139 relations: Allegheny National Forest, Ambuchanania, Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, Andreaeaceae, Andreaeobryum, Antheridium, Archegonium, Asexual reproduction, Australasia, Autotroph, Auxin, Ötzi, Binomial nomenclature, Biological life cycle, Biopharmaceutical, Bioreactor, Biotechnology, Bloedel Reserve, Bog, Bonsai, Brick, Bryophyte, Bryopsida, Buttermilk, Calyptra, Camassia, Canada, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Ceratodon purpureus, Chromosome, Cladonia rangiferina, Cloning, Crop, Cyanobacteria, Dawsonia (plant), Dawsonia superba, Desiccation, Dioecy, DNA repair, Drainage, Embryophyte, Epiphyte, Famine, Fertilisation, Fertilizer, Finland, Floristry, Flower, Fuel, ..., Functional genomics, Gametophore, Gametophyte, Gemma (botany), Gene, Genus, Gravity of Earth, Greek language, Green roof, Health, Holocene, Homologous recombination, Hornwort, Horticulture, Iceland moss, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Iron, Iron(II) sulfate, Japanese garden, Latin, Leaf, Lichen, Lime (material), Lineage (evolution), Log cabin, Malt, Marchantiophyta, Meiosis, Mexico, Mite, Model organism, Monoicous, MRN complex, New Zealand, Nitrogen fixation, Non-vascular plant, Nutrient, Oedipodium, Operculum (botany), Paraphyly, Peat, Permian, PH, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Physcomitrella patens, Plant, Plant reproductive morphology, Plant stem, Ploidy, Poaceae, Polysporangiophyte, Polytrichaceae, Polytrichum commune, Proteomics, Protonema, Pteridophyte, Ralf Reski, Rhizoid, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, Root, Scotch whisky, Seed, Sensu, Silurian, Somatic cell, Spermatophyte, Sphagnopsida, Sphagnum, Splachnum sphaericum, Sporangium, Spore, Sporophyte, Springtail, Sulfur, Takakia, Tetraphidaceae, Tracheid, United Kingdom, Urine, Vascular plant, Vessel element, Water, Wilhelm Philippe Schimper, Wood, World War I, Xylem, Yogurt. Expand index (89 more) » « Shrink index
The Allegheny National Forest is a National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania.
Ambuchanania leucobryoides is the only species in the monotypic genus Ambuchanania.
Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, or Mohr's salt, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O.
Andreaeaceae is a family of mosses which includes two genera, Andreaea, containing about 100 species, and the genus Acroschisma.
Andreaeobryum is a genus of moss with a single species Andreaeobryum macrosporum, endemic to Alaska and western Canada.
An antheridium is a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes (called antherozoids or sperm).
An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The Bloedel Reserve is a forest garden on Bainbridge Island, Washington, United States, made by the vice-chairman of a lumber company, under the influence of the conservation movement and Asian philosophy.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
(tray planting) is a Japanese art form using cultivation techniques to produce small trees in containers that mimic the shape and scale of full size trees.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
The Bryopsida constitute the largest class of mosses, containing 95% of all moss species.
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
Calyptra (from καλύπτρα (kalúptra) "veil") is a scientific term used in botany.
Camassia is a genus of plants in the asparagus family native to Canada and the United States.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Ceratodon purpureus is a dioicous moss with a color ranging from yellow-green to red.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Cladonia rangiferina, also known as reindeer lichen (c.p. Sw. renlav), lat., is a light-colored, fruticose lichen belonging to the Cladoniaceae family.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Dawsonia is a genus of acrocarpous mosses.
Dawsonia superba is a large moss, growing typically to 60 cm in height.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Dioecy (Greek: διοικία "two households"; adjective form: dioecious) is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Floristry is the production, commerce and trade in flowers.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data given by genomic and transcriptomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects and RNA sequencing) to describe gene (and protein) functions and interactions.
The word gametophore, also known as gametangiophore, is composed of gametangium and "phore" (Greek Φορά, "to be carried").
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
A gemma (plural gemmae) is a single cell, or a mass of cells, or a modified bud of tissue, that detaches from the parent and develops into a new individual.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by, refers to the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within Earth.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Iceland moss (Cetraria islandica) is a lichen whose erect or upright, leaflike habit gives it the appearance of a moss, where its name likely comes from.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
are traditional gardens whose designs are accompanied by Japanese aesthetic and philosophical ideas, avoid artificial ornamentation, and highlight the natural landscape.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.
A log cabin is a dwelling constructed of logs, especially a less finished or architecturally sophisticated structure.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Monoicous plants are those species that bear both sperm and eggs on the same gametophyte.
The MRN complex (MRX complex in yeast) is a protein complex consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 (also known as Nibrin in humans and as Xrs2 in yeast).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Oedipodium is the only genus of moss in the family Oedipodiaceae.
An operculum or (in plural) opercula are botanical terms describing a certain structure or structures of certain vascular plants, mosses, or fungi which act as a cap, flap, or lid.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physcomitrella patens, the spreading earthmoss, is a moss (bryophyte) used as a model organism for studies on plant evolution, development, and physiology.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Polysporangiophytes, also called polysporangiates or formally Polysporangiophyta, are plants in which the spore-bearing generation (sporophyte) has branching stems (axes) that terminate in sporangia.
The Polytrichaceae also known as "Aloe Moss" is a common family of mosses.
Polytrichum commune (also known as common haircap, great golden maidenhair, great goldilocks, common haircap moss, or common hair moss) is a species of moss found in many regions with high humidity and rainfall.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
A protonema (plural: protonemata) is a thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage (the haploid phase) of the life cycle of mosses and liverworts.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
Ralf Reski (born 18 November 1958 in Gelsenkirchen) is a German Professor of Plant Biotechnology and former Dean of the Faculty of Biology of the University of Freiburg.
Rhizoids are protuberances that extend from the lower epidermal cells of bryophytes and algae.
Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus is a species of moss known as springy turf-moss in the United Kingdom, and square goose neck moss in the United States.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Scotch whisky (often simply called Scotch) is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
The Sphagnopsida includes a single subclass Sphagnidae, with two orders.
Sphagnum is a genus of approximately 380 accepted species of mosses, commonly known as peat moss.
Splachnum sphaericum, also known as pinkstink dung moss, is a species of moss.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Takakia is a genus of two species of mosses known from western North America and central and eastern Asia.
The Tetraphidaceae is a family of mosses.
Tracheids are elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants that serve in the transport of water and mineral salts.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
A vessel element or vessel member (trachea) is one of the cell types found in xylem, the water conducting tissue of plants.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wilhelm Philippe Schimper (January 12, 1808 – March 20, 1880) was a French botanist born in Dossenheim-sur-Zinsel, Bas-Rhin, a town near the river Rhine in Alsace.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.