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Index Motivation

Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs. [1]

186 relations: Abraham Maslow, Acceptance, Action (philosophy), Action item, Adaptive performance, Addiction, Algebra, Amotivational syndrome, Andragogy, Anxiety, Art for art's sake, Autism spectrum, Aversives, B. F. Skinner, Bartle taxonomy of player types, Basal ganglia, Behavioral economics, Behaviorism, Berkley Books, Bernard Weiner, Bounded rationality, Cambridge University Press, Cassandra B. Whyte, Child development of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, Child integration, Child work in indigenous American cultures, Childhood in Maya society, Clark L. Hull, Classical conditioning, Clayton Alderfer, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive evaluation theory, Cognitive miser, Computer user satisfaction, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Content analysis, Content theory, Continuum (measurement), Cultural-historical psychology, Culture, Curiosity, David McClelland, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Discrete trial training, Dopamine, Dopaminergic pathways, Douglas McGregor, Drive theory, Eating, ..., Educational psychology, Edwin Locke, Elton Mayo, Emotional intelligence, Empowerment, Equity theory, Exercise, Expectancy theory, Family, Force-field analysis, Frederick Herzberg, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Friendship, Fritz Heider, Frustration, Game, Game design, Gamification, George Armitage Miller, Goal setting, Happiness at work, Hawthorne effect, Health, Health action process approach, Hedonic motivation, Homo economicus, Honour, Human behavior, Humanistic psychology, Hunger, I-Change Model, Ideal type, Idealism, IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Society, Imagination, Incentive program, Independence, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Intelligence, Intelligence quotient, Intention, Ivan Pavlov, Job characteristic theory, Job performance, Job satisfaction, Job security, John B. Watson, John William Atkinson, Jon Radoff, Kenneth Spence, Kurt Lewin, Learned industriousness, Learning through play, Leon Festinger, Libido, Locus of control, Love, Major depressive disorder, Malleability of intelligence, Marathon, Maslov, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Maya peoples, Mentalism (psychology), Microdialysis, Money, Motivating operation, Motivation crowding theory, Motivational salience, Navajo, Need, Need for achievement, Neuroscience, Nonverbal communication, Nucleus accumbens, Observation, Ohio State University, Operant conditioning, Opioid, Orchestration, Overjustification effect, Perfect rationality, Physiology, Pivotal response treatment, Positive education, Positive psychology in the workplace, Potential, Power (social and political), Prentice Hall, Probability, Pseudoscience, Punishment (psychology), Quechua people, Recognition (sociology), Regulatory focus theory, Reinforcement, Revenge, Reward system, Romance (love), Rubicon model (psychology), Safety, Salary, Satisficing, Saving, Scientific management, Security, Self-actualization, Self-determination, Self-efficacy, Self-esteem, Self-fulfillment, Sexual motivation and hormones, Shelter (building), Sleep, SMART criteria, Social, Social order, Social psychology, Social relation, Social status, Sociolinguistics, Specific phobia, Steven Reiss, Stimulus control, Temporal motivation theory, Theory X and Theory Y, Theory Z, Thirst, Tranquillity, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Ventral pallidum, Victor Vroom, Volition (psychology), Weaving, William Ouchi, Work engagement. Expand index (136 more) »

Abraham Maslow

Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.

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Acceptance in human psychology is a person's assent to the reality of a situation, recognizing a process or condition (often a negative or uncomfortable situation) without attempting to change it or protest it.

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Action (philosophy)

In philosophy, an action is something which is done by an agent.

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Action item

In management, an action item is a documented event, task, activity, or action that needs to take place.

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Adaptive performance

Adaptive performance in the work environment refers to adjusting to and understanding change in the workplace.

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Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.

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Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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Amotivational syndrome

Amotivational syndrome is characterized by detachment, blunted emotion and drives, and executive functions like memory and attention are impaired; it is primarily associated with long-term effects of cannabis use.

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Andragogy refers to methods and principles used in adult education.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Art for art's sake

"Art for art's sake" is the usual English rendering of a French slogan from the early 19th century, "l'art pour l'art", and expresses a philosophy that the intrinsic value of art, and the only "true" art, is divorced from any didactic, moral, or utilitarian function.

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Autism spectrum

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.

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In psychology, aversives are unpleasant stimuli that induce changes in behavior through punishment; by applying an aversive immediately following a behavior, the likelihood of the behavior occurring in the future is reduced.

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B. F. Skinner

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.

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Bartle taxonomy of player types

The Bartle taxonomy of player types is a classification of video game players (gamers) based on a 1996 paper by Richard Bartle according to their preferred actions within the game.

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Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.

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Behavioral economics

Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

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Berkley Books

Berkley Books is an imprint of Penguin Group (USA) that began as an independent company in 1955.

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Bernard Weiner

Bernard Weiner (born 1935) is an American social psychologist known for developing a form of attribution theory which explains the emotional and motivational entailments of academic success and failure.

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Bounded rationality

Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cassandra B. Whyte

Cassandra Bolyard Whyte is an American higher education administrator, teacher, and educational researcher.

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Child development of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

Styles of children’s learning across various Indigenous communities in the Americas have been practiced for centuries prior to European colonization and persist today.

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Child integration

Child integration is the inclusion of children in a variety of mature daily activities of families and communities.

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Child work in indigenous American cultures

Child work covers the application of physical and mental contributions by children towards achieving a personal or communal goal.

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Childhood in Maya society

The role of the children in ancient Mayan civilization was first and foremost to help their elders.

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Clark L. Hull

Clark Leonard Hull (May 24, 1884 – May 10, 1952) was an American psychologist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

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Clayton Alderfer

Clayton Paul Alderfer (September 1, 1940 - October 30, 2015) was an American psychologist, and consultant, known for further developing Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive evaluation theory

Cognitive evaluation theory (CET)Deci, E. L. (1975).

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Cognitive miser

In psychology, the human mind is considered to be a cognitive miser due to the tendency of humans to think and solve problems in simpler and less effortful ways rather than in more sophisticated and more effortful ways, regardless of intelligence.

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Computer user satisfaction

Computer user satisfaction (and closely related concepts such as system satisfaction, user satisfaction, computer system satisfaction, end user computing satisfaction) is the attitude of a user to the computer system (s)he employs in the context of his/her work environments.

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Contemporary Educational Psychology

Contemporary Educational Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal on the topic of educational psychology.

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Content analysis

Content analysis is a research method for studying documents and communication artifacts, which might be texts of various formats, pictures, audio or video.

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Content theory

Content theory explains why human needs change with time.

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Continuum (measurement)

Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities.

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Cultural-historical psychology

Cultural-historical psychology is a branch of psychological theory and practice associated with Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria and their Circle, who initiated it in the mid-1920s-1930s.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Curiosity (from Latin cūriōsitās, from cūriōsus "careful, diligent, curious", akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in humans and other animals.

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David McClelland

David Clarence McClelland (May 20, 1917 – March 27, 1998) was an American psychologist, noted for his work on motivation Need Theory.

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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.

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Discrete trial training

Discrete trial training (DTT; also called discrete trial instruction or DTI) is a technique used by practitioners of applied behavior analysis (ABA) that was developed by Ivar Lovaas at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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Douglas McGregor

Douglas Murray McGregor (1906 – 1 October 1964) was a management professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management and president of Antioch College from 1948 to 1954.

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Drive theory

In psychology, a drive theory or drive doctrine is a theory that attempts to define, analyze, or classify the psychological drives.

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Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.

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Educational psychology

Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.

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Edwin Locke

Edwin A. Locke (born January 5, 1938) is an American psychologist and a pioneer in goal-setting theory.

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Elton Mayo

George Elton Mayo (26 December 1880 – 7 September 1949) was an Australian born psychologist, industrial researcher, and organizational theorist.

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Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as Emotional quotient (EQ) and Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ), is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal(s).

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The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.

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Equity theory

Equity theory focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Expectancy theory

Expectancy theory (or expectancy theory of motivation) proposes an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.

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Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.

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Force-field analysis

Force-field analysis is a development in social science.

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Frederick Herzberg

Frederick Irving Herzberg (April 18, 1923 – January 19, 2000) was an American psychologist who became one of the most influential names in business management.

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Frederick Winslow Taylor

Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency.

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Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people.

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Fritz Heider

Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988) was an Austrian psychologist whose work was related to the Gestalt school.

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In psychology, frustration is a common emotional response to opposition, related to anger, annoyance and disappointment, frustration arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of an individual's will or goal and is likely to increase when a will or goal is denied or blocked.

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A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool.

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Game design

Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes.

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Gamification is the application of game-design elements and game principles in non-game contexts.

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George Armitage Miller

George Armitage Miller (February 3, 1920 – July 22, 2012) was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of the cognitive psychology field.

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Goal setting

Goal setting involves the development of an action plan designed to motivate and guide a person or group toward a goal.

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Happiness at work

Despite a large body of positive psychological research into the relationship between happiness and productivity,Carr, A.: "Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness and Human Strengths" Hove, Brunner-Routledge 2004Isen, A.; Positive Affect and Decision-making.

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Hawthorne effect

The Hawthorne effect (also referred to as the observer effect) is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Health action process approach

The health action process approach (HAPA) is a psychological theory of health behavior change, developed by Ralf Schwarzer, Professor of Psychology at the Free University of Berlin, Germany.

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Hedonic motivation

Hedonic motivation refers to the influence of a person’s pleasure and pain receptors on their willingness to move towards a goal or away from a threat.

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Homo economicus

The term homo economicus, or economic man, is a caricature of economic theory framed as a "mythical species" or word play on homo sapiens, and used in pedagogy.

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Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.

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Human behavior

Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.

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Humanistic psychology

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.

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In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.

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I-Change Model

In psychology, the I-change model or the Integrated Model for explaining motivational and behavioral change derives from the Attitude – Social Influence – Self-Efficacy Model, integrates ideas of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior, Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model,Prochaska J.O., Velicer W.F. The transtheoretical model of health behavior change.

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Ideal type

Ideal type (Idealtypus), also known as pure type, is a typological term most closely associated with sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920).

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In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.

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IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Society

The IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Society (TEMS) was formerly one of seven Councils of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).

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Incentive program

An incentive program is a formal scheme used to promote or encourage specific actions or behavior by a specific group of people during a defined period of time.

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Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future.

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Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

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Job characteristic theory

Job characteristics theory is a theory of work design.

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Job performance

Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well.

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Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction is a measure of workers' contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.

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Job security

Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.

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John B. Watson

John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.

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John William Atkinson

John William Atkinson (December 31, 1923 – October 27, 2003), also known as Jack Atkinson, was an American psychologist who pioneered the scientific study of human motivation, achievement and behavior.

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Jon Radoff

Jon Radoff (born September 17, 1972) is an American entrepreneur, author and game designer.

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Kenneth Spence

Kenneth Wartinbee Spence (May 6, 1907 – January 12, 1967) was a prominent American psychologist known for both his theoretical and experimental contributions to learning theory and motivation.

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Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German-American psychologist, known as one of the modern pioneers of social, organizational, and applied psychology in the United States.

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Learned industriousness

Learned industriousness is a behaviorally rooted theory developed by Robert Eisenberger to explain the differences in general work effort among people of equivalent ability.

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Learning through play

Learning through play is a term used in education and psychology to describe how a child can learn to make sense of the world around them.

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Leon Festinger

Leon Festinger (8 May 1919 – 11 February 1989) was an American social psychologist, perhaps best known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory.

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Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.

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Locus of control

In personality psychology, locus of control is the degree to which people believe that they have control over the outcome of events in their lives, as opposed to external forces beyond their control.

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Malleability of intelligence

Malleability of intelligence describes the processes by which intelligence can increase or decrease over time and is not static.

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The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.

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Maslov, Maslow (Ма́слов), or Maslova (feminine; Ма́слова), is a popular Russian and Russian-Jewish surname which may refer to.

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Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.

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Maya peoples

The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.

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Mentalism (psychology)

In psychology, mentalism is an umbrella term that refers to those branches of study that concentrate on perception and thought processes: for example, mental imagery, consciousness and cognition, as in cognitive psychology.

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Microdialysis is a minimally-invasive sampling technique that is used for continuous measurement of free, unbound analyte concentrations in the extracellular fluid of virtually any tissue.

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Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.

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Motivating operation

Motivating operation (MO) is a behavioristic concept introduced by Jack Michael in 1982.

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Motivation crowding theory

Motivation crowding theory, in labor economics and social psychology, suggests that extrinsic motivators such as monetary incentives or punishments can undermine intrinsic motivation.

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Motivational salience

Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.

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The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.

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A need is something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life.

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Need for achievement

Need for achievement (N-Ach) refers to an individual's desire for significant accomplishment, mastering of skills, control, or high standards.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.

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Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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Ohio State University

The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.

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Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.

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Overjustification effect

The overjustification effect occurs when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task.

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Perfect rationality

In economics and game theory, it is sometimes assumed that agents have perfect rationality: that is, they always act in a way that maximizes their utility, and are capable of arbitrarily complex deductions towards that end.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pivotal response treatment

Pivotal response treatment (PRT), also referred to as pivotal response training, is a naturalistic form of applied behavior analysis used as an early intervention for children with autism that was pioneered by Robert and Lynn Koegel.

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Positive education

Positive education is an approach to education that draws on positive psychology's emphasis of individual strengths and personal motivation to promote learning.

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Positive psychology in the workplace

Implementing means creating an environment that is relatively enjoyable and productive.

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Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Punishment (psychology)

In operant conditioning, punishment is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future.

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Quechua people

The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.

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Recognition (sociology)

Recognition in sociology is public acknowledgement of person's status or merits (achievements, virtues, service, etc.). In the field of psychology, it is understood that a person who seeks excessive recognition could themselves be exhibiting traits of a narcissistic personality disorder.

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Regulatory focus theory

Regulatory focus theory (RFT) is a goal pursuit theoryCesario, J: "Regulatory fit and persuasion: Basic principles and remaining questions", Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2(1) formulated by Columbia University psychology professor and researcher E. Tory Higgins regarding people's perceptions in the decision making process.

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In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.

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Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Romance (love)

Romance is the expressive and generally pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person.

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Rubicon model (psychology)

In psychological theories of motivation, the Rubicon model, more completely the Rubicon model of action phases, makes a distinction between motivational and volitional processes.

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Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes.

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A salary is a form of payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract.

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Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.

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Saving is income not spent, or deferred consumption.

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Scientific management

Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows.

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Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.

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Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.

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The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in his or her innate ability to achieve goals.

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Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.

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In philosophy and psychology, self-fulfillment is the realizing of one's deepest desires and capacities.

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Sexual motivation and hormones

Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

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Shelter (building)

A shelter is a basic architectural structure or building that provides protection from the local environment.

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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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SMART criteria

SMART is a mnemonic acronym, giving criteria to guide in the setting of objectives, for example in project management, employee-performance management and personal development.

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Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.

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Social order

The term social order can be used in two senses.

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Social psychology

Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

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Social relation

In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.

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Specific phobia

A specific phobia is any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.

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Steven Reiss

Steven Reiss (1947–2016) was an American psychologist who contributed original ideas, new assessment methods, and influential research studies to four topics in psychology: anxiety disorders, developmental disabilities, intrinsic motivation (what makes us tick), and the psychology of religion.

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Stimulus control

In behavioral psychology, stimulus control is a phenomenon that occurs when an organism behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another way in its absence.

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Temporal motivation theory

Temporal motivation theory (TMT) is an integrative motivational theory.

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Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management.

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Theory Z

Theory Z is a name for various theories of human motivation built on Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y. Theories X, Y and various versions of Z have been used in human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational communication and organizational development.

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Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.

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Tranquillity (also spelled tranquility) is the quality or state of being tranquil; that is, calm, serene, and worry-free.

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Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

Upper Saddle River is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.

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Ventral pallidum

The ventral pallidum (VP) is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain.

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Victor Vroom

Victor Harold Vroom (born August 9, 1932, in Montreal, Canada) is a business school professor at the Yale School of Management.

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Volition (psychology)

Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a particular course of action.

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Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

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William Ouchi

William G. "Bill" Ouchi (born 1943) is an American professor and author in the field of business management.

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Work engagement

Work engagement is the "harnessing of organization member's selves to their work roles: in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, emotionally and mentally during role performances".

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation

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