladimir Rostislavovich Blagonravov (Благонра́вов); – 28 May 1965) was a pioneering Russian film director and actor who strove to raise the artistic level of Russian cinema.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov (Влади́мир Григо́рьевич Шу́хов; – 2 February 1939) was a Russian engineer-polymath, scientist and architect renowned for his pioneering works on new methods of analysis for structural engineering that led to breakthroughs in industrial design of the world's first hyperboloid structures, diagrid shell structures, tensile structures, gridshell structures, oil reservoirs, pipelines, boilers, ships and barges.
Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; – 31 May 1953) was a Soviet painter and architect.
Vladimir Semyonovich Vysotsky (p; 25 January 1938 – 25 July 1980) was a Russian singer-songwriter, poet, and actor whose career had an immense and enduring effect on Soviet and Russian culture.
Vladimir (a) is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow.
Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Vnukovo International Airport (p), is a dual-runway international airport located southwest of the centre of Moscow, Russia.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia living in the vicinity of the Volga, who speak Uralic languages.
In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Voykovskaya (Во́йковская) is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya Line.
Vsekhsvyatskoye (Всехсвятское), formerly a village outside Moscow, Russia; now a city neighbourhood in Sokol District, is known for its historic Brotherly Cemetery of Russian soldiers who died in World War One.
Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (p; 16 February 1893 – 30 June 1953) was a Russian and Soviet film director, screenwriter and actor who developed influential theories of montage.
The VDNKh weather station is the principal weather station in Moscow, Russia.
The Vyatichi or Viatichi (вя́тичи) were a tribe of eastern Wends, meaning obviously the Vjatyci/Radimici, Laesir "Poles" or "Western Slavs" (ef. Old Rus'ian ljaxy) Omeljan Pritsak.
Vystavochnaya (Выставочная) is a station on the Filyovskaya Line of the Moscow Metro.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
A water park or waterpark is an amusement park that features water play areas such as swimming pools, water slides, splash pads, water playgrounds, and lazy rivers, as well as areas for bathing, swimming, and other barefoot environments.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The White House (p; officially: The House of the Government of the Russian Federation, r), also known as the Russian White House, is a government building in Moscow.
A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.
Wizz Air, legally incorporated as Wizz Air Hungary Ltd. (Kft.), is a Hungarian low-cost airline with its head office in Budapest.
The Women's Tennis Association (WTA), founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organising body of women's professional tennis.
Worker and Kolkhoz Woman (Рабо́чий и колхо́зница Rabochiy i Kolkhoznitsa) is a sculpture of two figures with a sickle and a hammer raised over their heads.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The International Skating Union organises the following World Championships in the sport of speed skating.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II fatalities of the Soviet Union from all related causes numbered more than 20,000,000, both civilian and military, although the exact figures are disputed.
Yachting refers to the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for sporting purposes.
The JSC A.S. Yakovlev Design Bureau (ОАО Опытно-конструкторское бюро им.) is a Russian aircraft designer and manufacturer (design office prefix Yak).
Yandex N.V. (p) is a multinational corporation specializing in Internet-related services and products.
Yaroslav III Yaroslavich (1230–1271) (Russian: Ярослав Ярославич) was the first Prince of Tver and the tenth Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1264 to 1271.
The Yauza (Яуза) is a river in Moscow and Mytishchi, Russia, a tributary of the Moskva River.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yelena Nikolayevna Baturina (Еле́на Никола́евна Бату́рина; born 8 March 1963) is an international entrepreneur and philanthropist of Russian origin, currently based in London, UK.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yevgeny Pavlovich Leonov (Евгений Павлович Леонов; 2 September 1926 – 29 January 1994) was a famous Russian/Soviet actor who played main parts in several of the most famous Soviet films, such as Gentlemen of Fortune, Mimino and Striped Trip.
Yevgeny Bagrationovich Vakhtangov (also spelled Evgeny or Eugene; Евге́ний Багратио́нович Вахта́нгов; 13 February 1883 – 29 May 1922) was a Russian actor and theatre director who founded the Vakhtangov Theatre.
Yota (Йота) is a Russian mobile broadband services provider and smartphone manufacturer.
Yuri I Vladimirovich (Юрий Владимирович), known under his soubriquet Yuri Dolgorukiy (Юрий Долгорукий, literally "Yuri the Long-Armed"; also known in various accounts as Gyurgi, Dyurgi, or George I of Rus), (c. 109915 May 1157) was a Rurikid prince and founder of the city of Moscow.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Yuri Vladimirovich Nikulin (Юрий Владимирович Никулин; 18 December 1921 – 21 August 1997) was a well-known Soviet and Russian actor and clown who starred in many popular films.
PAR Yuri Norstein (Ю́рий Бори́сович Норште́йн, Yuriy Borisovich Norshteyn; born 15 September 1941), is a Soviet and Russian animator best known for his animated shorts, Hedgehog in the Fog and Tale of Tales.
Yuriy Danilovich, also known as Georgiy Danilovich (Юрий Данилович in Russian) (1281 – 21 November 1325) was Prince of Moscow (1303–1325) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (from 1318).
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zaryadye Park (Парк «Зарядье») is a landscape urban park located adjacent to Red Square in Moscow, Russia on the site of the former Rossiya Hotel.
Zelenograd (p, lit. green city) is a city which, along with the territories and settlements under its jurisdiction, forms one of the administrative okrugs of Moscow - Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug (ZelAO).
The zemsky sobor (t) was a Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, active in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Zhukovsky International Airport, formerly known as Ramenskoye Airport or Zhukovsky Airfield (Аэропорт Раменское, Аэропорт Жуковский), is Moscow's fourth international airport.
AMO ZiL, known fully as the Moscow Automotive Society – Likhachov Plant and more commonly called ZiL (was a major Russian automobile, truck, military vehicle, and heavy equipment manufacturer that was based in Moscow, Russia.
Zvezda (a) is a Russian nationwide TV network run by the Russian Ministry of Defence.
The June 29, 1904 Moscow tornado was only one of three disastrous tornadoes that occurred in central Russia in recorded history (1984 Yaroslavl tornado occurred June 9, 1984, in Ivanovo with Yaroslavl regions and 2009 Krasnozavodsk tornado occurred in Krasnozavodsk 3 June 2009, located in Moscow region).
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The 1998–99 UEFA Cup was won by Parma comfortably in the final against Marseille.
1C Company (Russian: Фирма "1С") is an independent Russian software developer and publisher.
The 2007–08 UEFA Champions League was the 16th season of UEFA's premier European club football tournament, the UEFA Champions League, since it was rebranded in 1992, and the 53rd tournament overall.
The 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves included severe heat waves that impacted most of the United States, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Hong Kong, North Africa and the European continent as a whole, along with parts of Canada, Russia, Indochina, South Korea and Japan during May, June, July, and August 2010.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens was the sixth edition of the Rugby World Cup Sevens.
The 2018 FIFA World Cup is the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA.
2x2 (Russian: "Dvazhdy dva", English: "Twice Two") is a Russian television channel.
Architecture of Moscow, Capital of Russia, Capital of the Soviet Union, City of Moscow, Demographics of Moscow, Geography of Moscow, MOCKBA, Mockba, Moscou, Moscova, Moscow (Russia), Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia (Federation), Moscow, Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian SFSR, Moscow, Soviet Union, Moscow, USSR, Moscva, Moscú, Moskou, Moskow, Moskva (city), Moskva Federal City, Russia, Moskva, Russia, Muskovi, Muskva, RU-MOW, RUMOW, UN/LOCODE:RUMOW, Western Moscow, Москва, Москва́.