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Roosevelt, Frans Van Kuyck, French language, French West Indies, Gamal Abdel Nasser, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, Georgia (country), Gerald Ford, Germany, Getúlio Vargas, Ghost Festival, Gokarna Aunsi, Gokarneshwar, Governor-General of the Philippines, Grafton, West Virginia, Great Patriotic War (term), Greece, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gregorian calendar, Hallmark Cards, Hallmark holiday, Heinemann (publisher), Henrietta Szold, Hernando Siles Reyes, Hilaria, Hindu, History of the Philippines (1898–1946), Holiday, Hungary, Ilocos Norte, India, Indonesia, Industrial Revolution, Institutional Revolutionary Party, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Mother's Day Shrine, International Women's Day, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Islam, Italy, Jaime de Barros Câmara, Japan, Java, Jesus, John F. 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Quezon, Maria Walanda Maramis, Martha Christina Tiahahu, Mary, mother of Jesus, Matatirtha, May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary, Médaille de la Famille française, MCOT, Mediafax, Medical Aid for Palestinians, Mencius, Mexico, Monarchy of the Netherlands, Mother, Mother church, Mother's Day Proclamation, Motherhood and Beauty Day, Mothering Sunday, Muhammad, Mustafa Amin, Nacional Monte de Piedad, National Grandparents Day, National Restaurant Association, National State Television and Radio Company of the Republic of Belarus, National Synarchist Union, Nazi eugenics, Nepal, Nepali language, Netherlands, New Order (Indonesia), New York City, New Zealand, Newar language, Newar people, News Deeply, Nicaragua, North Korean calendar, NPR, Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, Occupation of the Baltic states, October Revolution, Official Gazette (Philippines), Ordibehesht, Pahlavi dynasty, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Parents' Day, Pastor, Pentecost, People's Daily, Philadelphia, Philippe Pétain, Philippine News Agency, Philippines, Porto Alegre, Portugal, Prem Tinsulanonda, President of the Philippines, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Public holidays in Brazil, Public holidays in North Korea, Rasuna Said, República (Nepalese newspaper), Romania, Ronald Reagan, Rose, Rotary International, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Salva Kiir Mayardit, Samoa, Second Vatican Council, Senate of the Republic (Italy), Shōwa period, Shevat, Shia Islam, Siblings Day, Simnel cake, Singapore, Sirikit, Slovakia, Solar Hijri calendar, Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God, South Africa, South Sudan, Soviet Union, Suharto, Sukarno, Sumatra, Supreme People's Assembly, Sweden, Switzerland, Taipei Times, Taiwan, Thailand, The American Historical Review, The Daily Telegraph, The Jakarta Post, The King Never Smiles, The New York Times, The Paris Review, The Salvation Army, The Sun-Herald, Theotokos, Tordibetto, Tropical year, Tzu Chi, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, United States Congress, University of Nebraska Press, University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany, Vaisakha, Velvet Revolution, Vichy France, Vladimir Lenin, Volk (German word), Westminster John Knox, Woodrow Wilson, World War II, Yale University Press, YMCA, Yogyakarta, Youth Aliyah, Zviad Gamsakhurdia. 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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
is the current Emperor of Japan.
Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — née Domontovich, Домонто́вич; – 9 March 1952) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1915 on as a Bolshevik.
Alice Masaryková or Alice Garrigue Masaryk (3 May 1879 – 29 November 1966) was a teacher, sociologist and politician.
The All-China Women's Federation (Chinese:中华全国妇女联合会, pinyin: Zhōnghuá Quánguó Fùnǚ Liánhéhuì), also known as the ACWF, is a women's rights organization established in China on 24 March 1949.
Amāvásyā means New moon lunar phase in Sanskrit.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Journal of Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of psychiatry and the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.
The American War Mothers was founded in 1917 and given a Congressional charter on February 24, 1925.
Anastasio Somoza García (1 February 1896 – 29 September 1956) was officially the 21st President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1937 to 1 May 1947 and from 21 May 1950 to 29 September 1956, but ruled effectively as dictator from 1936 until his assassination.
Anna Marie Jarvis (May 1, 1864 – November 24, 1948) was the founder of the Mother's Day holiday in the United States.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Assisi (from the Asisium) is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. It is generally regarded as the birthplace of the Latin poet Propertius, born around 50–45 BC. It is the birthplace of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares after her death. The 19th-century Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was also born in Assisi.
The Assumption of Mary into Heaven (often shortened to the Assumption and also known as the Feast of Saint Mary the Virgin, Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary (the Dormition)) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of Anglicanism, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.
Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay.
Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924.
Baishākh (बैशाख) is the first month in the Bikram Samvat calendar, the official Nepali calendar.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Bolivian war of independence began in 1809 with the establishment of government juntas in Sucre and La Paz, after the Chuquisaca Revolution and La Paz revolution.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breach of the peace, or disturbing the peace, is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom.
Buddha's Birthday is a holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Devotion, a central practice in Buddhism, refers to commitment to religious observances or to an object or person, and may be translated with Sanskrit or Pāli terms like saddhā, gārava or pūjā.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
Charles Emmett Yeater (April 24, 1861 – July 20, 1943) of Sedalia, Missouri was acting Governor-General of the Philippines from March 5, 1921 to October 14, 1921.
Children's Day is a day recognised to celebrate children.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
China Post, full name China Post Group Corporation is the state-owned enterprise operating the official postal service of China, which provides the service in mainland China, excluding its special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau, which have their own postal service independent to the mainland's.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
A church is a Christian religious organization or congregation or community that meets in a particular location.
Church attendance is a central religious practice for many Christians; some Christian denominations, such as the Catholic Church require church attendance on the Lord's Day (Sunday); the Westminster Confession of Faith is held by the Reformed Churches and teaches first-day Sabbatarianism, thus proclaiming the duty of public worship in keeping with the Ten Commandments.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
A church service (also called a service of worship, or simply a service) is a formalized period of communal worship in Christian tradition.
CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
Cochabamba (Quchapampa, Quchapanpa) is a city & municipality in central Bolivia, in a valley in the Andes mountain range.
Commercialism is the application of both manufacturing and consumption towards personal usage, or the practices, methods, aims, and spirit of free enterprise geared toward generating profit.
Constance Adelaide Smith (28 April 1878 – 10 June 1938), also known as C. Penswick Smith in her published works, was an English woman who was responsible for the reinvigoration of the Christian holiday of Mothering Sunday in the UK in the early 20th century.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office.
A croissant is a buttery, flaky, viennoiserie pastry named for its crescent shape.
The Cross of Honour of the German Mother, referred to colloquially as the Mutterehrenkreuz (Mother’s Cross of Honour) or simply Mutterkreuz (Mother’s Cross), was a state decoration conferred by the government of the German ReichStatutory Legislation of the Deutsches Reich: Verordnung des Führers und Reichskanzlers über die Stiftung des Ehrenkreuzes der Deutschen Mutter vom 16.
Cut Nyak Meutia (1870 – 24 October 1910), also known as Cut Meutia, was an Indonesian national heroine from Aceh.
Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dewi Sartika (4 December 188411 September 1947) was the leading figure and pioneer for the education for women in Indonesia.
Dianthus caryophyllus, the carnation or clove pink, is a species of Dianthus.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Nuevo Diario is a Nicaraguan newspaper, with offices in the capital Managua.
, born, was the wife of Emperor Shōwa of Japan.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Excélsior is a daily newspaper in Mexico City.
Farah Pahlavi, née Diba (فرح پهلوی; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the exiled shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
Father's Day is a celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society.
Fatherland is the nation of one's "fathers", "forefathers" or "ancestors".
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
The Feast of the Immaculate Conception celebrates the solemn celebration of belief in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Florencio Harmodio Arosemena Guillén (17 September 1872, Panama City – 30 August 1945, Manhattan) is 6th President of Panama from October 1, 1928 to January 3, 1931.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frans Pieter Lodewijk van Kuyck (9 June 1852, Antwerp - 31 May 1915, Antwerp) was a Belgian painter and graphic artist.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954) was a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who served as President during two periods: the first was from 1930–1945, when he served as interim president from 1930–1934, constitutional president from 1934–1937, and dictator from 1937–1945.
The Ghost Festival, also known as the Hungry Ghost Festival, Zhongyuan Jie (中元节), Gui Jie (鬼节) or Yulan Festival is a traditional Buddhist and Taoist festival held in certain Asian countries.
Gokarna Aunsi (Sanskrit: गोकर्ण औसीं) literally translated as cow eared (Gokarna) and no moon night (Aunsi) and is a late August or early September celebration in Nepal where the Hindu population worships cow eared incarnation of lord Shiva and their fathers.
Gokarneshwar is a municipality in the Central development region of Kathmandu District in the Bagmati Zone of Nepal.
The Governor-General of the Philippines (Spanish: Gobernador-General de Filipinas; Filipino: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas; Japanese) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945).
Grafton is a city in — and the county seat of — Taylor County, West Virginia, USA.
The Great Patriotic War (translit) is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union (except for some Baltic States) to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and its allies.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Hallmark Cards, Inc. is a private, family-owned U.S. company based in Kansas City, Missouri.
"Hallmark holiday" is a term used predominantly in the United States to describe a holiday that is perceived to exist primarily for commercial purposes, rather than to commemorate a traditionally or historically significant event.
Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.
Henrietta Szold (December 21, 1860 – February 13, 1945) was a U.S. Jewish Zionist leader and founder of Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America.
Hernando Siles Reyes (August 5, 1882 – November 23, 1942) was a Bolivian politician who served as the 31st President of Bolivia, serving from 1926-1930.
The Hilaria (Latin "the cheerful ones", a term derived from the borrowed adjective ἱλαρός "cheerful, merry") were ancient Roman religious festivals celebrated on the March equinox to honor Cybele.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The history of the Philippines from 1898 to 1946 covers the period of American rule in the Philippines and began with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April 1898, when the Philippines was still part of the Spanish East Indies, and concluded when the United States formally recognised the independence of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946.
A holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ilocos Norte (Amianan nga Ilocos) is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held power uninterruptedly in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR), then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM), and finally renaming itself as the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
Andrews Methodist Episcopal Church, the "mother church" of Mother's Day, was incorporated as the International Mother's Day Shrine on May 15, 1962, as a shrine to all mothers.
International Women's Day (IWD) is celebrated on March 8 every year.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jaime de Barros Câmara (July 3, 1894–February 18, 1971) was a Brazilian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Joseph Ejercito "Erap" Estrada (real name José Marcelo Ejército Sr.; born April 19, 1937) is a Filipino politician and former actor who served as the 13th President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001 and as the 9th Vice President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.
The Journal officiel de la République française (JORF or JO) is the government gazette of the French Republic.
Julia Ward Howe (May 27, 1819 – October 17, 1910) was an American poet and author, best known for writing "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." She was also an advocate for abolitionism and was a social activist, particularly for women's suffrage.
Jumada al-Thani (also transliterated,; also pronounced) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar.
Raden Adjeng Kartini (21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904), sometimes known as Raden Ayu Kartini, was a prominent Indonesian national heroine from Java. She was also a pioneer in the area of education for girls and women's rights for Indonesians. Born into an aristocratic Javanese family in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, she attended a Dutch language primary school. She aspired to further education but the option was unavailable to her and other girls in Javanese society. She came into contact with various officials and influential people including J.H. Abendanon, in charge of implementing the Dutch Ethical Policy. Kartini wrote letters about her feelings and they were published in a Dutch magazine and later as: Out of Darkness to Light, Women's Life in the Village and Letters of a Javanese Princess. Her birthday is now celebrated as Kartini Day in Indonesia. She took an interest in mysticism and opposed polygamy. Her advocacy for the education of girls was continued by her sisters. Kartini Schools were named for her and a fund established in her name to fund the education of girls.
Kathmandu (काठमाडौं, ये:. Yei, Nepali pronunciation) is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.
Population- 5 million The Kathmandu Valley (काठमाडौं उपत्यका, Nepalbhasa: स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः), historically known as Nepal Valley or Nepa Valley, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several pilgrimage sites for Hindus and Buddhists.
A kebaya is a traditional blouse-dress combination that originated from the court of the Javanese Majapahit Kingdom, and is traditionally worn by women in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, southern Thailand, Cambodia and the southern part of the Philippines.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Klara Hitler (née Pölzl; 12 August 1860 – 21 December 1907) was the mother of Adolf Hitler.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
La Prensa is a conservative Panamanian newspaper founded in 1980.
Laetare Sunday is the fourth Sunday in the season of Lent, in the Western Christian liturgical calendar.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (May 21, 1895 – October 19, 1970) was a general in the Constitutionalist Army during the Mexican Revolution and a statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940.
León is the most populous city and municipality in the Mexican state of Guanajuato.
Leichhardt is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers.
This article lists the political leaders of North Korea, officially called the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Malacañang Palace (officially Malacañan Palace, colloquially "Malacañang"; Palasyo ng Malacañang (or Malakanyang),; Palacio de Malacañán) is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines located in the capital city of Manila.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manuel Ávila Camacho (24 April 1897 – 13 October 1955) served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946.
Manuel L. Quezon (born Manuel Luís Quezon y Molina; August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was a Filipino statesman, soldier, and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944.
Maria Josephine Catherine Maramis (1 December 1872 – April 22, 1924) is more commonly known as Maria Walanda Maramis and is recognized as a National Hero of Indonesia for her efforts to advance the circumstances of women in Indonesia at the beginning of the 20th century.
Martha Christina Tiahahu (4 January 1800 – 2 January 1818) was a Moluccan freedom fighter and National Heroine of Indonesia.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Matatirtha is a village in Kathmandu District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal.
May Devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary refers to special Marian devotions held in the Catholic Church during the month of May honoring the Virgin Mary as "the Queen of May".
The Médaille de la Famille française (Medal of the French Family) is a decoration awarded by the government of France to honour those who have successfully raised several children with dignity.
MCOT Public Company Limited (MCOT) (Formerly known as the Mass Communication Organization of Thailand (M.C.O.T.)) (Thai: บริษัท อสมท จำกัด (มหาชน) (บมจ. อสมท), is a Thai state-owned public broadcaster. It owns and operates a number of radio and television stations in Thailand. It is based in Bangkok. At present, MCOT runs seven national, one international, 52 provincial, one district radio station, two television channels (terrestrial free-to-air), and 2 satellite television channels. Their motto is ก้าวไกลรับใช้ประชาชน ("Always Serving the Public"). On their website MCOT uses the slogan "Digitally beyond" (Nov 2014). MCOT's acting president is Mr Piset Chiyasak.
Mediafax is a Romanian media company headquartered in Bucharest and founded in 1991.
Medical Aid for Palestinians (MAP) is a British charity that offers medical services in the West Bank, Gaza and Lebanon, and advocates for Palestinians' rights to health and dignity.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands.
A mother is the female parent of a child.
Mother church or matrice is a term depicting the Christian Church as a mother in her functions of nourishing and protecting the believer.
The "Appeal to womanhood throughout the world" (later known as "Mother's Day Proclamation") by Julia Ward Howe was an appeal for women to unite for peace in the world.
Motherhood and beauty day (Մայրության և գեղեցկության օր) is an official holiday in Armenia dedicated to women.
Mothering Sunday is a holiday celebrated by Catholic and Protestant Christians in the UK and some other parts of the world.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mustafa Amin (مصطفى أمين) (21 February 1914 – 13 April 1997) was an Egyptian columnist and journalist who enjoyed a great deal of popularity in the Arab world.
The Nacional Monte de Piedad is a not-for-profit institution and pawnshop whose main office is located just off the Zócalo, or main plaza of Mexico City.
National Grandparents Day is a secular holiday celebrated in the United States of America since 1978 and officially recognized in a number of countries on various days of the year, either as one holiday or sometimes as a separate Grandmothers' Day and Grandfathers' Day (for the first time Grandma's Day was celebrated in Poland in 1965,see below for dates by country).
The National Restaurant Association is a restaurant industry business association in the United States, representing more than 380,000 restaurant locations.
The National State TV and Radio Company of the Republic of Belarus (Нацыянальная дзяржаўная тэлерадыёкампанія Рэспублікі Беларусь, Национальная государственная телерадиокомпания Республики Беларусь) (Belteleradio) is the state television and radio broadcasting service in Belarus.
The National Synarchist Union (Unión Nacional Sinarquista) is a Mexican political organization.
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Order (Orde Baru) is the term coined by the second Indonesian President Suharto to characterise his regime as he came to power in 1966.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Newar or Newari, also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Newar people, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal.
Newar (नेवार; endonym: Newa:; नेवा), or Nepami, are the historical inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic heritage and civilisation.
News Deeply is an online journalism and technology company, based in New York City, specializing in single-issue news websites.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea calendar, DPRK calendar, or Juche calendar, named after the Juche ideology, is the system of year-numbering used in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Siti Walidah (1872 – 31 May 1946), better known as Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, was a female emancipation figure, wife of Muhammadiyah founder Ahmad Dahlan, and National Heroine of Indonesia.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Official Gazette is the public journal and main publication of the government of the Republic of the Philippines.
Ordibehesht (اردیبهشت) is the second month of the Solar Hijri calendar, the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Parents' Day is observed in South Korea (May 8) and in the United States (fourth Sunday of July).
A pastor is an ordained leader of a Christian congregation.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
Philippine News Agency, also known as PNA, is the official news agency in the Philippines.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Porto Alegre (local; Joyful Harbor) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Prem Tinsulanonda (เปรม ติณสูลานนท์;;; born 26 August 1920) is a retired Thai military officer who served as Prime Minister of Thailand from 3 March 1980 to 4 August 1988, during which time he was credited with ending a communist insurgency and presiding over accelerating economic growth.
The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (Президиум Верховного Совета or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental institution – a permanent body of the Supreme Soviets (parliaments).
In Brazil, public holidays may be legislated at the federal, statewide and municipal levels.
This is a list of public holidays in North Korea.
Hajjah Rangkayo Rasuna Said (14 September 1910 – 2 November 1965) was a well-known Minangkabau woman leader who was active in Indonesian nationalist politics.
The República, styled with an accented u, is a national daily newspaper published by Nepal Republic Media Pvt.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
Rotary International is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian services, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and to advance goodwill and peace around the world.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 13 September 1951) is a Dinka South Sudanese politician who has been President of South Sudan since its independence in 2011.
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).
The, or Shōwa era, refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926 until his death on January 7, 1989.
Shevat (Hebrew: שְׁבָט, Standard Šəvat Tiberian Šəḇāṭ; from Akkadian Šabātu) is the fifth month of the civil year starting in Tishre (or Tishri) and the eleventh month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar starting in Nisan.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Siblings Day (sometimes called National Siblings Day or National Sibling Day) is a holiday recognized annually in some parts of the United States on April 10, honoring the relationships of siblings.
Simnel cake is a light fruit cake eaten during the Easter period in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some other countries.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sirikit (สิริกิติ์;;; born Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara (สิริกิติ์ กิติยากร) on 12 August 1932) is the queen mother of Thailand.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Solar Hijri calendar (gāh-shomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; لمريز لېږدیز کلیز), also called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan.
The Solemnity of Mary, the Holy Mother of God is a feast day of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the aspect of her motherhood of Jesus Christ, whom Christians see as the Lord, Son of God.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Supreme People's Assembly (Chosongul: 최고 인민 회의) is the unicameral legislature of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Jakarta Post is a daily English language newspaper in Indonesia.
The King Never Smiles is an unauthorized biography of Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej by Paul M. Handley, a freelance journalist who lived and worked as a foreign correspondent in Thailand.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Paris Review is a quarterly English language literary magazine established in Paris in 1953 by Harold L. Humes, Peter Matthiessen, and George Plimpton.
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation structured in a quasi-military fashion.
The Sun-Herald is an Australian newspaper published in tabloid or compact format on Sundays in Sydney by Fairfax Media.
Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.
Tordibetto is a frazione of the comune of Assisi in the Province of Perugia, Umbria, central Italy.
A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.
Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation, Republic of China, known for short as the Tzu Chi Foundation (t; literally "Compassionate Relief"), is a Taiwanese international humanitarian and non-governmental organization (NGO) with over 10 million members worldwide throughout 47 countries.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
250px The University of Rennes 2 (Université Rennes 2, UR2) is a university in Upper Brittany, France, one of four in the Academy of Rennes.
Vaisakha (వైశాఖ) Vaishakha (वैशाख) Boishakh or Baisakha(বৈশাখ) Vaikasi(வைகாசி) (Hindi: बैसाख) (Odia: ବୈଶାଖ)(बैशाख) is a month of the Hindu calendar that corresponds to April/May in the Gregorian Calendar.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The German noun Volk translates to people, both uncountable in the sense of people as in a crowd, and countable (plural Völker) in the sense of a people as in an ethnic group or nation (compare the English term folk).
Westminster John Knox is a book publisher in Louisville, Kentucky and is part of Presbyterian Publishing Corporation, the publishing arm of the Louisville, Kentucky-based Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Their publishing focus is on books in.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), often simply called the Y, is a worldwide organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, with more than 58 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations.
Yogyakarta (also Jogja or Jogjakarta; ꦛꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ; formerly Dutch: Djokjakarta/Djocjakarta or Djokja) is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia.
Youth Aliyah (Hebrew: עלית הנוער, Aliyat Hano'ar, German: Jugend-Alijah) is a Jewish organization that rescued thousands of Jewish children from the Nazis during the Third Reich.
Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 – December 31, 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.
Dia de la Madre, Mata Tirtha Aunsi, Mother Day, Mother's Day (Belarus), Mother's Day (Bolivia), Mother's day, Mothers Day, Mothers day, Mothers' Day, Mothers' day, Mothers’ Day, Mother’s Day, Muttertag.